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ERMECHANIC 

New \ ork ^L JL / v 



hdex to Volume XXXV 

JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1911 



6 APRlilJ 



ILLUSTRATED ARTICLEsf RKED THUS* 



EDITORIAL ARTICLES MARKED THUSr 



Articulated Locomotives — Bobbing Plates, Punch and Die for*... 420 

Chicago Great Western R. R* 62 Boiler Check Facing Tool* 419 

Intercepting Valve of* 47 Boiler Inspection, Federal Locomotive! 41 

Mallet, Tests of. N. Y. C. & H. R._ Boiler Troubles, Locomotivef 82 

R - R * 535 Boiler Tubes, Recent Developments in 

Mallet, Tests of, Norfolk & \\ estern Testing 434 

A5 _~ Books, New 29„ 114, 191, 523 

Boring Tool, Twentieth Century* 528 



Abrasion, Resistingf ta l> -^ n * 24 ° 

Accessories. Car ((/Own Convention 

Exhibit)* .../ 241 

Accidents Statisti/ 533 

Accidents, Prevent of 373 

Accidents, Railwai 407 

Adjustable Die Ip. Solid* 116 

Admiral Schley pts Convention* 323 

Advantages of pup and Individual 

Motor Drni 550 

Advantages of /riable Speed Motor 

Drive* / 523 

Advertiser, A £ak 190 

Air- 
Brake Appar^s for Electric and 
Steam Serve, Recent Progress in. 66 

Brake, Storyof the 28 

Brush, New 525 

Hoist and @ne* 16 

Pumps, RePving* 180 

Alcohol, Deitured, L'se of in Rail- 
way Sepce 562 

Allen Car \htilator* 400 

All-Service ar Door, Williams* 357 

Alternating urrent in Electric Railway 

Service" 429 

American Fdial Drill and Planer* 354 

American ailway Master Mechanics 

Converion, Report of 268 Baggage-Buffet Cars, Steel, for Western 

American Railway Master Mechanics 

Conveiion, Discussion at the* 385 

American Society of Mechanical Engi- 

neersVSpring Meeting of 166 

Among tie Manufacturers*32, 76, 116, 



Southern Pacific Co.* 455 

'Weak Points in the Design of Mal- 
lets- 427 

With Flexible Boilers, A. T. & S. F. 
Ry* 95 

With Superheater, Delaware & Hud- 
son Co.* 427 

Asbestos, Facts about 429 . 

. , t, T *• * - Brake Rod Jaws, Dies for* 
Ash Pans, Locomotive* 51 „ „ , „, 

Association of Railway Electrical En- 
gineers, 4th Annual Convention.. 540 

A. T. & S. F. Ry.. Articulated Locomo- 
tives with Flexible Boilers* 95 

A. T. • & S. F. Ry., Sweetwater Termi- 



Boston & Maine R. R., Electric Locomo- 
tive at Hoosac Tunnel* 501 

Boston, Mass., Railway Electrification at 98 

Brake Beam Deflection and Piston 
Travel* 396 

Brake Details, Calculating Foundation. .134 

180 

Brass Globe Valve, Storle* 463 

Brasses, Car Journal, Kinks for Hand- 
ling, Collinwood Shops* 16 

British Locomotive Developments 2 



British Locomotive Standardization 110 

nal* 497 British Rolling Stock, Development 

Automatic Hack Saw, High Speed* 441 inT 534 

Automatic Paint Brush* 77 Bronze and Iron - Corrosion Tests of. . .377 

Brush, Automatic Paint* 77 



Automatic Steam Engine* 442 



Automatic Swivel Vise* 525 



Brush, New Air. 



525 

Axle. Car Wheels Revolving Independ- Buckwalter Electric Baggage Truck*... 33 

entlv of the 91 Buffalo Brake Beam Co., Exhibit of at 

Atlantic City* 362 

Burring and Hot Saw Machine for 
Forge Shop* 76 

Business Depression, Repairs During 
Periods oft 199 



B 



Pacific Ry.* 367 

Baggage Trucks, Buckwalter Electric*. 33 f* 

Baltimore & Ohio R. R., Electric Loco- ^ 

motive for* 43 

Band. Spring, Stripper* 59 Calculating Foundation Brake Details.. 134 



154, *2. 240, 350, 392, 437. 461. 525, 567 Band, The Convention* 299 Canadian Pacific Ry., 22 Stall Engine 



An Intestate Labor Commission! 445 

An Intestate Labor Commission (Cor- 

resd»ndence) 496 

Apparajis, Railway Electrical, Devel- 



Bentley to the General Foremenf 365 



House, London, Ont.* 448 



Bettendorf Steel Car Plant* 147 Car Sho P Swing Saw*. 



Blacksmith Shop of D. L. & W. R. R., 
Scranton, Pa* 



20 



opient .in During the Past Year.564 Bloomington, 111.. Locomotive Terminal 

Apprenjce Instruction! 493 of C. & A. R. R. at* 408 

Apprerfice School, Pennsylvania R. R..154 Bloomington, Terminal Improvements 

Arrest*-, Spark, Van Horn and Ends- att 405 

236 Blows and Pounds. Locomotive 185 



37 
Car — 

Accessories 241 

Door, Jones Peerless* 33 

Door, Williams All-Service* 357 

Journal Brass Kinks, Collinwood 



Shops* 



16 



Shop. Double Spindle Shaper for*... 194 



Vfl 



Sill Dresser* 353 Collinwood Shops, L. S. & M. S. Ry., 

Steel, Bettendorf Plant* 147 Kinks at the* 16 

Columbia High Power Chuck* 438 



Steel, Oxy-Acetylene Process and 



the* 



1 84 Coming of Cold, Thet 447 



Stenciling* 133 



Commission, An Interstate Labort 445 



Tanks, Largest Ever Constructed*.544 Commission, An Interstate Labor (Cor- 

50 respondence) 496 

Comparison of Valve Gears, A.* 173 

Comparisons are Odious* 201 

Concerning the Railway Situation! 494 

Concrete, Reinforced, Round House, N. 

Y., N. H. & H. R. R 505 

Conservation of Ment 81 

Consolidation Locomotives, Nash. C. & 

St. L. Ry.* 372 

Transfer in* 144 Construction and Round House Work, 

Lifting Machines for Large Railway*. 182 Trials of 433 

Motor English Built* 109 Construction of Locomotive Frames 

Motor] German Gas Electric* 113 (Discussion, Am. Ry. M. M. Con 



Tipping Installation, Novel German* 

Trimming, "Dayton"* 358 

Ventilator, Allen* 400 

Wheel, Nickelized Chilled 106 

Wheel, Revolving Independently of 
the Axle 91 

Cars — 
and Locomotives, Electric, Weight 



Novel Freight* 437 

Passenger, Headlinings of 458 

Steel, Baggage-Buffet, Western Pacific 

Ry.* 367 

Carbon Monoxide in the Producer)-. . .200 
Care and Maintenance of Machine Tools 

in a Large Plant 112 

Care of Injured Persons 447 

Care of Small Tools* 178 

Care of the Injured, Pennsylvania R. R. 82 

Cartoons* 201, 303 

Cedar Hill Round House, N. Y., N. H. 

& H. R. R* 505 

Change of Power, Time Required for, 

Penn. R. R 97 

Chesapeake & Ohio Ry., Machine Equip- 
ment at Huntington Shop 130 

Chesapeake & Ohio Ry., Shop Improve- 
ment at Huntington* 83 

Chicago & Alton R. R. Locomotive Ter- 
minal at Bloomington, 111.* 408 

Chicago & Alton R. R., Shop Kinks at 
Bloomington, 111 510, 554 

Chicago Burlington & Quincy R. R., Mi- 
kado Locomotive for* 131 

Chicago Burlington & Quincy R. R., 
Havelock Shops* 4 



vention) 388 

Convenient Flue Cutter, A* 18 

Convention Band, The* 299 

Convention Exhibit, Our Own* 341 

Conventions — 
American Railway Master Mechanics' 

Assn., 44th, Report of 268 

American Railway Master Mechanics' 
Assn., Discussion at the* 378 

Association of Railway Electrical 
Engineers, 4th Annual . . 540 

Chief Interchange Car Inspectors and 
Car Fmns.' Assn., 12th Annual*. 466 

Master Car Builders' Assn., 45th, Re- 
port of 324 

Master Car Builders' Assn., Discus- 
sion at the* 385 

Mechanical, List of Exhibitors at the*.300 

Master Car and Locomotive Painters' 
Assn., 42nd Annual 457 

Railway Business Assn., Annual 
Meeting* 545 

Railway Storekeepers' Association, 
Eighth Annual 205 

-Mechanical, for 1912 500 

The Mechanical, 191lt 267 

Traveling Engineers' Assn., 19th An- 
nual, Report of* 413 



Denatu Alcohol in Railway Serv- 
ice,^ f 562 

Departm f Transportation, An Im- 
aginq^ay in the Office of the 
New 499 

DescripticA. Vivid 407 

Design ofn e ts, Weak Points in thet .493 
Developing Locomotive Tubes and 

Their atment* 375 

Developm* j n British Rolling 

Stockt 534 

Developmejn Railway Electrical 

Appara During Past Year 564 

Development-ecent ; n Testing Boiler 

Tubes 434 

Die and Punf or Bobbing Plates*. . .420 

Die Heads, ^ Adustable* 116 

Dies for Brat^d Jaws* 180 

Direct Currenjjgh Voltage Railway 

Power in itzerland* 123 

Discussion — Ar^ y . M. M. Assn., At- 
lantic City invention* 385 

Discussion — M. R. Assn., Atlantic 

City Convey* 378 

Distribution and> ner ation of Electric 
Power, Its Aication to Railroads. 140 

Door, Car, Willi;, All-Service* 357 

Double Spindle S., e r for Car Shop*.. 194 
Draft and Couple?q U ipment (Discus- 
sion, M. C. B. nvention) 380 

Dramatic Locomve Mishap 544 

Draw Cut Shaper,[ rton* 395 

Dresser, New Car'H* 353 

Drill and Planer, A r i C an Radial* 354 

Drill Chuck, Weave.Roller Jaw* 35 

Drill, Lamb Portabl 155 

Drill, Portable Elect* ....527 

Drilling Record, Hi| Duty* 397 

Drills and Reamers, stable, Electric- 
ally Operated* 399 

Drills, Multi-Spindle, Several Opera- 
tions for* 60 

Dupo Yard Lighting* 137 

Dynamite, Tests of... 151 

Dynamometer Car, Foitain Pens in*393 



Chicago, Electrification of Railways*. . .124 Corrosion Tests of Brass and Bronze.. 377 

Chicago Great Western R. R., Locomo- Counterbalance Weights, Reducing*.... 19 

tive Standardization* 90 Coupler and Draft Equipment (Discus- 
Chicago Great Western R. R., Mallet sion — M. C. B. Convention) 380 

Articulated Locomotives for* 62 Courtesy, W. L. Park onf 406 

Chicago Great Western R. R., Safety Court Decisions, Recent 114 

Bureau 548 Crane, Air Hoist and* 16 



Crane, Freight Handling* 439 

Crank Shaper, "Queen City"* 356 

Crank Shaper, Stockbridge Two-Piece* 38 

Crude Oil Engine, An Efficient* 525 

Cutter, Landis Staybolt* 440 

Cylinder Radii, Machining* 18 



D 



Chicago Great Western R. R., Stockton 
Terminal* 45 

Chicago Railways Co. Shops, Motor In- 
stallation in* 166 

Chief Interchange Car Ins. and Car 
Fmns. Assn. — 

Meeting of Ex. Com 157 

Announcement of Meeting 391 

Meeting' of 407 

12th Annual Convention 466 

Members of 529 

Chilled Car Wheel, Nickelized 106 Dake Reversible Engine* 440 

Chuck, Columbia High Power* 438 "Dayton" Car Trimmings* 358 

Chuck, Drill, Weavers Roller Jaw*.... 35 Deflection, Brake Beam, and Piston 

Civil Service in Railway Application! . . 1 Travel* 396 

Coal Passer, Ryan-Johnson* 359 Delaware & Hudson Co., Mallet Super- 

_ , _ , , ;L heater Locomotive* 427 

Coal Problem, The 188, 228 t-> i t i o -m- -r. t> 

X , o t>- t„- • *.' Delaware, Lackawanna & Western R. R., 

Coal Storage Pits, Illinois Traction Blacksmith Shop, Scranton, Pa.*.. 20 

System* 187 Delaware, Lackawanna & Western R. R., 

Cold, The Coming oft 447 Washout System, Hampton Yards*. 238 



Economics of Tonnage Rangt*. . .200, 220 

Economy, Fuel, Value of tactical In- 
struction on* 423 

Economy in the Manufactui of Tools*. 88 

Efficient Crude Oil Engine* 525 

Efficiency in Railway Openion 420 

Efficiency, The Father of 9T 

Electric — 

Baggage Truck, Buckwalter 33 

Cars and Locomotives, Wei&t Trans- 
fer in* 144 

Drill, Portable* 527 

Grinder, Hisey Portable*. 440 

Locomotive, Thet 406 

Locomotive, Flange Wear on'i 163 

Locomotives for the B. & M. I. R. at 
the Hoosac Tunnel* 501 

Locomotives for the B. & O. R. R*. . 43 

Locomotives for Penn. R. R.*. 105 

Locomotives, Switching, for T. H. I. 
& E. Tract. Co.* 517 

Power, Generation and Distribution, 
Its Application to Railroads 140 

Railway Service, Alternating Current 
in* 429 



ov?.oe 




Electrical Apparatus, Railway, De- 
velopment in During Past Year. 564 

Electrician Engineers, Assn. of Ry., 
4t'n Annual Convention 540 

Electrical Equipment in Railway Shops*.369 

Electrically Operated Portable Drills 
and Reamers* . . . 399 

Electrification — 

Boston, Mass., Railway at 98 

in Italy* 163 

of Chicago Railways* 124 

Progress in Railway 557 

Substitute fort 162 

Elevating Water, Hydraulic Rams for*. 195 

Endsley and Van Horn Spark Arrest- 
er* 236 

England and Germany, Locomotive De- 
velopments in 177 

English Built Railway Motor Car* 109 

Engine, Crude Oil, An Efficient*. .... . .525 

Engine, Dake Reversible* 440 

Engine House, 22 Stall at London, Ont., 

C. P. Ry.* 448 

Engine, Steam, New Automatic* , . .442 

Engines, Fire Fighting 540 

Equipment — 

Electrical, in Railway Shops* 368 

Locomotive (Our Own Convention 
Exhibit)* 249 

Metal, Protection of 11 

Shop (Our Own Convention Exhib- 
it)* 253 

Steel Passengerf 405 

Executive Committee, Meeting of, C. I. 
C. I. & C. F. A. A 157 

Exhibit of Buffalo Brake Beam Co. at 
Conventions* 362 

Exhibit of Independent Pneumatic Tool 
Co 353 

Exhibit of McConway & Torley Co.*. .362 

Exhibit, Our Own Convention* .241 

Exhibitors at the Mechanical Conven- 
tion, List of* 300 

Extension, Shopf 81 

External Throttle Valve* 516 



Fountain Pens in Dynamometer Car*.. 393 

Four Cylinder Locomotive, French*. . .512 

Frame, Locomotive, Best Construction 
of (Discussion, Am. Ry. M. M. 
Convention) 388 

Frames, Locomotive, Welding* 465 

Frames, Locomotive, Welding with Lim- 
ited Facilities* 180 

Franklin Flexible Metallic Roof* 360 

Freight Car, Novel* 437 

Freight Handling Crane* 439 

French Four Cylinder Locomotive*. .. .512 

From the Files of an S. M. P 505 

Fuel Economy, Value of Practical In- 
struction in* 423 

Fuel, Specifications fort 365 



Facilities, Round Houset 446 

Facing Tool, Boiler Check* 419 

Facts About Asbestos 429 

Father of Efficiency, The 97 

Federal Locomotive Boiler Inspectiont. 41 

Fenestra Steel Window Sash* 567 

Files of an S. M. P., from the 505 

Fire Fighting Engines 540 

Fireman's Record, A 154 

Fire Protection Feature in Construction 
of Penn. Station, New York 9 

Flexible Boilers, Articulated Locomo- 
tives with, A. T. & S. F. Ry.* 95 

Flexible Metallic Roof, Franklin* 360 

Flexible Packing, Universal* 193 

Flexible Staybolt, Tate* 352 

Flue Cutter, A Convenient* 18 

Folding Steel Horse* 395 

Forge Shop, Hot Saw and Burring Ma- 
chine for* 76 

Forged Truck Lever, Solid, Construc- 
tion of* 363 

Form for Making Piston Rod Packing* 19 

Foundation Brake Details, Calculating. 134 



Gas-Electric Car, German* 113 

Gauge Glass Protector* 438 

Gaskets, Goetze* 154 

General Foremens' Assn., International 
Railway 366 

General Foremen, Bentley to thet 365 

General Layout for a Modern Locomo- 
tive Repair Plant* 69 

Generation and Distribution of Electric 
Power and Its Application to Rail- 
roads , 140 

German Car Tipping Installation, Novel* 50 
German Gas-Electric Car* 113 

Germany and England, Locomotive De- 
velopments in 177 

Glass Protector, Gauge* 438 

Globe Valve, Storle Brass* 463 

Goetze Gaskets* 154 

Going Some 500 

Gondola, Last Gasp of a 549 

Gould & Eberhardt High Duty Shaper* 32 

Government Ownershipt 121 

Grand Rapids Roundhouse, Pere 

Marquette R. R.* : ... 543 

Grand Rapids Shops, G. R. & I. Ry., 

Kinks at* 419, 459 

Grinder, Hisey Portable Electric Paral- 
lel* 440 

Group and Individual Motor Drive, 

Relative Advantages of 550 

Growth of Motive Power, Thet 162 



H 



Hack Saw, High Speed Automatic*. . .441 
Half Truth, A 61 

Hampton Yards Roundhouse, D. L. & 

W. R. R., Washout System at*.... 238 
Havelock Shops, C. B. & Q. R. R.*. . . . 4 

Headlight Outfit, Moon* 397 

Headlinings of Passenger Cars 458 

Heating and Lighting (Our Own Con- 
vention Exhibit)* 247 

High Duty Drilling Record* 397 

High Duty Shaper, Gould & Eberhardt* 32 

High Power Chuck, Columbia* 438 

High Speed Hack Saw, Automatic*. . .441 

High Speed Locomotives, Steel Tires 
for* 552 

High Voltage Direct Current Railway 
Power in Switzerland* 123 

Hisey Portable Electric Parallel Grind- 
er* 440 



Hoist, Air, and Crane* 16 

Hoosac Tunnel Electric Locomotives, 

B. & M. R. R.* 501 

Horse, Folding Steel* 395 

Hot Saw and Burring Machine for 

Forge Shop* 76 

How About It Mr. MacBain? 407 

How It Happened 447 

Hunter Inserted Tooth Saw Blade*.. 568 

Huntington Shops, C. & O. Ry., Im- 
provements at* 83 

Huntington Shops, C. & O. Ry., Ma- 
chine Equipment 130 

Hydraulic Rams for Elevating Water*. 195 

I 

Illinois Traction System, Coal Storage 
Pits* 187 

Imaginary Day in the Office of the Sec- 
retary of the New Department of 
Transportation 499 

Independent Pneumatic Tool Co., Ex- 
hibit of the 353 

India, The Smoke Problem int 122 

Industrial Notes 39, 

78, 117, 156, 196, 265, 443, 528, 568 

Inserted Tooth Saw Blade, Hunter*. 568 
Intercepting Valve of the Articulated 

Locomotive* 47 

Interchange Inspection, M. C. B 176 

Interesting High Duty Drilling Rec- 
ord* 397 

Interesting Locomotive Model* 374 

International Railway General Fore- 
men's Assn 366 

Interstate Labor Commission, Ant 445 

Interstate Labor Commission (Corre- 
spondence) 496 

Iron and Bronze, Corrosion Tests of.. 377 
Italy, Electrification in* 163 

J 

Jaws, Brake Rod, Dies for* 180 

Jones Peerless Car Door* 33 

K 

Kansas City, Mexico & Orient Ry., 
Wichita Shops* 230 

L 

Labor Commission, An Interstatet 445 

Labor Commission, An Interstate (Cor- 
respondence) 496 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Ry., 

Kinks at Collinwood Shops* 16 

Lamb Portable Drill* 155 

Lamps, New Rear End 516 

Landis Staybolt Cutter* 440 

Largest Tank Car Ever Constructed*. 543 

Last Gasp of a Gondola 549 

Lathe, Libby Turret* 192 

Lathe, Schumacher & Boye* 358 

Layout, General, for a Modern Locomo- 
tive Repair Plant* 69 

Libby Turret Lathe* 192 

Lifting Magnets. Practical Application 

of* 63 

Liftincr Machine for Large Railwav 
Cars* 182 



905X0 



Light, Milburn, for Wrecking Outfit*. .. 77 

Lighting at Dupo, 111., Yard* 137 

Literature,* New (See New Literature) 

Light for Safety* 559 

Lighting and Heating (Our Own Con- 
vention Exhibit)* 247 

List of Exhibitors at the Mechanical 

Conventions* 300 

Lock Nut, New 353 

Locomotive — 
Articulated, Intercepting Valve of the* 47 

Ash Pans* 51 

Boiler Inspection, Federalt 41 

Blows and Pounds 185 

Boiler Troublest 82 

Developments, British 2 

Developments, in England and Ger- 
many 177 

Electric, Thef 406 

Electric, Weight Transfer in* 144 

Equipment (Our Own Convention 

Exhibit)* 249 

Frame, Best Construction of (Dis- 
cussion, Am. Ry. M. M. Conven- 
tion) 388 

Frame, Welding, with Limited Facili- 
ties* 180 

Frames, Welding* 465 

French Four Cylinder* 512 

Mallet, Tests of, Norfolk & Western. 452 

Netting Machine* 560 

Model, An Interesting* 374 

Mishap, Dramatic 544 

Operation, Third Man fort 494 

Repair Plant, General Layout for a 
Modern* 69 

Specifications 108 

Standardization, British 110 

Standardization, Chicago Great West- 
ern R. R* 90 

Steam Turbines for 139 

Steel Tires for High Speed* 552 

Stokers, (Discussion, Am. Ry. M. M. 
Convention) 385 

Terminal and Shops, K. C. M. & O. 

Ry.* 230 

Terminal, Bloomington, 111., Chicago 

& Alton R. R.* 408 

Tests of Mallet, N. Y. C. & H. R. 

R. R.* 535 

Tests of Mallet, Norf. & Wn. Ry.*.452 

Tubes, Development and Treatment 
of* 375 

Locomotives — 

Articulated, with Flexible Boilers, A. 

T. & S. F. Ry.* 95 

Consolidation, Nash. C. & St. L. Ry.* 372 
Electric, Flange Wear onf 163 

Electric for B. & M. R. R. at Hoosac 
Tunnel* 501 

Electric for the B. & O. R. R* 43 

Electric for Penn. R. R* 105 

Electric Switching for T. H. I. & E. 
Tract. Co.* 517 

Heavy Passenger, Built at Wyoming 
Shop, Pere Marquette R. R.* 423 

Mallet Articulated, Chicago Great 
Western R. R.* 62 

Mallet, for the Southern Pacific Co.*. 455 
Mallet Superheater, Delaware & Hud- 
son Co.* 427 

Mikado Type, C. B. & Q. R. R* 131 

London, Ont, 22 Stall Engine House, 
C. P. Ry.* 448 

0*200 



M 



McConwav & Torley Co., Exhibit of 
the* • 362 

MacBain, Mr., How About It? 407 

Machine Equipment, Huntington Shop, 
C. & O. Ry 130 

Machine Tools in a Large Plant, Care 
and Maintenance of 112 

Machinery Plant, Model* 518 

Machining Cylinder Radii* 18 

Magnets, Lifting, Practical Application 

of* 63 

Maintenance, Superheater 172, 509 

Mallet Articulated Locomotives (See 

Articulated Locomotives) 
Mallets, Weak Points in the Design of 1.493 

Man Who Knows, The 104 

Manufacture of Tools, Economy in the. 88 

Mason Safety Treads* 400 

Master Boiler Makers' Assn., Meeting 

of Executive Committee 496 

Master Car and Locomotive Painters' 
Assn., Annual Meeting 457 

Master Car Builders' Assn., Report of 
45th Annual Convention 324 

Master Car Builders' Assn., Discussion 
at Atlantic City Convention* 378 

Master Car Builder Interchange Inspec- 
tion 176 

Master Car Builder, Reminiscences of 
a* 218, 377, 421, 503 

Master Mechanics' Assn., Report of 44th 
Annual Convention 268 

Master Mechanics' Assn., Discussion 
at Atlantic City Convention*. .. .385 

Master Mechanic's Dream, The 122 

Material, Reworking of Old 26 

Mechanical Conventions, List of Exhib- 
itors at* 300 

Mechanical Convention, 191lt 267 

Mechanical Conventions for 1912 500 

Mechanical Refrigeration in Railway 

Work, Present Status of 72 

Meeting of C. I. C. I. & C. F. Assn. .407 
Meeting of Executive Committee, C. I. 

C. I. & C. F A. A. 157 

Meeting, Spring, of A. S. M. E 166 

Members of the C. I. C. I. & C. F 
Assn 529 

Men, Conservation off 81 

Metal, An Abrasion Resisting* 240 

Metal Equipment, Protection of 11 

Metallic Roof, Franklin Flexible* 360 

Meter, Pop Valve* 504 

Mikado Type Locomotive, C. B. & Q. 
R. R.* 131 

Milburn Light, The* 77 

Milling Machine, Vertical* 116 

Million a Day, At 1 

Mishap, Dramatic Locomotive 544 

Missouri Pacific Buys Cars 403 

Model, Locomotive, An Interesting*. .374 

Model Machinery Plant* 518 

Modest Request, At 122 

Modification of the Walchaert Valve 
Gear* 561 

Month from Now, At 16] 

Moon Headlight Outfit* 397 

Morton Draw Cut Shaper* 395 

Motive Power, The Growth off 103 

Motor Car, Railway, English" Built*... 109 
Motor Car, Railway, German Gas-Elec- 
tric* 113 



Motor Drive, Group and Individual, 

Relative Advantages of 550 

Motor Drive, Turntables with* 515 

Motor Drive, Variable Speed, Some 
Advantages of* 522 

Motor Installation in Chicago Railway 
Co. Shops* 166 

Multi-Spindle Drills, Several Operations 
for* 60 



N 



Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Ry., 

Consolidation Locomotives* 372 

Netting Machine, Locomotive* 560 

New Books 29, 114, 191, 390, 436, 523 

New Literature 38, 

77, 117, 155, 195, 392, 437, 462, 527, 568 
New York Central & Hudon River 

R. R., Mallet Locomotive Tests*.535 
New York, New Haven & Hartford R. 

R., Cedar Hill Roundhouse* 505 

New York, New Haven & Hartford R. 

R., Punctuality Record on* 179 

New York, Penn. Station at, Fire Pro- 
tection Feature in Construction of. 9 
Nickelized Chilled Car Wheel 106 

Norfolk & Western Ry., Tests of Hal- 
let Locomotive 452 

Notes on the Panama Canal 24 

Novel Freight Car* 437 

Novel German Car Tipping Installation* 50 

Nut Facing Machines, Victor* 356 

Nut, New Lock 353 



o 



Obituary* 31, 75, 566 

Office of the Secretary of the New De- 
partment of Transportation, An Im- 
aginary Day in the 499 

Officers, Staff, Selection oft 446 

Oil Cup, Twentieth Century, Loose 
Pulley* 393 

Oil Burners, Forges and Torches, 

Practical* 34 

Oil Engine, Crude, An Efficient*. .. .525 

Oilers, Solid Steel* 356 

Oils and Paints (Our Own Conven- 
tion Exhibit)* 248 

Old Material, Reworking of 26 

Operation, Locomotive, Third Man fort-494 

Operation, Railway, Efficiency in 420 

Our Own Convention Exhibit* 241 

Ownership, Governmentt 121 

Oxy-Acetylene Process and the Steel 

Car* 184 

Oxy-Acetylene Welding, C. & -N.-W. 

Ry 548 

Oxy-Acetylene Welding, Progress int.. 121 
Oxy-Acetylene Welds in Steel, Strength 
of* 170 

P 

Packing, Piston Rod, Form for Mak- 
ing* 19 

Packing, Universal Flexible* 193 

Paint Brush, Automatic* 77 

Paint, "Steelkote"* 36 

Paints and Oils (Our Own Convention 

Exhibit)* 248 

Panama Canal, Notes on the 24 



Parallel Grinder, Hisey Portable 
Electric* 440 

Park on Courtesyf 406 

Passenger Cars, Headlinings of 458 

Passenger Equipment, Steelt.- 405 

Passenger Locomotive Built at Wyo- 
ming Shops, Pere Marquette R. 
R* 423 

Patents, Railway Mechanical*. 40, 80, 

120, 160, 198, 266, 404, 444, 492, 532, 570 

Paying Men to Thinkf 268 

Pennsylvania R. R. — 

Apprentice School 154 

Electric Locomotives for* 105 

New York Station, Fire Protection 

Feature in Construction of 9 

Time Required for Change of Power 97 

Pere Marquette R. R., Passenger Loco- 
motive Built at Wyoming Shop**. .423 

Pere Marquette R. R., Roundhouse 
at Grand Rapids* 543 

Periods of Business Depression, Repairs 
Duringf 199 

Personals* 29, 74, 

115, 153, 191, 239, 391, 435, 461, 525, 565 

Piece Work, Quality* 402 

Piston Rod Packing, Form for Making* 19 

Piston Travel and Brake Beam Deflec- 
tion* 396 

Pits, Coal Storage, Illinois Traction 
System* 187 

Planer, American Radial Drill and*... 354 

Plant, A Model Machinery* 518 

Plant of U. S. Light & Heating Co.*. . .350 
Plates, Bobbing, Punch and Die for*.. 420 
Pneumatic Soring Band Stripper. 

Springfield Shops* 59 

Pop Valve Meter* 504 

Portable Drill, Lamb* 155 

Portable Electric Drill* 527 

Portable Electric Drills, Van Dorn & 
Dutton* 399 

Portable Electric Parallel Grinder, Hi- 
sey* 440 

Pounds, Locomotive Blows and 185 

Power, High Voltage Direct Current in 
Switzerland* 123 

Practical Application .of Lifting Mag- 
nets* 63 

Practical Instructions in Fuel Economy, 
Value of* 423 

Practical Oil Burners, Forges and 
Torches* 3<i 

Present Status of Mechanical Refriger- 
ation in Railway Work 72 

Prevention of Accidents 373 

Problem, The Coal 188, 228 

Producer, Carbon Monoxide in thef 200 

Progress in Air Brake Apparatus for 
Electric and Steam Service, Recent. 66 

Progress in Oxy-Acetylene Welding!. .""l21 
Progress in Railway Electrification. .557 

Proper Procedure, The 46 

Prospectust 2 

Protection of Metal Equipment 11 

Protector, Gauge Glass* 438 

Protest, A 15 

Pump Troubles 75 

Pumps, Air, Removing* 180 

Punctuality Record, NY N H & H 

R- R-* '...." .179 

Punch and Die for Bobbing Plates*.. 420 



Quality Piece Work 402 

"Queen City" Crank Shaper* 356 



R 



Radial Drill and Planer, American*. .354 

Radii, Cylinder, Machining* 18 

Rags, Sanitary Wiping* 194 

Railway Accidents 407 

Railway Business Assn., Annual 
Meeting* 545 

Railway Electrical Apparatus, De- 
velopment in During Past Year. .564 

Railway Mechanical Patents (See Pat- 
ents). 

Railway Operation, Efficiency in 420 

Railway Situation, Concerning thet....494 

Railway Storekeepers' Association, An- 
nual Convention 205 

Rams, Hydraulic, for Elevating Water*.195 
Rating, Tonnage, Economics off*.. 200, 220 

Rear End Lamps, New 516 

Recent Court Decisions 114 

Recent Developments in Testing- 
Boiler Tubes 434 

Recent Progress in Air Brake Apparat- 
us for Electric and Steam Service. 66 

Recommended Practice and Standards, 
Revision of (Discussion, M. C. B. 
Convention) 378 

Record, A Fireman's 154 

Record, Punctuality, N. Y. N. H. & H. 
R. R* 179 

Record, High Duty Drilling* 397 

Reducing Counterbalance Weights*.... 19 

Refrigeration, Mechanical, in Railway 
Work, Present Status of 72 

Reinforced Concrete Round House, N. 
Y. N. H. & H. R. R * 505 

Relative Advantages of Group and 
Individual Motor Drive* 550 

Reminders 407 

Reminiscences of a Master Car Builder* 

218, 377, 421, 503 

Removing Air Pumps* 180 

Repair Plant, Locomotive, General Lay- 
out for a Modern* 69 

Repairs during Periods of Business De- 
pression! 199 

Report of 44th Annual Convention, A. 
R. M. M. Assn 268 

Report of 45th Annual Convention, M. 
C. B. Assn 324 

Report of 19th Annual Convention of 
Traveling Engineers' Assn.* 413 

Retrospection! 42 

Reversible Engine, Dake* 440 

Revision of Standards and Recommend- 
ed Practice (Discussion, M. C. B. 
Convention) 378 

Reworking of Old Material 26 

Roof, Franklin Flexible Metallic* 360 

Roller Jaw Drill Chuck, Weavers* 35 

Roundhouse Facilitiest 446 

Roundhouse at Grand Rapids, Pere 
Marquette R. R * 543 

Roundhouse, Reinforced Concrete, N. 

Y. N. H. & H. R. R.* 505 

Roundhouse Work, and Construction, 

Trials of 433 

Ryan-Johnson Coal Passer* 3:><) 



Safety Appliance Actt '. 533 

Safety Bureau, Chicago Great West- 
ern R. R 548 

Safety, Light for* 559 

Safety Treads, Mason* 400 

Sanitary Wiping Rags* 194 

Sash, Fenestra Steel Window* 567 

Saw Blade, Hunter Inserted Tooth*.. 568 

Saw, Hack, Automatic High Speed*... 441 

Saw, Swing, Car Shop* 37 

Schley, Admiral, Visits the Conven- 
tion* 323 

School, Apprentice, Pennsylvania R. R..154 

Schumacher & Boye Lathe* 358 

Scranton, Pa., Blacksmith Shop of D., 
L. & W. R. R. at* 20 

Secretary of the New Department of 
Transportation, An Imaginary Day 
in the Office of the 499 

Selection of Staff Officers! 446 

Several Operations for Multi-Spindle 
Drills* 60 

Shapers — 
Double Spindle, for Car Shop* 194 

High Duty, Gould & Eberhardt* 32 

Morton Draw Cut* 395 

"Queen City" Crank* 356 

Stockbridge Two-Piece Crank* 38 

Stockbridge* 464 

Shop — 
Car, Double Spindle Shaper for*.... 194 
Equipment (Our Own Convention 

Exhibit)* 253 

Extension! 81 

Kinks* ...16, 57, 180, 419, 459, 510, 554 

Washing Machine for* 568 

Shops — 
Chicago Railways Co., Motor Instal- 
lation in* 166 

Electrical Equipment in Railway* 368 

Grand Rapids, of G. R. & I. Ry., 

Kinks at* 419 

Havelock, Chicago Burlington & Quin- 

cy R. R* 4 

Huntington, C. & O. Ry., Improve- 
ments at* 83 

Huntington, C. & O. Ry., Machine 

Equipment in 130 

Scranton, Pa., Blacksmith, D. L. & 

W. R. R* 20 

Springfield, 111., Wabash R. R.* 57 

Wichita, Kan., K. C. M. & O. Ry.*..230 
Wyoming, of Pere Marquette R. R.. 

Locomotive Built at* 423 

Side Bearing Truck* 363 

Side Rods, A Suggestion Concerning*.. 65 

Sill Dresser, Car* 353 

Situation in Brief! 122, 161, 199 

Situation, the Railway, Concerning the!. 494 

Slotting Tools, Commutator* 193 

Small Tools, Care of* 178 

Smoke Problem in India. The! 

Sneak Advertiser, A 190 

Solid Adjustable Die Heads* 116 

Solid Forged Truck Lever Construc- 
tion* 363 

Solid Steel Oilers* 356 

Southern Pacific Co.. Mallet Locomo- 
tives for the* 

Spark Arrester, Van Horn & Endsley* 



Specifications for Fuelt 365 

Spring Meeting, A. S. M. E 166 

Specifications, Locomotive 108 

Springfield Shops, Wabash R. R., Kinks 

at* 57 

Staff Officers, Selection oft 446 

Standardization, Locomotive, British.. 110 

Standardization, Locomotive, Chicago 
Great Western R. R.* 90 

Standards and Recommended Practice, 
Revision of (Discussion, M. C. B. 
Convention) 378 

Staybolt Cutter, Landis* 440 

Staybolt, Tate Flexible* 352 

Steam Engine, New Automatic* 441 

Steam Heat, Train Pipe Connections 
for (Discussion, M. C. B. Con- 
vention) 384 

Steam Turbines for Locomotives 139 

Steel Baggage-Buffet Cars, Western 

Pacific Ry.* 367 

Steel Car, Oxy-Acetylene Process and 

the* 184 

Steel Car Plant, Bettendorf* 147 

Steel Horse, Folding* 395 

Steel Oilers* 356 

Steel Passenger Equipmentf 405 

Steel Tires for High Speed Locomo- 
tives* 552 

Steel Window Sash, Fenestra* 567 

Steels, Swedish 541 

"Steelkote" Paint* 36 

Stenciling, Car* 405 

Stockbridge Shaper* 464 

Stockbridge Two-Piece Crank Shaper* 38 

Stockton Terminal, Chicago Great West- 
ern R. R* 45 

Stokers, Locomotive (Discussion, Am. 

Ry. M. M. Convention) 385 

Storage Pits, Coal, Illinois Traction 

System* 187 

Storekeepers, Railway, Association 205 

Storle Brass Globe Valve* 463 

Story of the Air Brake 28 

Strange if True 31 

Strength of Oxy-Acetylene Welds in 

Steel* 170 

Structures 28 

Subjects for Discussion, Traveling En- 
gineers' Assn. 1912 515 

Substitute for Electrification, At 162 

Suggestion Concerning Side Rods, A* 65 
Superheater, Locomotive, Mallet, D. & 

H. Co.* 427 

Superheater Maintenance 172, 509 

Swedish Steels 540 

Sweetwater Terminal, A. T. & S. F. 

Ry.* 497 

Swing Saw, Car Shop* 37 

Switching Locomotives, Electric, T. H. 
I. & E. Tract. Co.* 517 

Switzerland, High Voltage Direct Cur- 
rent Railway Power in* 123 

Swivel Vise, Automatic* 525 



Tank Car, Largest Ever Constructed*544 

Tate Flexible Staybolt* 352 

Terminal at Sweetwater, Texas, A. T. 
& S. F. Ry.* 497 



Terminal, Locomotive, at Bloomington, 
111., C. & A. R. R* 408 

Terminal and Shop, Locomotive, K. C. 
M. & O. Ry.* 230 

Terminal Improvement at Blooming- 
tont 405 

Terminal, Stockton, Chicago Great 
Western R. R.* 45 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern 
Tract. Co., Electric Locomotives*. .517 

Testing Boiler Tubes, Recent Develop- 
ments in 434 

Tests, Corrosion, of Iron and Bronze. .377 

Tests of Dynamite 151 

Tests of Mallet Locomotive, N. Y. 

C. & H. R. R. R.* 535 

Tests of Mallet Locomotive, Norfolk & 
Western Ry * 452 

Third Man for Locomotive Operationt.494 

Throttle Valve, External* 516 

Time Required for Change of Power, 
Penn. R. R 97 

Tires, Steel, for High Speed Locomo- 
tives* 552 

Toledo Terminal R. R., Shopping En- 
gine in Record Time 500 

Tonnage Rating, Economics oft*.. 200, 220 
Tools, Economy in the Manufacture of. 88 
Tools, Machine, Care and Maintenance 

of in a Large Plant 112 

Tools, Slotting, Commutator* 193 

Tools, Small, Care of* 178 

Tractor, Turntable, for Heavy Duty*.. 37 
Train Lighting (Discussion, M. C. B. 

Convention) 378 

Train Pipe Connections for Steam Heat 
(Discussion, M. C. B. Convention) .384 

Traveling Engineers' Associationt 405 

Traveling Engineers Assn., Announce- 
ment of Annual Convention 366 

Traveling Engineers' Assn., Committee 

Subjects, 1912 515 

Traveling Engineers' Assn., Repor 4 " of 

19th Annual Convention* 413 

Treads, Mason Safety* 400 

Trials of Construction and Round 

House Work 433 

Trimmings, "Dayton" Car* 358 

Truck Lever Construction, Solid 

Forged* 363 

Truck, New Side Bearing* 363 

Triumph Electric Co., Machinery Plant 

of* 518 

Truth, A Half 61 

Tubes, Boiler, Recent Developments in 

Testing 434 

Tubes, Locomotive, Development and 

Treatment of* 375 

Turbines, Steam, for Locomotives 139 

Turntable Tractor for Heavy Duty*... 37 

Turntables with Motor Drive* 515 

Turret Lathe, Libby* 192 

Twentieth Century Boring Tool* 528 

Twentieth Century Oil Cup* 393 

Twenty-two Stall Engine House, Lon- 
don, Ont., C. P. Ry-* 448 

Two-Piece Crank Shaper, Stockbridge* 38 
Types of Valve Gears, New* 462 



U 



U. S. Light & Heating Co., Plant of*. .350 

Universal Flexible Packing* 193 

Use of Denatured Alcohol in Rail- 
way Service 562 



V 



Value of Practical Instruction on Fuel 
Economy* 423 

Valve Castings, Why They Leak 42 

Valve — 

External Throttle* 516 

Gears, A Comparison of* 173 

Gears, New Types of* 462 

Gears, Walschaert, Modification of*561 

Globe, Storle Brass* 463 

Intercepting, of the Articulated Lo- 
comotive* 47 

Pop, Meter* 504 

Van Horn & Endsley Spark Arrester*. 236 
Variable Speed Motor Drive, Some Ad- 
vantages of* 522 

Ventilators. Allen Car* 400 

Vertical Milling Machine* 116 

Victor Nut Facing Machines* 356 

Vise, Automatic Swivel* 525 

Vivid Description 407 



w 



Wabash R. R., Kinks at Springfield 
Shop* 57 

Washing Machine for Shop* 568 

Walschaert Valve Gear, Modification 

of* 561 

Washout System at Hampton Yards 

Round House, D. L. & W. R. R .*. .238 
Water, Hydraulic Rams for Elevating* . 195 
Weak Points in the Design of Malletst 493 
Wear, Flange, on Electric Locomo- 

tivest 163 

Weavers Roller Jaw Drill Chuck* 35 

Western Pacific Ry., Steel Baggage- 
Buffet Cars* 367 

Weight Transfer in Electric Cars and 

Locomotives* 144 

Weights, Counterbalance, Reducing*. . . 19 

Welcome Man, The 460 

Welding Locomotive Frame with Lim- 
ited Facilities* 180 

Welding Locomotive Frames* 465 

Welding, Oxy-Acetylene, C. & N.-W. 
Ry 548 

Welding, Oxy-Acetylene, Progress int.. 121 

Welds, Oxy-Acetylene, Strength in 
Steel* ....170 

Why Valve Castings Leak 42 

Wichita Shops, K. C. M. & O. Ry.*....230 

Williams All-Service Car Door* 357 

Window Sash, Fenestra Steel* 567 

Wiping Rags, Sanitary* 194 

Wyoming Shops, Pere Marquette R. R., 
Heavy Locomotive Built at* 423 



Yard Lighting, Dupo, 111.* 137 



[January, 1911.] RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 1 

0f% 1TXATJU * 2 ^^^ CIVIL SERVICE IN RAILWAY APPLICATION. 

^gaTl«»> < ^'^ < **X gS^^^^iKJ ■v»jl ss^ssa— > ' v^> The recent general promotion in the official ranks of the 

Jl^^ r ^^ Jf $ Chicago & Northwestern Ry., is an evidence of the excellent 

4ft& "M^ MC^l'l/UlTB^^TTAWrT^*! application of the principles of "civil service." The em- 

V I IfcjLw JL MjM, \JL AIjI, ..1 lr%l^ [ H\_/f ployees' magazine of this railway makes a point of the fact 

>^/ *" ^* | ^^ M _ J <^^\ that each of the promotions following the retirement of the 

Established 1878 past president, Marvin Hughitt, concerned men who, as old 

PM^i^y THE RAILWAY LIST COMPANY employees „, the company| ha<J never alIowed their „ jobs 

WILLIAM E. MAQRAW, Pres. and Treas. CHAS. S. MYERS, Vlce-Pres. to overtake their knowledge." By putting this maxim into 

LYNDON F. WILSON, Editor C. C. ZIMMERMAN, Bus. Mgr. „ , . L ,. 

O. W. MIDDLETON, Assoc. Editor J. M. CROWE, Mgr. Cent. Dist. effect > ever y employee, no matter what his present status, 

WARREN EDWARDS, v. P. & Assoc. Editor J. K. OREENE, Sec. has a chance at the highest position. The unsigned letter 

on another page of this issue under the heading, "A Protest," 

Office of Publication: 315 Dearborn Street, Chicago is written by a man who probably does not believe in 

Telephone, Harrison 4948 thig principlej or who , be lieving, does not see the 

Eastern Office: 50 Church Street, New York .• .. „ • a ,.%. *.u ± u- 

* application. He is under the impression that his superiors 
Telephone Cortlandt 5765 

r> i r\tt- u dij r»-^ i r% have no right to their positions as such and therefore does 
Central Orhce: House Bldg., h'lttsburg, Pa. 

^ ^-^-— not make a good subordinate. Hardly anyone will dispute 

A M fV»l R *1 I 1 t * ie ^ act tnat there are iew ^ anv beads of railway depart- 

rx ~+„.a *~ +i,~ • * ~.+c * -i ~™ * u «. ments who were not at one time gool subordinates. It 

Devoted to the interests of railway power, car equipment, shops, a 

machinery and supplies. should be borne in mind that a good subordinate always is 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. & J 

Subscription price $2.00 a year; to foreign countries, $2.50,. free of prepared to take, temporarily at least, the place of his im- 

postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on ^ ^ > r j > r 

application to the office by mail or in person. mediate chief. No man is able to do this who does not 
In remitting make all checks payable to The Railway List Com- 

pany. mnnt , u „+ +v,^ keep ahead of his present duties. The quick and broad intel- 

Papers should reach subscribers by the 16th of the month at the r r -i 

latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or failure to lj ge nce which goes with the prompt and faithful carrying 

receive ativ issue and another conv will be very gladly sent. => B *- *• jo 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office out of orders furnishes the basis upon which orders are 

at Chicago. Illinois, Under Act of March 3 1879. issued. The man who is content merely with the doing of 

, _ . what is before him to-day, who prepares himself simply for 

Vol. XXXV. Chicago, January, 1911 No. .. , «. . . ., f . . . ... 

e J J his present task, may be reasonably sure that he never will 

CONTENTS. be asked to assume more exacting or more responsible 

Editorial — duties. So long as his education or his knowledge does not 

Civil Service in Railway Application 1 reach beyon( i his job, he does not fit himself for more than 

1 n y he now is called upon to perform, his job never will grow. 

Prospectus 2 . 

British Locomotive Development 2 He wl11 stand stlU whlle others > P erha P s of fewer y ears in 

Havelock Shops, C, B. & Q. R. R 4 the service, will be hurrying past him because they have 

Fire Protection in the Pennsylvania Station, New York. . 9 developed that merit which means advancement. 

Protection of Metal Equipment 11 . . , , „ , , TT , . „-. .. 

A -r, .,_ At times it seems that the North-Western's system of Civil 

A Protest 15 

Shop Kinks 16 Service" has anything but a general application. Men are 

Air Hoist and Crane 16 sometimes taken from other systems and put in over the 

At Collinwood, L. S. & M. S. Ry 16 heads of the older employees. It must be remembered, how- 

A Convenient Flue Cutter 18 ever> tnat these men were subordinates somewhere at some- 
Machinery Cylinder Radii 18 , ., , .. ., c ,, . . 

— , . „ t. , -..r • , .„ time and a consideration of the railway field as a whole, 

Reducing Counter-Balance Weights 19 

Form for Making Piston Rod Packing 19 instead of s y stem ^ s y stera > wiH show a commo " level or 

Blacksmith Shop of the D. L. & W. R. R 20 balance. If, therefore, a man has become stationary in a 

Notes on the Panama Canal 24 subordinate position he can rest assured that he has in 

Re- Working of Old Material 26 some important particular failed to prepare himself for pro- 
Story of the Air Brake 28 " mQtion He wi „ nQt beHeve m ^ doctrine; however; but 

New Books 28 , „ . „ . ... 

Personals 29 wil1 contin "e to prate of "pulls" and the inefficiency of his 

Obituary 31 superiors until, no longer of use even in a position of minor 

Strange if True 31 importance, he is cast aside as scrap. The pitiful feature of his 

Among the Manufacturers 32 case f s t ] iat he has never been able to properly locate the cause 

A High Duty Shaper 32 of h - $ fajlure 

Jones Peerless Car Door 33 

Buckwalter Electric Baggage Trucks 33 

Practical Oil Burners, Forges and Torches 34 . mttttom A DAY 

Weaver Roller Jaw Chuck 35 

Steelkote Paint 36 "Efficiency*' is not a new term in railway management, a* 

Car Shop Swing Saw 37 t h e daily press would lead many to believe from its widely 

Stockbridge Two-Piece Shaper 37 published reports of dec i arations b y Louis D. Brandeis be- 

New Literature 38 _ *•..««_ v vi 

T , . • , x , . ,„ fore the Interstate Commerce Commission. Probabb 

Industrial Notes 39 

Railway Mechanical Patents 40 other question gives railway presidents and managers a«» 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



many hours of thought and sleepless nights as this one. That 
it has been raised at this time by interests fundamentally not 
in harmony with the railway' side of the rate question does 
not make it new to them. The very fact that railway officials 
generally welcome any change for the better in their methods 
which Mr. Brandeis can offer shows that they are doing their 
best and are willing to do anything to help the work along. 
It is also a fact that the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe has 
introduced methods that have produced splendid results in 
reducing costs. The officials of other railways in the coun- 
try are thoroughly familiar with what the Santa Fe has done 
and are now working to accomplish similar results on their 
own systems by methods applicable to circumstances. Mr. 
Brandeis' own ideas were being put into effect by the big 
systems probably long before he thought of thera. He is 
an astute lawyer and a learned man, but it hardly seems 
reasonable to suppose that he could successfully undertake 
the management of a great railroad system with its complex 
questions and intricacy of detail that takes years for the best 
brains to master. 

It will not be denied that some railway systems are not 
operated by the most efficient methods and if raising the 
question at this time will hasten the work of introducing 
newer tools and appliances, better systems for handling men, 
machines and equipment, and higher efficiency all around, 
then Mr. Brandeis has done some good. It will further be 
admitted that there had been a tendency among railway man- 
agements during the past two years to use equipment, sup- 
plies and methods that could not in the nature of things be 
expected to make for efficiency. It sometimes happens that 
the question of dividends now is of paramount importance, 
and where the installation of more efficient methods would 
mean a great first cost, the management has decided, wisely 
or not, for the dividends. Railway men who have devoted 
their lives to the management of these great industries do 

not view the statements of Mr. Brandeis with great enthu- 
siasm or hopefulness. 



PROSPECTUS. 

(With apologies to the popular magazines.) 

Of course we expect during the coming year to make the "Master 
Mechanic" bigger and better, not because we care whether our two 
(2) subscribers read it or not, but because our prospective adver- 
tisers will figure that it is good enough to read, and when the adver- 
tiser backs up this opinion on a cash basis — well, that's when our 
wife gets the new hat to wear on the Board Walk. 

We are not sure who will be numbered among our contributors 
during the year. We have seen a number of articles in club pro- 
ceedings and among the pages of our esteemed contemporaries 
marked "By So and So" and "By So and So" (all big men in the 
railway field) ; in fact, we have published a good many of them 
ourselves. We have always had doubts as to their genuineness, 
however. We have the honor of personal acquaintance with most 
of these men and several of them, at least, remind us of bivalves — 
anyway, they have some of the characteristics. Then, too, their 
chief clerks and shop engineers have often evidenced a surprising 
knowledge of their themes before as well as after publication. 

We believe we are safe in saying that the following will posi- 
tively not be contributors: J. F. Deems (too busy), J. F. DeVoy 
(too modest), J. T. McGrath (he tried it once), Chas. E. Fuller 
(too sore; we foozled his picture two years ago), Wm. Boughton 
(same reason), F. H. Clark (he prefers that others do the talking) 
and Joseph Taylor (too affluent already). 

Our secretary of war reports that we are at peace with our 
contemporaries. We don't believe it. We have seen too much of 
our president during the last days of the old year. Even as we go 
to press, we have evidence to the contrary. 

We used to ask for suggestions and advice on running this paper. 
We have quit. Everybody thinks he can beat us hands down, and 
we can't afford to risk our feelings. Any really good advice must 
positively not reach the editorial department. 

A Happy New Year to all. 



[January, 1911.] 

BRITISH LOCOMOTIVE DEVELOPMENTS. 

By Thomas Reece. 

I have written previously in the "Railway Master Me- 
chanic" upon the steady attention which is being paid in 
the United Kingdom to the question of superheating for 
locomotives. Since Lancashire and Yorkshire Locomotive 
Superintendent Hughes raised the question at a big meeting 
last spring, superheating for locomotives has been always 
with us. Early communications of mine to the "Railway 
Master Mechanic" have dealt with superheating in the Uni- 
ted Kingdom. I might now extend these remarks by deal- 
ing briefly with superheating on European Continental lo- 
comotives — summarizing for this purpose a series of four 
lectures just delivered by Professor Sauvage in connection 
with the faculty of engineering at the University of London. 

After having dealt with the general properties of super- 
heated steam and its advantages for steam engines gener- 
ally, the lecturer pointed out that its application to locomo- 
tives was by no means new, the patents of Quillac and 
Moncheuil dating back to the year 1849 and 1850. It was 
only during the past few years, however, that any real ad- 
vance had been made, and in this connection excellent work 
had been done by Schmidt in Germany, whose system had 
been largely adopted on continental railways. Another form 
of superheater, the Pielock, had been adopted on the St. 
Gothard and other railways. It was necessary that the . 
driver should possess the means of regulating the super- 
heat, but this could not be accomplished with all systems. 
Herr Schmidt favored as high a degree of superheat as pos- 
sible, and 120 deg. C. was commonly employed. Various 
problems arose in connection with lubrication, and it was 
necessary to make use of special oils with a high-flash point. 

Experience has shown the economy that resulted from 
the use of superheaters, and it was interesting to compare 
the results of a series of trials which had been carried out 
on French railways between the four-cylinder simple loco- 
motive working with superheated steam and the four-cylin- 
der compound locomotive working with saturated steam, the 
general dimensions of the engine being the same in each 
case. The steam pressure employed in the case of the com- 
pound engine was about 227 pounds per square inch, and in 
the case of the simple engine it was 190 pounds per square 
inch. The results of the experiments showed an economy 
in coal consumption for the simple engine of 13 per cent 
and an economy in water consumption of 15 per cent. Sub- 
sequent service tests gave similar results, and it would seem 
that the economy of the simple engine, using superheated 
steam, in comparison with the compound working with sat- 
urated steam, was well established. The question arose 
whether it would not be possible to combine the advantages 
of compounding and superheating, and although there were 
some difficulties in the application of superheating to com- 
pound engines, a number of experiments had been carried 
out by the Eastern Railway of France, by the Paris-Lyons 
and Mediterranean Railway, and by other companies. The 
trials were effected with ten ordinary four-cylinder com- 
pound locomotives and ten four-cylinder compound locomo- 



[January, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



tives employing superheated steam. The result of the trials wheels, in accordance with the Krauss-Helmholtz system, 
showed an economy of 8 per cent in coal consumption in The weight of the main frame is carried on a central cradle 
favor of the superheated engines. Similar tests were after- swung from four oblique links on the bogie frame, the pivot 
wards carried out between groups of ten compound goods being hemispherical in form and traversed horizontally by 
engines, and in that case little, if any, economy was shown a safety pin. The side frames of the bogie are connected 
between the two classes of locomotives. at their back end by a transverse spring sandwiched in a 
A series of experiments had, declared the professor, also cross frame, which is suspended by swing links to the un- 
been carried out by the Eastern Railway of France on a derside of the leading driving axle-boxes. A bogie of this 
method of superheating in two stages. The first part of the construction is also exhibited separately, and labeled "Flam- 
superheater received the steam issuing from the boiler, and me system." 
moderately superheated it before it passed into the high I n both the two new engine types the system of divided 



pressure cylinders. The exhaust from the high pressure 
cylinders afterwards passed into the second part of the su- 
perheater, and was again superheated before reaching the 
low pressure cylinders. The trials, which had been carried 
out quite recently, had not, so far, yielded any very diffi- 
cult results. Experiments had also been made in connection 
with compound locomotives, in which only the low-pressure 
steam was superheated, but the experiments were under- 
taken rather with a view to avoiding the cost of the mechan- 



driving axles is employed, with the two inside cylinders 
connected to the second driving axle and the two outside 
cylinders to the third axle, the "balancing" being effected 
through the coupling rods. If the outside connected pair of 
wheels should slip the whole stress of the four pistons must 
be thrown, directly and indirectly, on the cranked axle, or 
if the inside connected pair should slip the efforts of all four 
pistons are concentrated, through the connecting and side 
rods, on the outside wheel pins. If the axle or the pins 



ical alterations involved in superheating high-pressure steam were not calculated to support such occasional stresses the 

in existing locomotives. The results of these trials seemed parts would fail. The Belgian State Railways compound en- 

to show that, from the point of view of economy, there gines, of which there is now a large number in service, do 

would possibly be a reversion to the simple engine working not figure at the present exhibition. >, ,, \. l( , /j 

with superheated steam. The matter had, however, to be Representing the French Northern Railway is a marine 

considered from another aspect. The growing demand for wate r-tube fire-box locomotive for its express service, in 

more power with which to provide for the increased weight which the system of water tubes has permitted the raising 

and speed of trains was a very important matter, and one of the pre s S ure to near that which is common in water-tube 

reason for the introduction of the compound locomotive bo ilers— in -his case 250 pounds. This engine is interesting 

was that it was more powerful than a simple locomotive. from the aIlefe d f act that the driverS) according to the state- 



The cost of fitting a superheater on Belgian railways has 
been found to range from about $800 to $1,000. 

Although superheating has not been employed in Great 
Britain to anything like the extent to which it has been 
adopted on the Continent, a good deal of work is now being 
done in this direction. The Great Western Railway has 150 
locomotives in service which are fitted with superheaters, 
and an additional 100 locomotives are being similarly 
equipped. It is interesting to note that on the Lancashire 
and Yorkshire Railway the comparative trials carried out 
confirm the conclusions reached by Continental engineers 
as to the advantages of superheating, and it had been shown 
in that series of experiments that the hauling power of the 
locomotive fitted with a superheater is increased by 10 per 
cent. On the Canadian' Pacific Railway 475 locomotives are 
equipped with superheaters, and Mr. Vaughan states that 
the experience of the Canadian Pacific is that in freight 
service with superheating there is an economy of 10 to 15 
per cent and in passenger service a gain of 15 per cent. It 
has been found that with proper attention there is no in- 
crease in the cost of maintenance. All new locomotives on 
the Canadian Pacific are being fitted with superheaters. 

Looking back at some of the interesting types of locomo- 
tives exhibited at the Brussels exhibition this year, special 
attention might be drawn to some of the French and Bel- 
gian exhibits. Belgium showed two new types of powerful 
engines. One of these was a new freight engine having ten 
wheels coupled. A four-wheeled bogie is constituted by a 



ment of the orficial in charge, work this engine with a cut- 
off of only 20 per cent in the high pressure cylinders, and 
also of 20 per cent in the low-pressure cylinders. This re- 
fers to trains of about 300 tons, on level line, at sixty miles 
per hour. Such equality of cut-offs is of the greatest im- 
portance for the successful working of compound locomo- 
tives; the power is then nearly equally divided between 
the two groups of cylinders; the efforts of all four crank 
pins are balanced, the engine runs steadily, and the greatest 
steam economy is realized. Under these conditions two 
sets of valve mechanisms and one reversing gear could be 
dispensed with, or two valves could be made to distribute 
to four cylinders. The engine is effectively a compound lo- 
comotive, but it works with a 20 per cent boiler steam 
admission to two cylinders only, in place of the correspond- 
ing admission of 20 per cent usually required for four cyl- 
inders, of a similar diameter, in simple engines. 

Another interesting French engine is an Eastern Railway 
express locomotive designed for the fastest heavy main line 
traffic, to which is applied a cascade superheater of interest- 
ing construction. This superheater differs in its superheat- 
ing tubes from the common U-pipe smoke-tube arrangement 
first introduced by Jean do Montcheuil tor application to 
two types of express engine which were used about 1847 
and 1848 on the Troyes to Montereau section of the rail- 
way, now the main line Paris to Swiss frontier. 

The system is devised to obtain great superheating effect 
with small heating surfaces. The straight-flow arrangement 



leading pair of small wheels, and by the first pair of driving of U-pipes as in the early de Montcheuil system, is aban- 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[January, 1911.] 



doned for a straight-flow delivery with helicoidal-flow re- eight external ribs along its whole length. The gases from 
turn. the fire pass between these two surfaces, licking the radiat- 
Briefly described, the large flues of 125 mm. inside and ing ribs. Inside the union connecting with the annular and 
133 mm. outside diameter contain annular or Joly cul-de-sac the central orifices is provided at the smoke-box end, and 
superheating elements, consisting of a large tube with a closed joined by short pipes to the respective headers for super- 
end, reaching to within 600 mm. of the fire-box, and having heated and saturated steams. 



Havelock Shops, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. 



To facilitate the handling of repairs to the locomotives 
running on the Lines West of the Missouri river, the Chi- 
cago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. is constructing some exten- 
sive additions to its shop equipment at Havelock, Neb. 
Havelock is located about four miles east of Lincoln, on the 
main line between Chicago and Denver. Lincoln is an im- 
portant point on the Burlington, being the junction of the 
lines running between St. Louis, Kansas City and Billings, 
Mont., and between Chicago and Denver, as well as the 
terminus of several branch lines radiating in all directions. 

The old shops at Havelock, which consisted of machine 
and erecting shops, boiler shops, smith shop and power plant, 
were built in 1894. The introduction of heavy power for 
both freight and passenger service and the large number of 
Mallet compounds in use has rendered the old shop equip- 
ment inadequate for handling in an economical and rapid 
manner the necessary repairs to locomotives. 



shop in this country. The erecting shop has a height of 42 
feet under roof trusses, a clear width of 90 feet and a dis- 
tance between track centers of 30 feet 6 inches. Three 
tracks run the entire length of the erecting shop. The ma- 
chine bays are 60 feet wide center to center of columns. 
The bay in which the heavy motor-driven tools will be lo- 
cated has a clear height under roof trusses of 32 feet, while 
the small tool bay, which will contain both group and motor- 
driven tools, has a similar height of 19 feet. A very sub- 
stantial steel construction forms the framework of the build- 
ing. The walls are constructed on 1-inch channel studding 
tied with iron straps to the steel girths and covered with 
galvanized expanded metal, wired on. To the expanded 
metal is applied four coats or layers of cement plaster, each 
54 inch thick, which makes a wall having good weather re- 
sisting qualities and sufficient thickness to imbed the steel 
and protect same from destructive corrosion. 




General View of Havelock Shop Buildings. 

The improvements at Havelock consist of a new erecting The floor of the erecting shop is of concrete, cast in 5-foot 

and machine shop, power house, storehouse, casting plat- squares, and has 1^-inch crowning between tracks to allow 

form with overhead crane, and oil house. The new building, drainage to pits. The floor of the machine bays consists of 

together with those now existing and shown as shaded areas a course of 3-inch Burnettized Oregon fir laid on tamped 

on the general plan, will give a shop equipment as follows: Platte River sand, the boards being nailed together. Over 

Erecting and machine shop 600 x 215 ft. this sub-floor is laid a wearing surface of 1^-inch maple 

Boiler shop 400 x 130 ft. factory flooring nailed with heads countersunk % inch. The 

Smith shop 300 x 80 ft. roof of the building consists of 2-inch fir sheathing laid on 

Storehouse 500 x 80 ft. 6xl4-inch purlines and covered with five-ply pitch felt and 

Power house 120 x 87 ft. gravel laid accordingly to the Barret specifications. All of 

Car machine shop 200 x 80 ft. the window frames, sash and doors in the building are of 

Brass foundry 140 x 56 ft. wood, and these portions, together with the roof, floor, tool 

Oil house 65 x 36 ft. room partitions and work benches, comprise all of the com- 

In addition to the above building, space has been reserved bustible material in, the building. The erecting shop is 

on the area available for shop use to construct an extensive equipped with two 4-motor girder cranes, each having a main 

car repair plant for both passenger and freight equipment. hoist capacity of 75 tons, and an auxiliary hoist capacity of 

Erecting and Machine Shop. 15 tons. Serving the outside tracks are four 3-motor 3-ton 

This building is somewhat similar to some other western traveling wall cranes, two on each side of the shop. This 

shops built in recent years, in that it has a longitudinal type of crane is found only in one other locomotive repair 

erecting shop. An important difference from these shops, shop in the country, the new erecting shop of the Pennsyl- 

however, is that the boiler work is not done in the same vania Railroad at Altoona, Pa. 

building and the machine shop is located on one side only of The pits in the erecting shop are 570 feet long and are 

the erecting shop instead of on both sides, as at Topeka on located on the three tracks. This arrangement is some- 

the Santa Fe and at Parsons on the Missouri, Kansas & what at variance with previous practice, which has located 

Texas. the pit on the middle track and at times on a portion of the 

The building consists of an erecting and two machine bays side tracks. Steam, air, water and lighting service connec- 

and has a cross section wholly unlike any other longitudinal tions are provided in the pit, making it unnecessary to have 



[January, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



Main Line east- 



SefOut Tracks 



5nop Tracks 




Shaded Jlreas Indicate Old Bui/dings . 
full Lines Indicate Neiv Buildings. 
Doited Lines Indicate Future extensions 



General Layout of Havelock Shops. 



hose and lamp cords on the floor of the shop. The lighting 
of the shop, as well as that of others, is in the nature of 
general illumination, 110-volt alternating current, multiple 
enclosed arc lamps being used throughout, with the excep- 
tion of the smith shop, where flaming arc lamps appear to 
be more desirable on account of the smoke. 

The middle or heavy machine bay is equipped with a 
3-motor girder crane having a capacity of ten tons and a 
span of 58 feet. As soon as shop requirements indicate same 
is needed, another crane of similar capacity will be in- 
stalled on the same runway. All of the cranes in the shop, 
as well as those over the casting platform and runways, 
were built by the Niles-Bement-Pond Co. Direct current 
at 220 volts is used for operation of all cranes in the shops. 
Situated at the north side of the small machine bay at the 
center of the building is a projection 60 feet long by 40 feet 
wide containing the toilets, lavatories, lockers and fans for 
heating the building. Located at different places in the shop 
are five combination urinals and drinking water fountains 
built of slate. 

Storehouse. 

This building which is intended to be the main distributing 
center for material used on the Western grand division is 
of slow burning mill construction, with brick walls, and is 
one of the largest railroad store buildings in the country, 
being 500 feet long by 80 feet wide and three stories high. 
Surrounding the building on three sides is a platform 16 feet 



wide to facilitate the handling of material. One hundred 
feet of the first and second floors of the west end of the 
building is reserved for office use. On the first floor are sit- 
uated the quarters of the superintendent of shops and the 
storekeeper. On the second floor are located the stationer, 
medical examiner with emergency hospital fully equipped, 
telephone exchange, space for apprentice school and meeting 
room. The offices are all finished in yellow pine, varnished 
and have plastered walls. On the first floor of the store- 
house are located the cases for holding the material handled 
in largest quantities, and the receiving and shipping rooms. 
On the second floor are the stationer's stock room and ma- 
terial cases for handling small stock, while all material in 
original packages which is not worked over in the store- 
house, or is of bulky nature, is stored on the third floor. 
The material cases are arranged in three rows and are per- 
pendicular to the length of the building. An interesting fact 
regarding the design of the store building is that a form of 
material case was first adopted and the window spacing ar- 
ranged to give a maximum of light between cases. The 
material cases are 5 feet wide at the bottom and are sep- 
arated by space of the same width. This arrangement gives 
a case spacing of 10 feet center to center and 7 feet of win- 
dow between two adjacent cases, the tops of which are three 
feet wide. The office portion of the building is heated by 
direct radiation, while the storeroom is warmed by an indi- 
rect system having duplicate fans, motor driven, which induce 




Erecting and Machine Shop, Heavy Machine Bay, Havelock Shops. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[January, 1911.] 



the air through banks of American Radiator Co, "Vento" 
cast iron heating units using exhaust steam from the power 
house. Two motor driven elevators are installed in the 
building, one being located in the receiving room and the 
other in the shipping room. The building is lighted through- 
out by incandescent lamps, all wiring being in conduit. 

Casting Platform." 

Located adjacent to the erecting and machine shop and 

separated from the material platform along the north side 

of the storehouse by track clearance is a casting platform 518 

feet long bj r 60 feet wide. Located over the platform is a 



driven power pumps located in a separate compartment on 
the west side of the building. From the tanks kerosene and 
gasolene are distributed and barrels filled by gravity. For 
handling oils stored in the tanks located in the basement 
and used in considerable quantities, five Gilbert and Barker 
power pumps, each having a capacity of 40 gallons per min- 
ute, are provided. Ten Bowser self-measuring pumps are 
also located in the pump room for handling as many differ- 
ent kinds of oils in small quantities. The power pumps are 
driven from line shafting run by a 3 H.P. 440-volt Westing- 
house A. C. motor. 



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crane runway with a 10-ton 59-foot span girder crane, which 
is arranged to serve the track along the north side of the 
platform and deliver material to a point underneath, and 
where it may be handled by the yard crane for distribution 
to all shops. 

Oil House. 
Situated west of the erecting shop and storehouse and at a 
distance of 220 feet from both buildings is the oil house. 
This structure, which is built entirely of concrete below the 
platform line, has side walls of brick and roof of concrete, 
water proofed with a five-ply pitch felt and gravel covering. 
Special attention has been given to making the building en- 
tirely fire proof and consequently no combustible material 
has been used in its construction. Tanks for storage of the 
various oils with the exception of kerosene and gasolene are 
located in the basement of the building and under the plat- 
form. Kerosene and gasolene are stored outside in two ele- 
vated tanks, each having a capacity of 20,000 gallons. These 
oils are handled to the storage tanks from cars by motor 



Machine Tool Layout, Machine 

The tank capacities and the list of oils to be handled is as 
follows: 

Gallons 

Kerosene 20,000 

Gasolene 20,000 

Fuel 24,000 

Car 24,000 

Valve 12,000 

Signal 10,000 

Mineral Seal 8,000 

Black 500 

Gas Engine 500 

Renown Engine 500 

Franklin Engine 500 

Linseed 500 

A compartment IS feet by 36 feet is provided in the build- 
ing for the storage of baled waste. For the easy handling of 
this material an overhead trolley arrangement has been in- 
stalled. 



[January, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



Power House. 
Forming the east building of the group is the power house, 
a building thoroughly modern in every respect. The struc- 
ture is of brick with concrete roof water proofed with a 
five-ply felt, pitch and gravel covering. Special attention 
has been given to the economical working of coal and ashes, 
the former being handled by incline belt conveyor from the 
usual depressed track hopper to concrete bunkers situated in 
front of and above the boilers. Ashes are elevated from the 
ash tunnel beneath the boilers to an overhead bin by means 
of a skip hoist operated by motor. 



compound engine direct connected to a 200-kw. Westing- 
house generator. Foundation and space is also provided 
for two additional turbines to serve the future requirements 
of the shops. One 100 and one 200-kw. Westinghouse in- 
duction motor generator sets furnish direct current at 220 
volts for operation of adjustable speed motors on machine- 
tools and all crane motors. Distribution of the current and 
control of the generating equipment is effected through a 
well designed 17-panel blue Vermont marble switchboard. 
A 25-kw., 125-volt Curtis Turbo-Generator and 25-kw., 125- 
volt Westinghouse motor generator set are provided for ex- 



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and Erecting Shop, Havelock Shops. 

The steam generating equipment consists of four 400-H.P. 
Stirling boilers furnished by the Babcock & Wilcox Co., ar- 
ranged in two batteries. Space is also provided for the 
installation of two additional 400-H.P. units. The boilers 
are equipped with the improved Green chain grate stokers 
and furnishes saturated steam at 150 lbs. pressure. Other 
boiler room equipment consists of two Blake pot valve 14 
by 8 by 12 inches outside and packed plunger type duplex 
boiler feed pumps and a 3,000-H.P. Stillwell feed water heat- 
er located on a platform above the boiler feed pumps. 

A tapered reinforced concrete chimney 200 feet high and 
9 feet in diameter at the top, built by the General Concrete 
Construction Co., furnishes draft for the boilers. A Locke 
damper regulator is installed to control the drafts. 

Three-phase, 60-cycle, alternating current at 440 volts is 
generated for lighting and the operation of all constant 
speed motors throughout the plant. The current is supplied 
by one 750-kilovolt ampere Westinghouse Parsons turbine 
and a 300-h. p. 15 x 24 x 20-in. 200-r. p. m. Erie Ball cross 



citing and auxiliary lighting purposes. An Ingersoll-Sargent 
cross compound two-stage 20x32xl8^x30%x24-in. class G 
air compressor having a capacity of 2,100 cu. ft. of free air 
per minute and a Franklin duplex 20x20xl6^x28x24-in. two- 
stage compressor of 2,000 cu. ft. capacity, which were part 
of the old power plant equipment, furnish air for use in the 
shops. Located in the basement of the engine room are two 
16xl4xl8-in. Warren duplex service and lire pumps. 

A 5H*434x5-in. Blake duplex pump for furnishing drink- 
ing water to the various shop buildings and a Westing- 
house-LeBlanc No. 4 motor-driven condenser for handling 
the steam from the 750-k.v.a. turbine are also located in the 
basement. 

Adjacent to tiie power house is situated a large concrete 
reservoir, 206x85 ft., having a capacity of 1.000.000 gall' 
and which contains the water supply for the shops. The 
reservoir is also used for cooling purpose-, the discharge 
from the turbine condenser being -prayed through Koerting 
nozzles. Water is supplied to t he reservoir into an auxiliary 



8 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[January, 1911.] 




Erecting and Machine Shop, Small Machine Bay, Havelock Shops. 



reservoir from which the supply of drinking water is ob- 
tained and which is so constructed that the excess overflows 
into the main reservoir. 

All piping between the power house and the various build- 
ings is carried in concrete tunnels, the larger sections of 
which have the bottoms, sides and tops cast solid. Where 
the space required for piping is not large the tunnels are in 
the nature of conduits with removable concrete slab tops. 
The power transmission wiring is entirely overhead con- 
struction, being carried on steel towers and wood poles. 

In adapting the old buildings to new conditions the old 
erecting and machine shop will become the boiler shop and 
the old boiler shop will be used as a blacksmith shop. Some 



wood working machinery will be installed in the old smith 
shop and the old power house will be used as a brass foun- 
dry. 

The entire work of construction is under the direct super- 
vision of Mr. F. H. Clark, general superintendent of motive 
power of the Burlington System, to whom we are indebted 
for the foregoing details. 

All engineering work, including the design and construc- 
tion of buildings, is being handled by the well-known en- 
gineers and contractors, Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co., 
working in conjunction with Mr. Thos. Roope, superintend- 
ent of motive power, lines west of the Missouri River, and 
Mr. Willard Doud, shop engineer of the Burlington System. 



1 





Gaso/ene 
20,000 6a i$ 



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Heating 7mw/.J(j8h 




Kerosene 
20.000 Oals 









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Plan and Section of Oil Storage House, Havelock Shops. 



[January, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 




*=*""££? 




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Storehouse, Havelock Shops. 



FIRE PROTECTION FEATURE IN CONSTRUCTION 

OF THE PENNSYLVANIA STATION IN 

NEW YORK. 

A firewall stretching across Manhattan Island from Ninth 
to Fifth Avenues has been completed by the construction 
of the Pennsylvania station and adjacent buildings. The 
full fire protection system of the station has just been put 
into operation and insurance engineers say a conflagration 
such as was experienced in Baltimore and San Francisco is 
now an impossibility in Manhattan. Some idea of the ex- 
tent of the modern fire protection system in the Pennsyl- 
vania station may be had from the fact that the area covered 
is something over twenty-eight acres, with three levels be- 
low the main floor, the lowest being thirty-six feet below 
the street line. Approximately three miles of piping, weigh- 
ing four hundred and twenty-five tons were required, while 
there are in -all one hundred and seventeen hose connec- 
tions, twenty-four roof hydrants and twelve flush hydrants. 

A study of the fire protection arrangements of the new 
Pennsylvania station shows that this system received the 



same care and attention that has characterized the entire 
undertaking. While upon first consideration it may seem that 
the requirements for fire protection for a building of the 
type and character of the station do not call for any elabor- 
ate system, the nature of the business of a transportation 
company requires that more than ordinary precaution be 
taken to safeguard its operation against, interruption. 

It was necessary, in providing for fire protection at the 
new station, to secure a continuous and uninterrupted 
supply of water that would meet all the demands for domestic 
service and at the same time insure a surplus sufficient to main- 
tain not less than twelve standard fire streams or 3,000 gallons 
per minute. With due regard for variation and uncertainties 
in the city supply, a careful study was made of the city's dis- 
tribution system for the station district and it was found that 
by tapping the street mains in 7th and 9th Avenues, 20 ins. and 
24 ins. respectively, and cross connecting the supply with a 
private 12-in. main in 31st Street between the two avenues, the 
possibility of serious failure would be reduced to a minimum, 
likewise there would be no appreciable effect on the station in 




Erecting Shcp, Showing Two 75-Ton Girder Cranes and Three Traveling Wall Cranes. Havelock Shops. 



10 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[January, 1911.] 



the event of heavy drafting by city fire steamers on one or the 
other of the two streets. In addition to the connection with the 
private 12-in. main in 31st Street there is a 6-in. connection with 
a 12-in. public main. 

Connections from the above mains are carried directly 
to two 1,500-gallon "Blake" pumps of the Underwriter 
pattern in addition to the 16-in. suction from two storage tanks 
having a total capacity of 75,000 gallons. The pumps and tanks 
are installed in the station service plant, a separate building 
used for furnishing power for various purposes for the opera- 
tion of the station, located on the south side of 31st Street be- 
tween 7th and Sth Avenues. These pumps are cross-connected 
and can be operated singly or in battery. Ordinarily the pumps 
work under ''Ford" regulators set to maintain constant pres- 
sure of 90 lbs. There is a 12-in. discharge union to the fire line 
distribution, provided with approved gate and check valves. 

The fire system distribution is divided into two loops or 
sections, one section supplying sixteen 4-in. standpipes inside 
of the station building, the other consisting of a 10-in. "grid- 
ironed" loop system encircling the track level between 7th and 
9th Avenues. West of 9th Avenue there is a 5-in. extension 
connecting back of a 10-in. cross main, with both sides of the 
main loop and running to 10th Avenue. There are also two 
6-in. tie connections near 33rd Street and 8th Avenue between 
the 10-in. loop supplying the track level area and the 6-in. 
■discharge to the standpipe system. The supply pipes throughout 
are carried in pipe subways which encircle the entire station 
area. The pipes are carried on transverse cast-iron hangers 
supported from steel girders, and together with the main shut- 
off valves are readily accessible for inspection or repairs. 
With the exception of a short section of the loop system which 
has been laid underground along the 34th Street side, all of 
the pipe is wrought steel with the interior risers of the stand- 
pipe system galvanized steel, the underground, pipe being cast 
iron, hub and spigot pattern. 

Six siamese hose connections have been located on the four 
street fronts of the station building to enable city fire engines 
to pump into the standpipe system. This service, however, 
would only be required in the event of failure of the fire pumps, 
as the latter would supply the maximum discharge necessary for 
interior protection and maintain 100 lbs. pressure. The pipe- 
runs from steamer connections are controlled inside of the 
building by independent gate valves, with an automatic check 
valve in each of the Siamese inlets closing against the building 
supply. 

In the station building there are in all sixteen 4-in. risers 
with 83 hose connections thereon directly connected with a 6-in. 
loop line in the pipe galleries. These connections are located 
about eighty feet apart and are provided with "Nelson" angle 
glebe valves and equipped with 100 ft".' of 2^-in. linen hose 
suspended from hose racks. A smooth tapering nozzle 18 ins. in 
length with 1-in. discharge is attached to the hose at each 
connection. The use of an angle globe valve for hose outlets 
•on the standpipe system was determined upon because of the 
greater freedom from leakage of these valves as compared 
with the gate type and as the water pressure available would 
be; more than sufficient to meet all the requirements for in- 
terior protection the additional friction loss in the angle globe 
valves would be more than offset by the advantages of a tight 
connection. 

In the track level area there are 23 hose .connections on 
train platforms and 12 hydrants in the yard west of the station 
building. These latter hydrants are of the flush type', as oper- 
ating conditions in the yard precluded the use of the ordinary 
standard fire hydrant; these hydrants are covered by metal 
hydrant traps. The hose equipment for these hydrants will be 
stowed in convenient form for quick handling in various yard 
buildings as the space between the tracks is not sufficient to 
•permit of placing the hose over the hydrants. For the hose 



connections on the platforms 100 ft. of 2j4-in. linen hose 
is provided at each connection and for the roof hydrants 
100 ft. of multiple woven cotton rubber lined hose which is 
stowed in two centrally located hose houses. 

Hand chemical extinguishers have been provided in the cor- 
ridors of the upper floors and at other points throughout the 
station, comprising in all 75 three-gallon extinguishers. In ad- 
dition, there will be 33 extinguishers of the non-freezing type 
placed in column recesses on the track level floor, where freez- 
ing conditions may exist. 

For the station building there will be in addition to the equip- 
ment specified a 500-ft. reel hose carriage and a 60-gallon chemi- 
cal engine. The total equipment of 2J^-in. fire hose for the 
station exceeds 15,000 ft. The fire protection for the station 
would be incomplete without some reference to the equipment 
provided for the station service plant. For this building there 
is a 4-in. loop supplying five 3-in. and one 4-in. risers having 
eleven 2^-in. hose connections for use on which 100 ft. of linen 
hose is provided suspended from approved hose racks. In all 
minor details the equipment is similar to that of the station 
building. 

In order to protect against the exposure from adjacent build- 
ings in the rear of the service plant, five monitor nozzles are 
installed on the roof, each having lj^-in. discharge. There is 
also a three-way roof hydrant for which 250 ft. of 2^4-in. cot- 
ton rubber lined hose is provided, in addition to 23 hand chemi- 
cal extinguishers. 

A complete closed circuit fire alarm system covers the entire 
station and service plant. There are in all 20 boxes of the 
non-interfering successive type, wired in loops of 10 stations 
each, recording on three gongs, located under main concourse, 
yardmaster's office and station service plant. There are a num- 
ber of "punch" registers and tap bells in the office of the vari- 
ous station officials. City fire alarm boxes are also located on 
the premises. 

The fire brigade organization comprises twenty-five men, 
divided into three companies, viz. : Hose wagon company, 
chemical engine company and standpipe company. In addition, 
five men, who are expected to report at all fires in advance of 
the regular companies, are especially designated for hand fire 
extinguishers. Special provision is made for plumbers and elec- 
tricians to report at all fires, being subject to the orders of the 
fire marshal, and certain of the elevator lifts are designated 
for transporting the apparatus when required on upper floors. 

The standpipe service company is a distinctive feature of the 
fire brigade organization. The men of this company respond 
to all alarms and have exclusive control of the standpipe service 
and in handling the hose equipment in track level area for use 
on flush hydrants. 

A unique feature of the alarm system for the station is found 
in the tunnel alarms for transmitting signals indicating fire 
and for cutting off current to the power rails. Their are 116 
boxes on this system divided into six circuits, each box having 
two levers, one marked "Power" and the other "Fire," the 
"Power" level* automatically cutting off all power current in the 
section directly affected. This signal consists of two rounds of 
the box number. The "Fire" lever also automatically cuts off 
the power current and is indicated by four rounds of the box 
number. All alarms are recorded on a 6-in. gong in the main 
power house at Long Island City and on gongs in each of the 
sub-stations and station service plant. There are also a num- 
ber of "punch" registers and tap bells in the signal cabins and 
train dispatcher's office. This system is not directly connected 
with the gongs or indicating apparatus of the station fire alarm 
system. The watchmen's service is recorded on two portable 
watchman's clocks from 38 stations and provides for hourly 
tours. At the present time there are two watchmen covering 
this service. 

The fire protection system of the Pennsylvania station em- 



{January. 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



11 



bodies even- modern contrivance for fire fighting. The sys- 
tem was installed after exhaustive inquiry as to the needs in 
Manhattan, and it is thought by insurance engineers to render 
impossible any fire of consequence in the station area. 



PROTECTION OF METAL EQUIPMENT. 

(Continued from Page 345. December. 1910.) 
The answers to question Xo. 3 are apparently in favor of 
metal. In regard to general appearance, the writer's obser- 
vation has been that the exterior of metal cars look better 
than wood, but he is under the impression that up to the 
present time more care and regularity has been taken in 
cleaning them. During the rush of business over Labor 
Day a number of metal cars were seen that had evidently 
missed their regular cleaning, and they certainly looked as 
ding}- and unattractive as the wooden cars. 

Several correspondents remarked on the appearance of a 
metal car because of rivets, laps. etc. The best the writer 
has seen are some of the more recent Pullman cars. The 
entire side, under the windows is pressed up or molded to 
resemble the wooden battens. The under row of rivets are 
not seen, being placed under the car and fastened to a rigid 
strip of angle iron; the upper row of rivets are so close up 
under the windows as scarcely to be noticed. But while 
this may be said of the exterior of Pullman cars, it must 
be admitted that the interior does not present the same 
elagance and taste that we have become accustomed to in 
the beautiful and artistic finish of the wooden cars. 

Concerning remarks of (A) in regard to the opening of 
joints and entrance of moisture-, it would seem that the rem- 
edy for stopping the spread of rust is better than any known 
remedy to prevent spread of moisture in a wooden car, when 
from any cause the varnish and paint have been bruised 
down to the wood, the sand blast can on a metal car reach 
it ordinarily. But as one master painter remarked on this 
subject: — "We already have the acetylene gas flame, which 
cuts part and welds metal without removing from the struc- 
ture, does it speedily and without the usual hammering and 
sledging to injure surrounding parts, as in the old way. 
Other methods and devices will be forthcoming when neces- 
sity demands it to take care of the different operations in 
the most speed}' and economical manner." And he con- 
cludes by saying ''America for inventions." 

Question No. 4. 

Do metal cars clean at terminals as well as wood? 

(A) "From all I can learn at the terminals, metal cars 
clean up a little harder than wood." 

(B) " The inconvenience encountered with rivets 

is probably counterbalanced by the numerous beads, which 
have to receive attention on nine-tenths of the wooden cars 
met with today." 

(C) "I find no great difference in cleaning metal cars at 
terminals as compared with wood." 

CD) "Metal cars in our judgment clean at terminals as 
well as wood." 

The answers to question Xo. 4 vary a little. It should be 
explained that terminal cleaning does not generally come 
under the supervision of the master painter, but the one in 
charge of that department should be one of his selection, 
or, at least, one who has a practical knowledge of what is 
injurious to varnish and paint. Much harm can be done, 
great expense involved, and blame be put on the varnish 
and general work of the paint department by the use of 
strong solutions (used to save elbow grease). Anything that 
is strong enough to remove dirt easily will in the nature of 
things be strong enough to remove a portion of the varnish 
film each time it is applied. Cleaning solutions of medium 



strength may be used when quickly applied and quickly 
rmsed off with clean cold water, but this requires both skill 
and expedition. A cleaner that is not soluble in water and 
cannot be rinsed off will embed itself in all interstices and 
gradually eat the varnish and paint away, and do it more 
thoroughly and quickly than surface exposure to rain and 
sunshine, heat and cold, or sulphuric acid gases encountered 
in tunnels. 

Question Xo. 5. 
On their return to the shop, do you find problems in 
touching up, repairing and revarnishing different from the 
wooden car? 

(A) "The touching up, cutting-in and revarnishing the 
exterior is about the same with steel as with wood cars. 
With the interior parts 'there is a difference, as the natural 
wood must be scraped and refinished where it has been 
bruised, while the steel car can be forced up with putty and 
repainted." 

(B) "There are problems presented by the steel car that 
do not exist on the wooden car. For instance, take the but- 
ton or rivet heads. In ever}- case it was found that the 
varnish and paint had been worn off, exposing the metal. 
This also applies to the edge of metal plates. In my opinion 
this was due to repeated terminal cleaning; a really unavoid- 
able result of a necessary practice. In a number of cases 
these exposed parts had begun to rust. These hundreds of 
rivets must be freed of this rust and carefully repainted 
before the car is cut in. The flat surface of a car may be 
in such condition as to require only a coat of varnish, but 
the touching up of these innumerable rivets with a color so 

difficult to match as would produce an effect at 

once objectionable, and cutting-in the entire car would be 
the only course to pursue. In other words, a steel car, on 
account of its construction, cannot receive the same treat- 
ment that is acocrded to a wooden car." 

(C) "In touching up and revarnishing metal cars we find 
many joints to be corroded, which must be scraped and 
cleaned down to the bright metal, then primed and re-sur- 
faced the same as new. Of course, we have none of this to 
do in touching up and revarnishing a wooden car." 

(D) "Where care has been given at terminals, it (metal 
car) should come back each time with the surface in good 
state of preservation to permit of cleaning, recoloring or 
varnishing without cracks or fissures, which are so often 
found on a wooden car." 

(E) "Aside from the possibility of the paint chipping off 
.the edges of metal battens, I do not think there will be any 
difference in the problems of touching up, but I do think 
there will be considerable less repairing to be done to the 
average car." 

(F) "On the return to shops, problems of touching up, 
repairing and revarnishing are entirely different. We advo- 
cate cutting sheets in preference to touching up. If a sheet 
is scarred it is better to clean the whole sheet with one of 
the paint solvents than to touch up, though the tendency on 
wood cars is to putty and touch up." 

It will be noted that the replies to question Xo. 5 requires 
some experience and as many railroads have not yet adopted 
metal passenger cars, only a few could answer from actual 
experience, but the answers given are both opinion and 
experience. 

Question Xo. 6. 

Does your present experence or den opinion. 1 

on present experience, lead you to believe that there will 
be any greater trouble in future years in making repairs to 
metal cars by reason of side-swipe ~. collis J wre 

In other words, do you anticipate repairs will be harder to 
make' 



12 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[January, 1911.] 



(A) "It is conceded the metal car will withstand the 
greater impact in cases of wrecks, rakes or severe side- 
swipes. What would merely rake the painted surface ma- 
terial down to the metal, would most likely cut through 
the sheathing on the wooden car causing renewal, while the 
metal car could be remedied with far less expense. And 
where accidents occur to break in end or side, or, perhaps 
break the wooden car in two, would likely merely bend the 
metal so it could be repaired and get into service in shorter 
time. There are, however, instances where it would be out 
of the question to repair either class of cars, but would 
be much cheaper in the end to build entirely new than to at- 
tempt to cut apart, straighten out and re-assemble the metal 
cars, as here is where trouble arises in misfits, metal so 
heated and worked over is not the same nature or strength 
as in its original state, and as the metal is of some value 
as scrap there is this to be gained over the wooden car, 
which becomes nearly a total loss." 

(B) "The corrosion in the joints in my opinion will event- 
ually weaken the whole structure and cause extensive repairs 
to be made. If the car is side-swiped or wrecked the cost 
of repairs to metal cars would be much more expensive than 
a wooden one." 

(C) "My opinion as to repairs in future years is that 
there will be less repairs as to side-swipes, for it will take 
a greater force to affect a steel plate than a wooden sheath- 
ing. As for wrecks and collisions, there would be less dam- 
age to the interior of a steel car' than of wood. And a bad 
scratch could be plastered up quicker than one wood and 
would not have the tendency of crumbling as it sometimes 
happens on wood." 

(D) "In my opinion there will be less trouble from side- 
swipes for ballast, for coal and light rakes will not affect 
the metal seriously, when the same cause would be sufficient 
to bring about the removal of wooden sheathing, panelling, 
etc. Moreover, when the steel cars are damaged seriously 
they will be harder to repair than wood. On the whole, 
think there will be less trouble with the steel because the 
surface, at least, will stand more than wood." 

(E) "This question is one that a person might conjure 
up all sorts of trouble in store for them, but I have great 
faith in the ability of the designers of future equipment to 
overcome largely with modern appliances any serious trouble 
in handling repairs economically and reducing it to a mini- 
mum of cost." 

(F) "I believe it will be much harder, therefore, much 
more expensive to repair metal cars than those of wood." 

"No! The body side-swipe metal parts of the future steel 
cars will have to be straightened up or thrown away just 
the same as the parts of the wooden car are replaced, etc. 
Consequently, we cannot see why steel cars repairs may not 
be as readily made, also anticipated and provided for." 

(H) "Metal cars would be more expensive to repair if 
badly stove in." 

(I) "Repairs will be harder to make." 

(J) "No! We have had several collisions and wrecks 
wherein metal and wood cars were concerned, and in most 
every instance, where the force of the collision was sufficient 
to make an indenture in the metal car the wood car was in- 
variably a wreck or damaged to such an extent as to make 
repairs harder and more expensive." 

This question takes a long lock ahead. The concensus of 
opinion is that because a car is steel it will offer a greater 
resistance in accidents, and so reduce to the minimum the 
number of times it will require repairing. An accident that 
would put a wooden car out of commission would hardly 
make an impression on a steel one. 

Question No. 7. 

You know the average life of a wooden car; do you think 
the metal car will last as long? 



(A) "I am fully convinced that the life of a metal car 
will be longer." 

(B) "I think the metal car, if properly taken care of, will 
outwear the wooden car, but it is my opinion if the cars 
are allowed to deteriorate on account of non-shopping at 
necessary intervals, their appearance will show more mark- 
edly the neglect of proper care than the wooden car." 

(C) "As to the life of a steel car. It is rather early to 
tell the exact length of time, but can safely say it will last 
one-third longer. A steel car well built and painted from 
the foundation up, should last from ten to twenty years. 
Practical experience teaches that paint is the life of a steel 
car." 

(D) "In my opinion the steel car equally as well protected 
as the wooden car will outlast the latter." 

(E) "Touching upon proposition seven. I am inclined 
to the opinion that if the parts of the steel car that are in- 
accessible after construction are given the treatment indis- 
pensable to their preservation before assembling, that the 
life of the steel car will exceed that of the wooden car." 

(F) "In my opinion the life of a metal car will be less- 
than a wooden one." 

(G) "If the steel car structurally stands the continuous 
vibration, also probable rivet shearing motion that the fast 
traveling passenger car is subjected to, I cannot see why 
it should not last longer than the wooden car, which is also- 
subject to open joints from the same cause, which in turn* 
causes wood decay." 

(H) "This is a question hard to decide. We have wooden' 
cars on our line still in good condition, which have been in 
service thirty years." 

(I) "Decidedly so." 

(J) "We do not think the average life of the steel car 
will be as long as the wooden car." 

Question No. 8. 

From an economical standpoint, knowing as you do the 
cost of standard passenger cars and their maintenance, is it 
your opinion that although the cost of a steel car is greater 
in the beginning it will nevertheless compensate for the in- 
crease first cost by the longer service it will give? 

(A) "Yes, I believe from an economical standpoint the 
steel passenger car will prove a saving over the wooden 
one." 

(B) "Yes! If the present substantial make of steel pas- 
senger car is kept in proper general repairs at timely periods,, 
not abused because it is made of steel, kept in the best paint 
and varnish repairs, also allowed to live out its service life 
without being subject to the usual architectural changes 
made in passenger equipment, we cannot see why the greater 
first cost of the steel car will be fully compensated for, as 
is claimed by the steel passenger car promoter and builder."' 

(C) "I do not think the increased cost of a steel passen- 
ger car will be compensated for by any longer service." 

(D) "This all depends upon the design and construction.. 
If the design is good and construction stable, the steel car,, 
well protected, ought to be more economical in the long 
run." 

(E) "It is my opinion that the first cost, while greater in 
the steel equipment, will compensate the owner by a more 
economical cost of maintenance provided they are kept up- 
in good shape and given proper repairs when needed." 

(F) "I can forsee the metal car of the future being built,, 
and maintained, giving longer and more service per mile, 
and with less expense than the wooden car. And its longer 
life and service should make it the most economical, even 
though the first cost would be greater than the wooden- 
car." 

(G) "Most assuredly." 

(H) "It is a question to the writer's mind if the increased 
cost of steel equipment will compensate for the increased 



![ January, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



13 



first cost by any longer service it will give, though when 
the element of safety it will give over the wooden car is 
considered, would say the increased cost is warranted." 

Some of the answers received were of such a general char- 
acter that it has been found impossible to incorporate them 
in the order of questions one to eight. The following seemed 
so comprehensive and in some respects so different from all 
the others, that it seemed best to quote it as a whole. It 
is along lines of originality and may bring out some im- 
portant discussion. The article appeared in the RAILWAY 
MASTER MECHANIC about four years ago. 

* * * * l w iH endeavor to show the causes under- 
lying the existing dissatisfaction based on long experience 
and many tests of various combinations of pigments and oils 
and to indicate how they can be successfully and practically 
removed. 

"I will first deal with the subject of rust, as it is the one 
great evil the paint fraternity have to deal with, particularly 
so when we take into consideration the cost of structural 
iron work in large buildings and that of the iron and steel 
■cars. Their maintenance depends largely upon checking 
rust. To intelligently solve this problem it is quite neces- 
sary to first look into the conditions iron and steel are sub- 
jected to, for instance, when painting structural iron work 
for buildings and that of the iron and steel cars, while the 
iron is practically the same, there are some few different 
conditions paint has to contend with. Paints must be made 
for their respective places. The former, dampness practical- 
ly the year around and much greater during the breaking 
up of the winter, of walls sweating out badly. 

''The iron and steel car having more or less moisture to 
contend with which is not enclosed, in other words, sand- 
wiched in between damp walls and hidden from sunlight 
like that of the structural iron work moisture does not get 
the same chance to lay upon cars like that of the struc- 
tural iron work. Again, when biulidngs are completed there 
is no possible chance of ever doing anything with it in the 
way of checking rust. The result is eating away, slowly 
but steadily the steel foundations. For protection of iron 
and steel structures subjected to above conditions, there is 
practically but one condition paint has to contend with and 
that is moisture; paint must be of a nature wholly antagon- 
istic to moisture. 

"The condition of the iron and steel cars in addition to be 
subjected to moisture paint must also be of a nature to off- 
set intense heat and extreme cold which produces expan- 
sion and contraction. Again, these cars are loaded with hot 
mill slag and much more severe painted surface than either 
of above conditions, and while a few of the many paints on 
the market sold for the protection of iron and steel surfaces 
have produced only ordinary results, when applied upon the 
car subjected to artificial heat in addition to the other con- 
ditions to life is only of short duration and the manufacturer 
wonders at the result, particularly so, when he calls your 
attention to the elastic properties, when being dried out and 
to the sense of touch with some degree of pressure is very 
tough, elastic-like and firm. However, I dare say, had the 
manufacturer taken more seriously under consideration the 
elastic properties in the manipulation of a mixture for the 
latter he would have met better results, for an elastic prop- 
erty that will produce fair results in ordinary paint to offset 
heat and cold and the same mixture proved a failure upon 
the surface subjected to artificial heat brought about from 
hot mill slag. 

"There is only one conclusion and that is, the elastic 
properties contained in paint was too sensitive to artificial 
heat. 

"Paint to fulfill its many functions must have many certain 
and reliable qualities, but cannot be put upon the market 



and compete with the many conglomerations of various pig- 
ment and worthless oils now on the market and labeled some 
fancy name for the protection of iron surfaces, all of which 
have been found wanting, among them a few with an odor 
to deceive the consumer or purchasers of its true nature 
that would put a dog to flight. 

"Referring back to the question of rust I have heard it 
said time and again among paint manufacturers, civil engi- 
neers and painters, who claim it is quite necessary not only 
to remove rust from the surface, but stoutly adhere to the 
idea that it is quite necessary that rust must be removed 
from the pores of the iron and steel as it is to remove same 
from the surface in order to aid paint in checking rust. 

"With all due respect to their opinions, this, in my estima- 
tion, is the one great mistake of today in trying to check 
rust. Rust in pores of iron is what you want and where you 
want it, and if rust in pores of iron does not show itself 
the writer always brought it about with what he terms a 
liquid rust producer absolutely free from chemicals of any 
kind. 

"Rust is hydrated oxide of iron, in other words, a pow- 
dered oxide and I might add a peroxide paint in dry form, 
it cannot be entirely banished as claimed by many writers 
on this subject. Then I suggest, why not use it in this con- 
dition upon iron and steel while in its infancy and in dry 
powdered paint form? 

"After iron and steel have been cleaned of rust and scales 
this is usually effected by means of a sand-blast; there are 
other methods but none so clean, quick and economical. 
However, the real object of the writer advocating the use 
of the sand-blast in preference to other methods is not so 
much to remove rust from surface as it is to destroy enamel 
or smooth finish upon iron and steel surface, at the same 
time enlarging the mouth of pores of iron and steel en- 
abling the paint to adhere firmer than upon a smooth sur- 
face. Another advantage gained by the use of the sand-blast, 
paint can be made more elastic for a surface of this descrip- 
tion and adhere better than that of a smooth one ensuring 
greater durability. 

"Right here is where you check rust and the only oppor- 
tunity afforded during the process of painting iron and steel 
surfaces. As heretofore stated, the one mistake of today 
is trying to check rust with various pigments of all descrip- 
tions made up into different combinations and applied for 
the protection of iron and steel, let us see what the results 
are, particularly among the cheaper combinations. To start 
Avith, pores of iron and steel are full of air, is it natural 
to suppose that during the application of paint being spread 
over surface it has driven the air from the pores? Xot at 
all. On the contrary, no matter how tine your paint has 
been ground or how thoroughly it may be whipped out and 
laid off with a light touch of the brush, it will bind and 
bridge over face of pores at the same time enclosing more 
or less moisture in pores and any ordinary vibration or ex- 
pansion and contraction will break them and admit more 
moisture. What is the natural consequence? Is it not natur- 
al to suppose that Corrosion starts in almost inimediatly 
in a mild form and as time advances increases in rapidity- 
Subsequent coats of paint upon priming coat does not or 
cannot in the least, aid any in checking rust, as many sup- 
pose. The more inferior the protective coats the speedier 
oxidation sets in and the quicker rust shows itself upon 
the surface. However, in the meantime rust is doing its 
deviltry upon iron and steel just the same a? if subsequent 
coats of paint upon priming coat were not there, nothing 
practically speaking has been accomplished in the way of 
checking rust upon iron and steel, more than subsequent 
coats of paint upon primer has hidden the evil-existing from 
the start but in a short time shows itself upon the surface. 



14 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[January, 1911.] 



"Now the question would naturally arise as to what I 
would deem the best paint for iron and steel surfacer. An- 
swer — a chemically pure peroxide for several reasons, a 
few I will mention later on. 

"Oxide paints are as numerous as the hills, but 95% of 
them do not contain over 55% peroxide of iron; the balance 
is made up of siliceous matter and roasted earth, both of 
which have in their composition more or less sulphur and 
phosphorus, alike destructive to linseed oil and most sus- 
ceptible to moisture. Many on this account are prejudiced 
against peroxide paints without having ascertained by chem- 
ical analysis whether they are chemically pure or not. 

"A good paint as a preserver should have a good cover- 
ing power and a pure peroxide cannot be questioned on 
that score, but siliceous matter and roasted earth do not 
possess any such covering power. 

"Among the many paints used for the protection of iron 
and steel, I believe red lead is the most popular, more par- 
ticularly on account of its drying qualities, it is more a 
subject of deception and adulteration than pure oxides. Red 
lead in its pure state has not the affinity of chemical at- 
traction for linseed oil found in pure oxide. Great care 
must be exercised in mixing it with linseed oil and that 
only in small quantities at a time and during the applica- 
tion it must be kept thoroughly agitated, otherwise it will 
separate from the oil and precipitate to the bottom of the 
vessel. Graphite is slightly of a smaller nature and many 
combinations of asphaltum, coal tar and ordinary minerals, 
altogether, I have found no comparison to a natural prod- 
uct of practically a pure peroxide of iron, especially so 
where each coat of peroxide paint is made and designated 
for its individual place in the painting of iron and steel 
surfaces as is so used. 

"After iron and steel have been cleaned as herein men- 
tioned, I reproduce rust with what the writer terms a liquid 
rust producer, going over surface freely using sponge or 
paint brush giving particular attention to corners and rivets. 
Sponge off fairly dry and let stand one to two hours; at 
the expiration of this time, you will observe more or less 
rust in pores of iron in powdered form 'dry.' 

"This condition of iron and steel is in excellent condi- 
tion to hermetically seal the pores and check any further 
rust, and the only opportunity afforded during the process 
of painting iron and steel. 

"A priming composition suitable for iron in this condi- 
tion must be penetrating, elastic, adhesive, and neutral to 
iron and steel. The former qualifications immediately upon 
application reaches the depth of pores driving air to the 
surface, loosens the rust or powdered oxide in pores and 
utilizes it, showing the utmost affinity between rust and 
primer, practically sealing the pores and establishing a thor- 
ough foundation for subsequent coats of paint. 

"The rust or powdered oxide in pores forming the inde- 
structible pigment. 

"A primer of this description must not be sandpapered 
for such proceedure would immediately open the mouth of 
pores and undo the object in view. 

"Second coat should be of a similar nature to that of 
primer, more than it is the nature of paint having a slight 
deviation in elasticity, the pigment in same being of a chem- 
ically pure peroxide. 

"Third coat should slightly resemble second coat except 
as to elasticity, when dried, and it should not contain a 
gloss but slightly higher than that of an egg shell. Now I 
do not wish to convey that this can be brought about by 
linseed oil in its natural state and produce the desired satis- 
faction. 

"Both coats, second and third, should be ground fairly 
fine. This will cost a trifle more, but never mind the cost. 



The extra covering and preserving power derived from a 
paint of this kind will more than offset the cost of grinding, 
particularly the second coat, as it will enter the mouth of 
the pores and unite solidly with the priming composition, 
affording a more solid protection against moisture. 

"The coarser the mechanism division of paint the less 
adhesive and tenacious, the larger the pores and the greater 
the absorbing qualities for moisture and the speedier oxi- 
dation sets in. 

"First and second coats of paint should be made for their 
individual place in the painting of iron surfaces as already 
stated. What I refer to by each coat having its individual 
place in the painting of structural iron work and the iron 
and steel car, is this: It is absolutely essential that there 
should and must be some slight deviation in elasticity in 
order that each individual coat may adhere firmly to the 
other (building out), whereas, if each coat be of a like nature 
in elasticity they do not have that affinity for one another 
and will lay upon each other closely, as for instance, three 
or more sheets of paper would do under a pressure; but 
with the proper variation in elasticity harmony is created 
among the coats applied and form almost a perfect blend,, 
having so thoroughly amalgamated that they may be com- 
pared to so many pieces of iron welded together so as to 
practically form by one coat of paint and yet yield readily 
to expansion and contraction. The results you will find is- 
a coating upon iron and steel that is surprisingly durable. 

"The method summed up briefly is as follows: 

"First, study the conditions iron and steel are to be sub- 
jected to and make paint to meet the conditions, including 
bridges, old or new, steel water tanks and coaches. 

"Second, sand-blast upon large bodies, object is not so- 
much to remove ordinary rust from surface, as it is to re- 
move enamel or smooth finish upon iron and steel. 
It also enlarges the mouth of the pores, both assisting paint 
to adhere firmer than upon a smooth surface. Another 
great advantage gained is, paint can be made more elastic 
ensuring greater durability. 

"Third, product rust, either artificially or let nature take 
its course. 

"Fourth, liquid primer must be of a penetrating and elastic 
nature capable of utilizing all powdered oxide in pores, the 
oxide forming the indestructible pigment. 

"Fifth, a chemically pure peroxide, especially so, when 
following liquid primer its preference over red lead, graph- 
ite, asphaltum, cold tar and numerous other paints, is owing 
to its being of a natural product and neutral to iron and 
steel. 

"Sixth, while the wearing properties in painter's material 
is linseed oil, it has its place in the manipulation of the 
different coats applied and when used out of place is a 
detriment. 

"Seventh, a pigment entering into the composition is rel- 
atively equal in importance with that of oil. 

"Eight, a priming composition holds the same relative 
position in painting as does the foundation to that of a 
building. If you must economize, do it on the subsequent 
coats, for you may have the job to do over and you will' 
have something to work on and help to get you out of your 
predicament. 

"Ninth, avoid heavy coats of paint. If the degree of dura- 
bility depended upon the quantity of paint, liberality in its 
application would be commendable. Paint thrown on care- 
lessly lays upon the metal in a thick, heavy mass and the 
atmosphere in a short time absorbs its life and it flakes 
and peels off. 

"Tenth, an inferior paint, properly applied, causes usually 
less disastrous results than would a superior article knprop- 



[January, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



15- 



erly manipulated and carelessly used. A man may be very 
proficient owing to constant practice in the application of 
paints and yet he may be quite unfamiliar with the in- 
gredients entering into the composition to meet or offset 
certain conditions." 

Naturally on so new and so great a subject, there must 
be some difference of opinion, both in regard to practice 
and result, but the preponderance of views point to the prac- 
ticability of properly protecting metal equipment, and of 
maintaining it in the years to come. It would be gratifying 
if a chemist or a genius could discover some indestructible 
coating, so that with the coming of the metal car there 
might be immunity from rust and decay. But the cars were 
here and nothing presented itself better than the methods 
pursued in the preservation and beautifying of wood. The 
best that could be done was to observe the well-known 
natural laws, which make metal have a tendency to rust, 
and after carefully preparing the surface, proceed to apply 
the materials that experience has demonstrated to be best. 
Too much emphasis cannot be put upon the importance of 
thoroughly coating the concealed parts, so that moisture 
and the destructive elements of the air may be excluded. 
Whatever may be discovered, it is a fixed principle that it 
is the action of the air and moisture that causes rust and 
decay. The demolition of some of the earlier built metal 
and concrete buildings has demonstrated that where the 
iron was perfectly embedded in concrete or cement, no 
change had taken place. 

As stated in the beginning, this is a composite paper and 
as such is much more comprehensive than any one person 
could make it, especially in view of the short time metal 
cars have been in use. 

The writer, therefore, desires to extend his sincere, thanks 
for valuable aid rendered by the following master painters: 

Mr. H. M. Butts, N. Y. C. & H. R. 

Mr. Chas. A. Cook, P. B. & W. 

Mr. A. P. Dane, Boston & Maine. 

Mr. W. H. Dutton, Lehigh Valley. 

Mr. H. W. Forbes, Erie. 

Mr. John Gearhart, Pennsylvania. 

Mr. H. Heffelfinger, Pennsylvania. 

Mr. H. Hengeveld, Atlantic Coast Line. 

Mr. G. M. Hoefler, Brooks Locomotive Works. 

Mr. W. H. Hogan, St. Louis Car Co. 

Mr. J. H. Kahler, Erie. 

Mr. R. J. Kelly, Long Island. 

Mr. J. F. Lanfersiek, P. C. C. & St. L. 

Mr. D. A. Little, Pennsylvania. 

Mr. J. T. McCracken, Interborough Rapid Transit. 

Mr. E. B. Miller, D. L. & W. 

Mr. W. O. Quest., Pittsburgh & Lake Erie. 

Mr. A. D. Seeley, American Car & Foundry Co. 

Mr. John D. Wright, The Baltimore & Ohio. 

Mr. George Warlick, C. R. I. & P. 



Paint, putty and varnish, 

Preventatives of tarnish. 

Use them early, use them late, 

For daily coach or coach of State. 

Do not think because its metal 

T'will always seem to be in fettle, 

Let the fact be e'er projected. 

That metal cars must be protected. 

Metal cars though good and strong, 

Unprotected, don't last long. 

Go for every crack and crevice, 

If you want the best of service, 

Rub it in and brush it well, 



Neglect of this is sure to tell. 
In cleaning do not be afraid, 
To use a cleaner proper made. 
It may require some elbow grease, 
Before the boss calls out to cease. 
Be sure that everything you use, 
Is such that no one can refuse 
To use it on the best of work. 
And plenty of it do not shirk. 
Give time between each coat to try. 
Good workmen know the reason why, 
'Twill save you many cares and ills, 
If every part the workman fills. 
From poetry we've dropt to rhyme. 
And now we close for want of time. 



A PROTEST. 

Editor of Railway Master Mechanic: 

I wish to ask through the columns of the Railway Master 
Mechanic why it is that so many of the master mechanics 
pay so little attention to ioint car inspectors, who are poorly 
paid and are shown no favors, but from whom as much is 
expected as from a car foreman or master mechanic. The 
inspectors at terminals receive good pay and do not have 
to bother their heads about repairing cars. They place a 
card on a car and in the shops it goes, while the interchange 
inspectors have to repair their own cars and know what to 
do with a car. When they ask for men to help them the 
M. M. says, "Get the section men." This may be a saving, 
to the car department, but it is a big expense to the main- 
tenance of way department. Where is anything gained by 
this method? The clerks and baggagemen at stations are 
given a two weeks' vacation with full pay, and they never 
have to work a minute overtime, while the joint inspector is 
called out of his bed at night regardless of weather condi- 
tions, and he receives less pay than the clerks. An inspector 
serves as an apprentice two or three years, and it is always 
a task to get relieved. Anybody fills the clerk's place or that 
of the baggageman. Why should not the railroads hire more 
inspectors along the line and make the car department a 
place where young men will seek to serve as an apprentice? 
You can see they will go to any other department to learn 
their trade, and whenever there is a chance for a promotion 
to car foreman or general car inspector or any other good 
position some clerk in the office with a pull gets the plum, and 
the interchange inspector stays at his old place as long as 
he lives. Moral: show the joint inspectors more favors and 
better pay, and see the results. 

From a subscriber of Ry. M. M. 
[Better get another job, brother. — Editor.] 



Concerning the Buckhannon & Northern, it is stated that 
bids for grading will be asked for early in 1911, and con- 
tracts will probably be let about February 1. to build from 
the Pennsylvania-West Virginia state line, up the west side 
of the Monongahela river to Rivesville. Marion county, W. 
Va. The principal commodities to be carried by the line 
will be coal and coke. S. D. Brady, chief engineer. Mor- 
gantown. 

The Porterville & Northeastern Ry. has awarded con- 
tracts for the construction of about 16 miles of road be- 
tween Porterville and Springville. Tulare county, Cal., to 
the Utah Construction Co. 5?0 Phelan building. San Fran- 
cisco. Cal. F. U. Xofziger is president of the road, and 
C. S. Freeland is chief engineer, both at Porterville, Cal. 



16 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[January, 1911.] 



Shop Kinks 

AN ITEM GOOD EXOUGH TO PUBLISH IS GOOD ENOUGH TO PAY FOR 



AIR HOIST AND CRANE. 

By Theo. Rowe, General Foreman, Great Northern Ry. 

Owing to the fact that we are continually changing the water 
in our batteries for our dynamo cars, the necessity of getting 
up some device to lift, the boxes arose. 

These battery boxes weigh about four or five hundred pounds 
when filled, and when it is considered that they must be' lifted 
about three feet from the floor for this operation the diffi- 



lumbucklg 



%• Rod 




En<j View 



t\!^~ , 



Air Hoist and Jib Crane. 



culties will be realized. At different times men have been hurt 
while doing this, having a finger pinched or a hand crushed. 
Altogether, they are rather dangerous to handle, and flushing 
batteries at the best is a heavy job. In view of these things 
I had a crane and air hoist made and applied in the manner 
shown in the sketch. 

This enables us to carry on this work without any one being 
hurt and is very convenient and safe. One man can lift up 
and clean a set of boxes in a very short time, where before it 
took three or four men, and at that the work was very heavy 
and laborious. This crane was built for this particular pur- 
pose, but it can be operated anywhere there is air pressure of 
■90 or 100 lbs. It has a capacity of about two tons and can be 
used to lift anything up to that capacity. 

This crane is indispensable in this corner and it would be 




very distasteful to resort to the old method. In fac, one of 
these cranes is most convenient for lathe or planer work, 
being very easily operated and needing very little repair work 
to keep it in order. It is a very simple device to make. All 
that is needed is a top and bottom cylinder head, a hook with 
a piston head, a length of pipe, and a little -blacksmith work. 



SHOP KINKS AT COLLINWOOD, L. S. & M. S. RY. 

The car journal brass department of the Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern Ry. has been developed by means of a 
few home-made devices to the extent that it manufactures 
and relines all the brasses for the system. The space allotted 
to the machinery and furnace is very limited, but by means of 
the devices shown herewith the work is handled in a highly 
satisfactory manner. 

After coming from the brass foundry the journal bearings 
are bored, four sets of two each at a time, in a 4-spindle 
Foote-Burt drill press. This machine is rigged with air 
clamps in such a way as to center and hold the brasses with 




Fig. 1. — Air Clamp for Holding Brasses In Pairs for Boring. 



Fig. 2. — Arrangement of Milling Machine for Car Journal Brasses. 



{[January, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



17 



%, 




(g; :■ o- 1: ^g) 




[J — 1" ^—flPfT--k 










U,. .. 

r -L-. 

1 
1 

..L_ 

i 

1 

1 


Sec ' ^ Release 



z'fipe 2' /"long. 
I§". Rod 2 ' J i" ,dn 9 



7^.ij'S>aft 



V 2'3i H - 



Fig. 3. Arrangement of Machine for Milling Journal Brasses. 



■one movement of a three way cock. This clamping device 
is shown in Figure 1. 

After being bored the brasses are passed to a milling ma- 
chine which fillets and faces the ends according to standard 
practice. This operation is performed in very quick time by 
the assistance of both an air clamp and a table lifting device 
which brings the table to exactly the proper height instantly. 
The arrangement of this machine is shown in Figures 



2, 3 and 4. From the milling machine the brasses are 
taken to the babbitting fire where they are dumped into a tank 
of hot babbitt metal and left to tin. They are then taken in 
pairs as needed to a babbitting device which consists of a 
couple of air clamps illustrated in Figures 5 and 6. 

This machine is made up of a 5-in. x 12-in. channel section 
supported by legs made of 2^-in. x 2-in. tee sections riveted 
back to back and embedded in concrete. Upon this table are 





Fig. 4. — Air Clamp for Holding Brasses for Milling. 



18 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[January, 1911.} 




?■& 




±"W i Pipe 



r'i-iU ii I II 



E± 



SV"- 



■ W.I Pipe 
to drain 







Concrete I8"*IZ"*IB 



,A 



I 'I 
S ' 
I .1 



/ T 



7AYI 
\\ \ > 



( 'J V> I 



Fig. 5. — Journal Brass Babbitting Machine. 

mounted cast-iron forms, which correspond to the sizes of 
journals for which the brasses are being babbitted and are 
interchangeable. These forms are cored out so that they can 
be piped for water to increase the rate of cooling the babbitt 
metal. The brasses which have been tinned are clamped 
against the forms with pneumatic clamps and the metal 
poured. 



A CONVENIENT FLUE CUTTER. 

By W. H. Snyder. 
The accompanying illustrations show a device for cutting 
out flues from a locomotive boiler. The tool holder is first 
inserted in the flue, the cutting tool is placed in the holder 
and the point is driven through the tube. The socket A is 
then attached to the tool holder at A, the lJ/6-inch steel rod 
with a square on one end to fit the spindle Y, and an eye 



ijf 


mp^ogK 




<gmm m 


i 


L-jL— -' 






Fig. 6. — Device for Babbitting Journal Brasses. 

on the other end which is welded into socket A at B. This 
rod drives the cutter to be inserted into any flue without 
changing the device. One revolution cuts off the flue. 

The photographic reproduction shows the assembled de- 
vice and the method of hanging it up with a block and 
fall. The two chains shown on the lower part of the de- 
vice are very important. These are anchored to each 
frame to steady the device and to keep it from swinging 
around when cutting off a flue. The large gear wheel 
is mounted on the spindle Y, which drives the cutter, and 
the power of the motor is transmitted through the gears 
V and W. The ease with which this device can be adjusted 
from one flue to another is a feature that should recommend 
it to anyone. — Power and the Engineer. 



MACHINING CYLINDER RADII. 

By M. H. Westbrook. 

Figure 1 shows a convenient method for machining the 
radii of locomotive cylinder saddles. By the use of this 
method in connection with a' draw cut shaper a man can 
machine to a given line in a few hours, a task on which I 
have seen a man spend a week of chipping. 




i*-^-*; 






L 



Made to salt 
^" Air Motor j^/J" 






I 



-U 



H" 



•UfaH^'-QSt!!*'- 






r«*r»— 4-- 



-\»M- 






-B%- 



-35 Vi— 



-K 



Washer X thick 
T 



1Vi« Square 




Details of Flue Cutter. 



[January. 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



19 




Convenient Flue Cutter. 
Very few shops possess a planer wide enough to take two 
cylinders at a time because such a planer cannot profitably 
be kept in use on other operations owing to its size and weight 
of moving parts. The shaper shown can be used in small 
operations with efficiency, when large work is not to be 
obtained. 



REDUCING COUNTERBALANCE WEIGHTS. 
By M. H. Westbrook. 
Figure 2 illustrates a method of reducing counterbalance 
weights by means of the same draw cut shaper. Owing to 
alterations in the reciprocating parts of the locomotive it 
was necessary to reduce the weight of the counterbalance. 
This was done by means of the method so plainly shown. 
The crank pin would of course have prevented the use of a 
lathe for this purpose. 





Fig. 2. — Reducing Counter-Balances. 

FORM FOR MAKING PISTON ROD PACKING. 

By Theo. Rowe, General Foreman, Great Northern Ry. 

In the Great Northern, as well as many other roads, there is 
in general use what is known as the Emerson piston rod and 
valve stem packing. Strictly speaking, it is our standard piston 
rod and valve stem packing, and in the main shop of the Great 
Northern at Dale street, St. 'Paul, there are forms in which 
to pour this packing, after which it is bored out in a lathe to 
fit the rod. But in small shops or roundhouses, it is not 
possible to do this, owing to the fact that the men haven't 
always a lathe at their disposal. 

The old method of pouring and applying this packing in the 
roundhouse was to place the packing cones as near as possible 
to their proper position, and wrap a piece of leather or heavy 
paper around them and cut a small hole in the top for pour- 
ing the metal. This method would be a very good one if the 
cones did not wear out of form and if the cones were always 
set perfectly square. However, to overcome this I had made 
four different sizes of forms, from three to four inches, for 
different diameters of rods, then had them cut in half as 




Clsmp for holding form foge — ef 




End Vie*' 



Side Vie>* 



UJ 



Sfictvng form o DO!'f/oo for 
pot/ring fntftS 




Showng packing ?■ 



Fig. 1. — Planing Saddle Radii. 



Form for Pouring Solid Piston Packing. 



20 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[January, 1911.] 



shown in the sketch, and made a clamp to hold them together, 
having a hole drilled in top for pouring. By this method all 
that is required to pour the packing is to take a form and 
clamp it onto the piston rod, there being no adjusting or any 
wrapping of leather. When clamped on everything is ready to 



pour the packing, and after it is poured it is uniform in size 
and just as good a fit as though it had been turned in a lathe. 
Further, the result is a solid packing, which is by far the 
best for a locomotive. These forms will, I believe, be in 
general use on different roads before a great while. 



Blacksmith Shop of the D. L. & W. R. R., Scranton, Pa. 



The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western R. R. has recently 
completed shops at Scranton, Pa. The blacksmith shop 
herewith illustrated is the most interesting of the buildings, 
in that its equipment is most complete. 

This shop is 125 by 300 feet and a general view of one 
corner is shown. A three-rail track is shown at the left 
of this view. This is for the use of both standard gauge 
cars and narrow gauge industrial trucks. This track leads 
onto an elevator shown in the foreground, the stores being 
kept in a room below as is shown on the drawing of the 
general layout reproduced herewith from the American Ma- 
chinist. 

A large number of furnaces for every purpose are in- 
stalled in the shop and are shown in the illustrations. The 
entire contract for the furnace equipment was given the 
Rockwell Furnace Co., New York City. The fuel is water 
gas generated in a plant of the Loomis-Pettibone system 
installed by the Power and Mining Machinery Co., New 
York City. 

In the layout drawing is shown the location of all ma- 
chinery and the kind used. 



The bolt department occupies about one-sixth of the floor 
space. Besides the main car track which runs along one side 
of the bolt department, a shop-car track runs through it to 
the elevator, so the work can be lowered into the subway 
and from there conveyed to the various shops where it is 
used or to the storehouses. 

On the opposite side of the elevator is located the spring 
department, with its machines and furnaces, and in the space 
shown in the lower right-hand corner is the heavy forging 
department, while in the upper right-hand corner is shown 
the miscellaneous forging department. This department oc- 
cupies about one-quarter of the floor space and with the 
other machinery contains 18 open forge fires that are located 
in pairs with a hood over each pair to carry away the smoke, 
gases, etc. 

Most of the space shown in the upper left-hand quarter 
of the drawing is utilized for frame forging, welding, etc. 
This contains two large steam hammers, each being served 
with four large forge fires, and besides this five small forge 
fires and the foreman's office. The two hammers are each 
served with two swinging-jib cranes that will take the work 




General View, Corner of Scranton Smith Shop. 



[January, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



21 




Bolt Department With Heading Machines and Rockwell Furnaces, Scranton Blacksmith Shop. 



from any of the four forge fires, back of each hammer, to 
the hammer or vice versa. The extreme corner of this end 
of the shop is used for tool hardening and dressing depart- 
ment. 

One of the main features of this shop, as well as the other 
shops of this plant, is the subway railroad that is used for 
conveying the work from one shop to another or to the 
storehouses and shipping rooms. The dotted lines in the 
drawing show the location of the subway under the smith 
shop. The main line runs lengthwise of the shop, to the 
machine shop on one end and the yard on the other. 

Under the center of the shop, as seen in the lower part of 
the drawing, are located rooms and bins for storing material. 



This covers considerable space and is reached by the ele- 
vator and stairway. Through the center of this storage room 
runs a branch subway that crosses the yards and enters the 
foundry. At the extreme left of the shop, underneath the 
bolt department, another branch of the subway runs through 
the yards and into the foundry. 

With this system of handling work, the raw materials can 
be brought into the shop on the underground railroad and 
the manufactured materials can be taken out in the same 
way. Thus, the floor of the shop can be kept clear for the 
handling of work and not make it necessary to climb over 
freight cars, trucks, etc., in going from one side of the shop 
to the other. It greatly facilitates the handling of raw mate- 




Tube Welding Machines, With Furnaces, Scranton Shops. 



22 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[January, 1911.] 



rials, as they can be brought into the yards on freight cars 
and dumped into the chutes that convey them to the proper 
rooms in the subway. 

The bolt department with its forging machines and six 
furnaces has a capacity for heading 1,500 1^-inch bolts and 
2,000 154-inch bolts, or 4,000 ^-ihch and 5,000 ^-inch bolts 
per 10-hour day. Each furnace has a large water-jacketed 
plate on both sides in front of the heating chamber to pro- 
tect the operator. A pipe is so located underneath as to 
furnish an air blast upward which carries the heat with it 
back of the water-jacketed plate. 

In one of the illustrations are shown two large furnaces 
in which work is heated for the two largest hammers; one 
of these hammers is shown, as well as the two cranes that 
carry the work from the furnaces to the hammers. 

The furnace in the foreground is used in connection with 
a 2,500-pound hammer that is called the scrap hammer. It 
is capable of handling five heats per day and has a capacity 
for 3,600 pounds of steel per heat. 

The furnace in the corner of the shop, in the rear, is used 
in connection with the 6,000-pound steam hammer shown, 
for heavy forging work. This furnace and hammer can 
handle steel up to 18 inches square, or shafts up to 12 inches 
in diameter. 

The swinging-jib crane has been thought best suited for 
the work in this shop, and consequently adopted. Its con- 
struction and operation can be plainly seen in this picture. 
The same kind of crane is used in the frame forging and 
welding department in the diagonally opposite corner of the 
shop. 

Across the car tracks from these big hammers, in the end 
of the shop, is located a drop-forging outfit. To the ex- 
treme left of the picture is partly shown the trimmer that 
works in conjunction with the 1,500-pound steam hammer 
shown next to it. The furnace and drop hammer are capa- 
ble of working bars that are 5 inches square or under and 
then can handle these continuously all day. 

In another illustration is shown the 800-pound drop -steam 
hammer with its trimmer and furnace. These are used on 
miscellaneous work, and the furnace also heats miscellaneous 
work for the 1,600-pound steam hammer. 

The corner of the shop that is used 'for the tool depart- 
ment is shown in one of the photographs. In the extreme 
corner to the right of the picture is situated a large case- 
hardening furnace. Immediately in front of it a concrete 
vat has been built in the ground to be used for an oil tem- 
pering bath. Immediately over this vat will be located one 
of the jib cranes, of one-ton capacity, to handle the metal 
worked in the furnace and vat. 

In the background, next to the case-hardening furnace, will 
be seen a barium chloride furnace, for high-speed steel, with 
a hood over it. In front of this is located an ordinary gas 
furnace for high-speed steel, and to the left of that is a fur- 
nace with three small openings, in which to insert cutting 
tools to heat them for hardening or tempering. 

In the extreme left hand of the picture is shown a gas 
furnace with a water-jacketed shield. This is used for work 
forged in the Bradley hammer that is next to it but not 
shown. Immediately back of this are two open-fire forges, 
the end of one of which is shown, with a hood covering both 
of them. 

The furnaces and machines for flue welding are located in 
the boiler shop. Each machine with its accompanying fur- 
nace has an average capacity of 80 welded tubes per hour. 

The furnace equipment includes a large boiler plate an- 
nealing furnace which is open at both ends and is fitted with g 
doors which are pneumatically opened. 

As will be noted from the illustrations this shop is one 3 
of the most completely equipped railway blacksmith shops &' 
in the country. Its operation will be watched with interest. 3 
If results are in proportion it should operate with remark- 

. , rr Barium Cblorld* 

able ernciency. rur P «<i., 27^'Dii. 



125- 




25 1 25 Tool Hardening 

Fjjnaoo. 



(January, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



23 




Rockwell Furnace and Jib Crane Serving a 6,000-lb. Hammer. 




Hammer and Trimmer With Rockwell Furnace for Drop Forging. Scranton Shops. 



24 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[January, 1911.} 



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Boiler Plate Annealing Furnace. 

NOTES ON THE PANAMA CANAL. 

By J. Gibson Mcllvain, Jr. 

On October 21, 1910, my father, J. Gibson Mcllvain, Frank 
P. Miller, of the Frank P. Miller Paper Co., East Downing- 
town, Pa., Fred R. Sayen, of the Mercer Rubber Co., Hamil- 
ton Square, N. J., and myself sailed on a trip to Panama and 
the Canal Zone, under the auspices of the American Institute 
of Mining Engineers. On Tuesday, November 1, we sailed 
into Colon Harbor, and as soon as our baggage was trans- 
ferred to a special train we were taken across the isthmus 
to Ancon, and went to the Tivoli Hotel, which is large, 
spacious, airy and well run by our government. After spend- 
ing the afternoon about the city of Panama, which is in the 
Canal Zone — but owned by the republic of Panama — we were 
ready for a week's work going over the canal. 

The next morning we started at 8 o'clock through Culebra 
Cut by special train, stopping here and there as we wished, 
in order that we might see the work and try to grasp its 
magnitude, and to watch the many different kinds of ma- 
chinery that were at work on this great undertaking. 

Col. Geo. W. Goethals and Col. Hodges accompanied us 



■fl jlx -^ mm 




V 

i 



Rockwell Furnaces for the Bolt Forging Machines, Scranton Shops. 

on this, as well as our other trips, and the men in charge of 
the work at different points joined us. We talked with them* 
and gained much information about the nature of the work 
and the cost of the same. The Culebra Cut was started by 
the French, and a considerable amount of dirt was removed 
by them. The deepest cut at Gold Hill is 534 ft., at Con- 
tractor's Hill 4-10 ft. The highest point on the center line- 
is 312 ft. and then it tapers off on both sides to the Pedro- 
Miguel lock on the Pacific and the Gatun Lake on the At- 
lantic side. It is about eight miles long, 300 ft. wide on the 
bottom, with a 45-ft. channel. The slides in the Culebra* 
Cut will; I think, continue for some time, and to what ex- 
tent no one can predict, but they are not as serious as they 
might sound to anyone who has not visited the canal. It is 
just a matter of removing the dirt which slides into the 
canal until it stops sliding. 

When I left New York I was of the opinion that the sea- 
level canal would have been the most practicable, but after 
being on the ground and going over the plan of the canal,, 
it did not take long to change this view; and on our way 
back, when we had an opportunity to consult each other,. 




Another Large Hammer Installation, Scranton Blacksmith Shop. 



[January, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



25 



and our party comprised about one hundred men, most of 
them eminent engineers, and a number of business men, 
there was not a single man on the boat who was not fully 
in accord with the present plan of the canal, and who did 
not think that it will not only be quicker, cheaper and safer 
to build, but a great deal less expensive to maintain and 
operate. 

The next day we visited the Pedro Miguel lock and the 
Milaflores locks and dam, the power houses and pumping 
stations there where this work is being carried on, and went 
to Balboa and took tug -boats up to the canal, almost to the 
Milaflores locks, and saw the dredges, rock crushers and 
drills at work on this part of the canal. 

The locks are built in pairs, so that they can be operated 
as we do a double-track railway. They have a usable width 
of 110 ft. and length of 1,000 ft. The gates will be operated 
by electricity. There will be twelve locks in all, six on each 
side, requiring forty-six gates, with ninety-two leaves, which 
will be steel structures, seven feet thick and sixty-five feet 
long, and from forty-seven to eighty-two feet high, weighing 
four hundred to seven hundred and fifty tons each, a total of 
about seven thousand tons of steel, the contract for which 
has already been let. 



on each side with dirt dredged into the center, and when it 
; ,s finished and covered with a tropical growth, it will look. 
like a big hill. 

The canal through this lake and the Culebra cut varies 
from 300 ft. to 1,000 ft. on the bottom, the most of it being 
from 700 ft. to 1,000 ft. wide. The distance from deep water 
to deep water is 50^ miles; from shore to shore 40J4 miles. 
By putting in the Gatun dam, which forms the Gatun Lake, 
and raises the water to a height of 85 ft., we have con- 
structed about twenty-two miles of the canal with practically 
no digging. The dirt from the Culebra cut is being used in 
the breakwater in the Pacific Ocean, which is built from 
near Balboa to the Island of Xaosi, about three miles, and in 
the Gatun dam. Some of it, of course, is being wasted on 
their large dumps. 

The plan and construction of the locks are admirable. The 
locks are being constructed of concrete, are large, can be 
operated rapidly and safely, and there will always be suffi- 
cient water in Gatun Lake to operate the locks. There would 
not be sufficient from the supply furnished by the Chagres- 
River of itself, but with this immense volume of water to 
draw on there will always be plenty of water to operate the 
locks during the dry season. The stone for the concrete, 




Tool Department With Case- Hardening and Annealing Furnaces, Scranton Shop. 



The Chagres River, with headwaters in tne mountains, 
through which the Culebra cut is made, flows into the At- 
lantic Ocean, at Fort Lorenzo, and the Gatun Dam is put 
across this river at Gatun. It is 9,040 ft. long, about one- 
third of a mile thick at the base, 300 ft. at the top and 115 
ft. above the sea, and raises the water in the river to a level 
85 ft. above the sea. This, of course, spreads the water of 
the Chagres River over a big territory, formrng the Gatun 
Lake, with an area of 164 square miles. By damming up the 
Chagres River, which has been known to raise fifty feet in 
a day when there is a freshet, this river is practically turned 
into a lake, and consequently the silt which comes down the 
river at the present time will be deposited in the lake before 
it ever reaches the canal, and having such a tremendous area 
to spread over the raise in time of freshets will not be very 
great. 

To a person not familiar with the building of dams it 
would seem like a risky proposition to undertake to put up 
a dam which would impound such a lake as the one de- 
scribed, but the immense proportions of this dam and its 
construction are such that I have no fear whatever that it 
will give any trouble. It is simply an immense pile of rock 



for the locks on the Pacific side is gotten from the Ancon 
quarries, near Balboa. They have a large crushing plant 
there, and the stone is hauled over the railroad right to the 
works. The sand is supplied by the dredges. On the At- 
lantic side they have large quarries at Port Obala, and the 
stone and the broken rock and sand are taken in barges right 
to the Gatun locks, through the entrance to the canal. 

The health conditions on the canal zone are admirable. 
The swamps are well drained, and they have small buck 
placed on sticks, which drop a little oil now and then which 
kills the mosquitoes. The streets in Panama and Colon are 
well paved, and generally in good order. The houses and 
camps for the workmen, which are supplied by the govern- 
ment, are well constructed, open and airy, with wire screens 
all around. The commissaries are run by the government, 
without profit. The supplies are good and moderate priced. 

There are about five thousand white people, mostly Amer- 
icans, that work on the canal, who are paid on a gold b<~ 
The labor is mostly Spanish and Jamaica negroes. They are 
paid on a silver basis, or with money, the value of which is- 
about half that of gold. 

I cannot say too much in favor of the organization of the 



26 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[January, 1911.] 



work, for which Col. Goethals and his fellow commissioners 
are responsible. Every gang of laborers has a good man in 
charge, who knows what is to be done and how to do it. 
The spirit of loyalty is fine. I did not see a gang of "bum- 
mers" on the Isthmus that were employed by the commis- 
sion, and this was most gratifying. They are all working to 
get done, and not merely to draw their pay from Uncle Sam. 

Col. Goethals himself is an able engineer, a good organ- 
izer and a hard worker. He spends a lot of time out on the 
work, knows just what is going on, and the work is being 
carried on at every possible point on the isthmus. Every 
man must do his share, every shovel must handle its share 
of the dirt, the works at the different locks must put in their 
allotted amount of concrete each month, and if they do not 
they must work overtime the next month. They know how 
much work must be done, and they are carrying it on to 
the best possible advantage, and arranging it so that it will 
all be done at the same time. 

The Canal Zone is ten miles wide, five miles on each side 
nf the canal. It covers about 448 square miles, about 322 miles 
of which are owned by our government. We paid the Re- 
public of Panama ten millions of dollars in cash, and pay an 
annual rental of $250,000 for this strip of land, together with 
its rights and privileges. We paid the French Government 
forty millions of dollars for the work they had done, for the 
railroad and machinery, etc. Quite a lot of this machinery 
is not in use at the present time, as it is out of date, but a 
large portion of it is now being used. The old iron should 
be scrapped and shipped to the United States, to be used 
over again, but I understand that we could not do this, owing 
to some question regarding the tariff. 

The work, according to the revised estimate of 1908, will 
cost in round numbers as follows: 

Engineering and Construction $297,766,000 

Sanitation $20,053,000 

Administration '.. 7,382,000 

27,435,000 

French Canal Company 40,000,000 

Republic of Panama 10,000,000 

Total estimated cost of the Canal $375,201,000 

In addition to this we have spent $3,300,000 in the cities 
of Panama and Colon for paving, water works, sewers, sani- 
tation, etc. This sum will be returned to the United States 
Treasury by water rents during the next fifty years. 

The total amount of excavation required to complete the 
canal will be 212,445,766 cubic yards. Of this, the French 
excavation which was usable in the present plan, was 29,- 
908,000 cubic yards; excavated by the Isthmian Canal Com- 
mission to October 1, 1930, 118,580,284 cubic yards; remain- 
ing to be excavated, 63,957,482 cubic yards. On account of 
the slides in the Culebra cut this may be increased, but not 
more than from 7,000,000 to 10,000,000 cubic yards. Our 
Government has excavated 3,889,320 cubic yards in a single 
month, and over 35,000,000 cubic yards in the year 1909. 
Therefore, the excavation should be completed, if we con- 
tinue to excavate at the rate we have been, by October 1, 
1912. 

The Commission expects to have the canal ready to be 
formally opened to all commerce on January 1, 1915, but 
they will undoubtedly be able to put vessels through the 
canal during the early part of 1913. 

The Panama Railroad, which is the nucleus of the work, 
is the busiest railroad I have ever seen. Everything on this 
road gives way to dirt. The equipment is first class for 
the work they have to do, and all in good repair. I hope 
that our government will continue to operate the railroad 



after the canal is completed, and that they will operate it at 
a profit. I am not very "strong" for government owner- 
ship, but I think this is one railroad which the government 
should keep. 

A visit to the Panama Canal, seeing the locomotives, cars, 
diggers, dredges and all the equipment marked "U. S.," 
where the commissaries and camps are run by the govern- 
ment, and the railroad operated by the government, and 
where sanitary conditions could not be better, makes a man 
proud of his country. The work is so big and so well con- 
ducted, that I am proud of being an American. 

The effect of the opening of this great avenue of com- 
merce upon the shipping of the world is a subject too great 
for me to undertake, but Congress should, in my opinion, 
decide at an early date what the tolls shall be, so that com- 
merce may know, at least two years in advance of its open- 
ing what they may expect, and be prepared to use the canal. 

If individuals were building a great railroad they would 
be advertising for trade long before its completion; they 
would establish their rates so that industries could safely 
build on their line of road, and the rates should be estab- 
lished for the canal, in order that commerce may have an 
opportunity to adjust itself to its new conditions. 



RE-WORKING OF OLD MATERIAL.* 

By T. S. Sheafe, Engineer of Tests, 111. Cent. R. R. 
During the hearings on rail rates recently held by the 
Interstate Commerce Commission at Washington, a promi- 
nent lawyer said that the railroads of the United States 
are wasting a million dollars a day, and Mr. Harrington 
Emerson, whom many of you know, said that these wastes 
amount to three hundred million dollars a year. These are 
most serious charges, and were it not for the fact that 
freight rates per ton mile have been reduced from 12.2 
mills in 1883 to 7.7 mills in 1906 (about the present aver- 
age) or 37 per cent, while the cost of nearly everything 
else has increased in even greater proportion, we might be- 
lieve that the men responsible for the management of our 
railroads have either been asleep at their posts or grossly 
inefficient. We all know that most railroad officials of 
every rank spend much of their time studying and trying 
out possible economies, and it is about a few of these that 
I will talk to you this evening. 

Generally speaking, every large road has accomplished 
more or less along the line of working over material so as 
to increase its life. The Illinois Central R. R. became inter- 
ested in this question from a survey of good material being 
loaded and sold as scrap. Many truss rods, being bent in 
wrecks, could not be straightened satisfactorily, although 
otherwise in perfect condition. 

Early in 1907 the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry. hand 
round mill was copied, and a building erected for its accom- 
modation, and from this small beginning the department 
has grown and prospered until the absolute net income has 
reached a point between $9,000 and $10,000 per month. 

The original building, of wooden construction, was 45 ft. 
x 145 ft. x 14 ft. under the eaves, and afterwards increased 
by a 30-ft. addition at a total cost of $2,770. The rolling 
mill uses 80 ft. of the building's depth. The equipment is as 
follows: 

(1) Hand round mill, two high, belt driven and resting 
Upon timber cribbing. Value new, about $600. 

(2) Engine, Chuse 10 in. x 11 in. high speed, double driv- 
ing pulleys, resting upon cement foundation and a relic of 
the Stuyvesant docks fire at New Orleans. Value new, 
about $1,000. 



*From a paper read before the Western Railway Club. 



[January, 1911.] RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 27 

(3) Furnace, oil burning, 6 ft. by 6 ft., with two burners, The net saving amounts to well over $12 per ton, every- 
two doors and a water "dutchman" in front. Value, about thing counted except interest on money invested and steam 
$400. consumption. There is no depreciation charge, as break- 

(4) Shears, alligator type, home made, used for cutting ages and renewals are billed against the current month's 
rods for billets. Value, about $200. output. 

(5) Steam hammer, a very old one and only suitable for' In this shop, also, good second-hand iron is straightened 
the rough work which it does, such as straightening good for use in the blacksmith shop. Bent 24-in. i ron is cut to 
second-hand iron and cutting drawbar pockets from couplers, length for brake shoe keys, without straightening. 

each of which operation is to be eliminated. A belt driven The same is done in filling orders for drift bolts, 

hammer, with cam, can be built at any shop at a cost of Good turnbuckles are cut from truss rods, heated in the 

•$100. furnace and cooled in water — the sudden cooling breaks up 

(6) The smaller items, such as the hot bed (made of scrap the rust in the threads, facilitating the removal of the stub 
rail), the straightening table (of cast iron) and work bench ends. 

and vise, together with leather belting and millwright labor, Journal Bearings. 

would not amount to over $300. The re-lining of serviceable journal bearings is a common 

The total cost of such a mill complete is about $4,100. practice. As most roads do this, however, the saving is so 

There are employed in the mill: large that it is worthy of some discussion. 

Head man, or roller, at $95 per month; heater, at 31 Formerly all journal bearings removed from cars and 

cents per hour; catcher, at 27*4 cents per hour. locomotives were scrapped, but for the past six months they 

The above are practical mill men, who live nearby and have been carefully sorted and all that are suitable have 

have been collected after many changes, they being satisfied been re-lined and returned to service, thereby saving over 

with less wages on account of steady work, and they are $2,000 a month. There is some difference of opinion among 

excellent men. car men about using re-lined bearings, but we are using 

A straightener at 23 cents per hour. them just the same as new ones. 

Laborers: The number of laborers is four, who handle This work is done in the room adjoining the mill, and 

second-hand material and do general work. The time is dis- next to the journal bearing work is the air and steam hose 

tributed daily. The time cutting billets and handling the room. 

finished product is charged against the account of new iron, Air Hose, 

the remainder being properly charged. The only important saving effected here, which is per- 

The labor charge amounts to about $1.75 per day. haps novel to some roads, is the splicing together, by 

The passes in the rails, if true half rounds, will deliver means of a special nipple and clamps, of two halves of good 

iron with diametrical fins. To overcome this the passes hose which have been chafed or cut. 

.are first made true half round, in the lathe, with a turned A saving in this matter of 46 cents per hose is made 

thimble set slightly below the center, for clearance, and and 150 hose per month are thus repaired, 

afterwards made to fit a template laid out as in Figure 5, The use of such hose is confined to locomotives, cabooses 

in which the small circles have a diameter equal to the and company equipment which does not leave our line, 

radius of the pass, and, with centers as shown, tangents Paint Mill. 

drawn to the pass circle, and corners broken. This provides In every paint shop and in every paint gang there is an 

space for the iron to flow into, and when the bar is up- accumulation of paint skins and slops, quite useless as they 

ended on the last pass, a true round is produced. are, but most valuable when worked over. 

The top roll is made slightly larger in diameter to hold An iron tank, with a cover, and surrounded by an iron 

the iron down against the delivering table, which is fastened shell, the latter connected to the chimney by means of a 

to the housings, thus leaving little straightening, to be done. movable hood, was built to take care of this waste material. 

Clearance is left between the rolls and the top roll is The boiling was done in an old shed, which is now used 

movable by the addition of set screws. as a store room for raw materials. 

Materials used as billets are: truss rods, center pins, and The success in making a better freight car color than 

heavy round iron, for rounds. Arch bars are used for flats. would be purchased, prompted the erection of a 15 by 30 

The length of the round bars finished will average "ly^ by 12 ft. corrguated iron building, costing $250, where 5 

ft; that of the flats, 6 ft. The excessive cost of rolling barrels of skins per month are boiled with raw oil and 

iron under Y<\-'m. diameter and the difficulty in holding it up shaded with red oxide of iron. The mixture in boiling is 

prohibit the reduction under this size. about: Skins, 350 lbs.: raw oil, 15 gals.: pigment. 100 lbs., 

, Iron rolled since January, 1908, in periods of six months, up to shade. 

is as follows: The above makes one barrel of paint and the saving is 

Average per month over $22 per barrel. 

Jan. to June, 1908 273.42 tons 45.57 tons The next step was the erection of the paint mill, a 

July to Dec, 1908 282.87 tons 47.14 tons building 40 by 55 by 16 ft., of corrugated iron construction. 

Jan. to June, 1909 328.91 tons 54.81 tons costing $950. A 25-h. p. motor drives the mixing and grind- 
July to Dec, 1909 380.56 tons 63.43 tons ing machinery, consisting of two large grinders and three 

Jan. to June, 1910 376.88 tons 62.81 tons small bench grinders, a machine tor breaking up white 

July to Oct., 1910 (4 mo.). 249. 17 tons 62.29 tons lead, and a large mixer of home design and make, the latter 

doing away with all hand work. Value of equipment. $800. 

Total 1891.82 tons 56.00 tons During October. 1910, 6,450 gallons of paint were made. 

The largest output (9 l / 2 hrs.) was Oct. 13, 1910, 10,630 consisting of outside body color, freight car color and pas- 
lbs. The largest monthly output, October, 1910, 170,630 senger car roof color. The saving effected during October, 
lbs. The present output could be greatly increased by hav- based on the prices paid for the manufactured article and 
ing three high, improved housings. the labor and ingredients used in making the paint on the 

There is every indication that this re-rolled iron is su- above 6,450 gallons, amounted to $1,300. This j^ net and 

perior to the merchant bar iron, due to the further refining with all charges entered except that of depreciation and 

during rolling. It is used for bolts principally, as bolt interest. Repairs are charged as a part of the running 

header and cutter operators prefer it to new iron. expense 



28 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[January, 1911. J 



The force employed in the paint mill consists of a fore- 
man, two paint mixers and three laborers. 

Brake Beam Shop. 
The straightening of bent brake beams of I-section has 
been generally discontinued throughout the country owing 
to the loss of strength in the process. The method by which 
the Illinois Central gets new service from such beams is by 
reinforcing the I-section, after straightening. The first ex- 
periment was made with an angle iron, which proved so 
successful that it has been continued, the angle extending 
very nearly to the brake head. 

This 2 by 2^-in. angle is attached to the beam by six 
rivets, and when thus reinforced, it withstands all strains 
except wrecks. A plate would probably prove as effective 
as an angle and at less cost as the distance y is increased 

My 

in the formla. f = , in which: 

I 
f = intensity of stress at most strained fiber. M = bend- 
ing moment. 
I = moment of inertia, y = distance from neutral axis to 
most strained fiber. 
In either case the most strained fiber is one of compres- 
sion, which is weaker than would prevail if of tension, but 
the location of the brake beam fulcrum prevents such stress. 
A new freight beam of this description costs $2.41, weighs 
about 167 lbs., and has a scrap value of 75 cents. 
The cost of reinforcing is: 

Material $0.45 

Labor 19 

Total $0.64 

This work has been carried on since May, 1909, and, in- 
cluding October, 1910, 10,233 beams have been thus rein- 
forced. 

To take care of this work a shop 22 by 70 by 16 ft. was 
erected in 1909, the building costing $700, and equipment 
$400. The equipment inside consists of a large oil furnace 
and the usual devices for straightening beams, etc., always 
found in shops of this character. 

Laboratory. 

In the laboratory, car cleaner is made which not only does 
the work well, but insures the life of the varnish, as no acid 
goes into the solution. The saving here, about $50 per 
month, is of less importance than the prevention of destruc- 
tive car cleaners being applied to coaches. 

There are doubtless other economies which railroads 
might effect, but on which we have not made any progress, 
among which are: 

1. The operation of its own foundry for making brass 
castings. 

2. The making and repairing of springs. 

3. The re-tiring of steel wheels, etc., etc. 

It may be that these and other economies are being 
effected by railroads; if so, we would be pleased to hear 
with what results. 

Other questions that suggest themselves are: (a), to what 
extent should manufacturing be kept separate from repairs 
to cars and locomotives? (b), to what extent should over- 
head expenses be charged? 

The relationship of these "shop kinks" to the scrap pile 
is such that we believe the growth of the latter can be 
matrially impeded, and with economical results to the me- 
chanical department. If you have any of them in operation 
at your shops let us know about them. 

The Illinois Central has progressed far enough into these 
questions to have found such work very profitable; in fact, 
it is a sure means of reducing the annual mechanical depart- 
ment cost. 



STORY OF THE AIR BRAKE. 

At the annual meeting of the American Society of Mechan- 
ical Engineers, in the Engineering Societies Building, George 
Westinghouse, the retiring president of the society, narrated to- 
an audience of several hundred listeners the very interesting 
story of the inception and development of the air brake. 

It is generally conceded that the air brake has done more in 
the development of railroads than any other appliance. In his- 
address to the society, George Westinghouse, who invented the 
device now in general use, told in a very interesting way how 
the idea of an air brake first came to him; of its first trial, and 
its subsequent development. Incidentally, he took occasion to- 
deny a famous anecdote which had it that Commodore Vander- 
bilt had summarily ended an interview with the inventor by de- 
claring that he "had no time to listen to any damn fool idea of 
trying to stop a train with air." 

The inventor said that he was on his way from Schenectady 
to Troy, in 1866, when he was delayed by a collision between 
two freight trains. That brought to him the suggestion that if 
the two engineers had had some means of applying brakes to- 
all of the wheels the accident would not have happened. Mr. 
Westinghouse then described the appliance which he had evolved 
and which he admitted was very crude; told of his introduction- 
to Ambler, the inventor of the chain brake, and how Ambler 
had told him that he (Westinghouse) might as well give it up, as- 
the only feasible brake had already been devised. 

"That interview," said Mr. Westinghouse, "was the incentive 
which led me to a more determined pursuit of the problem. 
Shortly afterward I came across an account of the tunneling of 
Mount Cenis by machinery driven by compressed air conveyed! 
through 3,000 feet of pipes, the then depth of that tunnel. This- 
account of the use of compressed air instantly indicated that 
brake apparatus of the kind contemplated for operation by steam 
could be operated by means of compressed air upon any length 
of train. 

"Officials of the Pennsylvania became interested in the device,, 
the appliance was fitted to a train and a practical and success- 
ful demonstration was given. 

"Prior to this," the inventor added, "I had opportunities while 
traveling to present the subject to numerous railroad officials- 
and to endeavor to secure their co-operation in the development 
of the apparatus. None of those approached appeared to have 
faith in the idea. 

"I suppose* many persons present have heard or read of the 
story of an alleged interview between Commodore Vanderbilt. 
and myself about the application of air brakes to the New York 
Central. The story as told seems to have appealed to the imag- 
ination of many people. As a matter of fact, there is no foun- 
dation whatever for it." 

The constantly changing conditions of railway operations ne- 
cessitates many changes in the type of brake. Mr. Westinghouse- 
traced its evolution from the old type to the present triple-valve 
type, whose operation, he said, was so quick that the longest 
freight train can now be handled with almost the precision that 
is obtainable in the control of passenger trains of six cars. — 
Railway Reporter. 



STRUCTURES. 

The Oregon & Washington R. R. has awarded the general 
contract for the erection of the Fourth avenue viaduct at 
Seattle, Wash., to the Butler Construction Co., at an esti- 
mated cost of $150,000. The bridge will be about 1,200 ft. 
long, with a concrete approach 200 ft. in length, and will 
be erected for the Oregon & Washington and the Great 
Northern R. R. This same company has also been award- 
ed the contract for the erection of a timber bridge for the 
Oregon & Washington over Black river. 

The Pennsylvania R. R. has accepted plans for the con- 
struction of its passenger station at Ft. Wayne, Ind. The- 



[January, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



29 



"building will be 196 by 108 ft., and is to be constructed of 
brick stone and terra cotta, two stories high. The train shed 
will shelter seven trains of 15 cars each. All baggage will 
be handled through subways. 

The Southern Ry., and others entering Birmingham, Ala., 
it is stated, have come to an agreement in regard to the con- 
struction of viaducts at that place. The city will pay for 
the construction of approaches to the viaduct and will main- 
tain roadways. Estimated cost to the city, $125,000. The 
railroad companies' work will cost them about $1,000,000. 

The Baltimore & Ohio, it is reported, will build a double- 
track bridge over Fish creek, near Benwood, W. Va., and 
will also construct a second track between Benwood and 
Brooklyn. 

The Baltimore & Ohio, it is reported, will erect a round- 
house at New Martinsville, W. Va. 

The Southern Ry. is contemplating the expenditure of 
$150,000 to increase its facilities at Atlanta, Ga. 

The Seaboard Air Line will erect a 30x70-ft. passenger 
station at Shelby, N. C, at a cost of $5,000. 

The New York, New Haven & Hartford, in connection 
with its new station at New Haven, Conn., will build a large 
pier, with freight sheds, and a basin large enough to accom- 
modate the company's passenger and freight steamers. 

The Carolina & Northwestern shops at Hickory, N. C, 
will consist of a building 50x60 ft. in size, two buildings 
each 20x60 ft., and two 30x80 ft. Foundations will be of 
brick and galvanized iron sidings will be used on wooden 
-frames. Work will begin at once. 

The Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe will increase its yard 
facilities at Ballinger, Tex., at a cost of $17,000; at Canyon 
City, Tex., at a cost of $16,000; at Temple, Tex., at a cost 
of $1,800; at Crawford, Tex., at a cost of $2,000; and at Port 
Bolivar, Tex., at a cost of $3,000. 

The St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern, it is reported, 
will remove its roundhouse and shops from Wynne, Ark., 
to Lexa, Ark. 




HENDRICKS COMMERCIAL REGISTER OF THE 
UNITED STATES. 1342 pages, cloth, 7^xlOJ4; nineteenth 
annual edition; published by S. E. Hendricks Co., 74 Lafay- 
ette St., New York City. Price $10 net. 

This index, which is made up of 1328 pages of fine type, 
lists of the principal manufacturers, and practically all of the 
manufacturers of machinery in the United States, it gives 
many separate classifications of the machines built. The 
index contains information giving the busy engineer an idea 
where to purchase practically every commodity used in en- 
gineering. With the multiplicity of different types of ma- 
chines under construction, it has been difficult for engineers 
to locate the manufacturer of a particular article desired, 
especially when the article was new. In this volume special 
pains have been taken not only to index the article under its 
appropriate heading, but also to give a cross-reference under 
the heading an engineer might look for it. An idea of the 
comprehensiveness may be gained from the fact that 100 
pages are used as an index of the contents. The simplicity 
of its classifications is an important feature of the Com- 
mercial Register. These are so arranged that the book may 
be used for either purchasing or mailing purposes. All man- 
ufacturers of a particular trade are first classified under a 
general heading for mailing purposes, and each firm or cor- 
poration appears again under as many classifications as the 
variety of its products requires. Considerable information 
is given following the names of a number of firms which is 
of assistance to the buyer and saves the expense of writing 



to a number of firms for the particular article desired. As 
far as possible the trade names of all the articles classified 
are included and appear in parentheses between the names 
and addresses of the different firms appearing under the 
classifications. 

RAILWAY MANAGEMENT AT STATIONS. By E. B. 
Ivatts; 605 pages, cloth, 5 x 8^; published by McCorquodale 
Co., London, Eng. (New York, D. Van Nostrand Co.) 5th 
edition. Price $2.50. 

As this book has now been in circulation for over 20 years 
it needs no comprehensive review. It has met with favor in 
foreign countries as well as in England, although the problems 
demonstrated are more applicable to railway operation in Great 
Britain. The book is a comprehensive treatise on the duties of 
a station agent from the organization and training of his staff 
to the proper disposal of the smallest details of his work. A 
glossary of railway terms is included at the back of the book 
with an excellent cross index to the contents. 

TRACK FORMULAE AND TABLES. By S. S. Roberts; 
514 pages, flexible leather, 4x6^; published by John Wiley & 
Sons, New York. Price $3.00. 

As its name implies this little book is made up of formulae 
and tables for the daily use of railway locating and mainten- 
ance of way engineers. The formulae are based on the actual 
properties of the frog and split switch. They have been worked 
out in the field and have given good results. The book seems 
to meet the conditions of the purpose for which it was written, 
that of presenting in a practical manner the track problems 
most frequently met in actual practice, supplementing by time- 
saving tables. 




F. W. Rhuark has been appointed a master mechanic of the 
Baltimore & Ohio, with office at Lorain, O. 

D. H. Speakman has been appointed a master mechanic 
of the Baltimore & Ohio at Benwood, W. Va. He suc- 
ceeds A. Schaaf. 

O. J. Kelly succeeds H. D. Van Valin as a master mechanic 
of the Baltimore & Ohio at Parkersburg, W. Va. 

E. S. Eden has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Central New England Ry., with office at Hartford, Conn. 

Earnest Becker has been appointed a master mechanic 
of the Chicago & North Western Ry., with office at Green* 
Bay, Wis. 

F. W. Peterson, master mechanic of the Chicago & North 
Western Ry. at Green Bay, has been transferred to Chicago. 

J. E. Mourne has been appointed a road foreman of equip- 
ment of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Ry., with office 
at El Dorado, Ark. 

C. D. Lide has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Georgia, Florida & Alabama Ry., with office at Bainbridge. 
Ga., succeeding J. D. Crawley. 

J. C. Garden, master mechanic of the Grand Trunk Ry. at 
Montreal, has been transferred to Battle Creek, Mich., where 
he succeeds J. T. McGrath as master mechanic in charge of 
the locomotive shops. 

J. Duguid has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Grand Trunk Ry., at Montreal, succeeding J. C. Garden, 
transferred. 

J. Gibson has been appointed master mechanic oi the 
Grand Trunk Ry. at Portland, Me. 

J. E. Henshaw. general foreman of the St. Louis & San 
Francisco at Springfield, Mo., has been appointed superin- 
tendent of the Springfield shops. 

H. Hondser has been appointed assistant master mechanic 
of the St. Lou-s & San Francisco, with office at Memphi*. Tenn. 



30 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[January, 1911.] 



Rudolph Ellzey has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Kentwood & Eastern, with office at Kentwood, La., succeed- 
ing John May, resigned. 

F. A. Torre}- succeeds F. H. Clark as general superintendent 
of motive power of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. 

H. F. Lowther, formerly chief clerk to the purchasing agent 
of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western R. R., was recently 
appointed assistant purchasing agent of that road. Mr. Lowther 
is a young man and this promotion is a well-deserved recogni- 
tion of the faithful and intelligent service which he has ren- 
dered. 

Frank H. Clark. 

Frank H. Clark, general superintendent of motive power 
of the Chicago. Burlington & Quincy, has been appointed 
head of the mechanical department of the Baltimore & Ohio, 
with like title. 

Mr. Clark was born at Pecatonica, 111., in 1865. He grad- 
uated from the University of Illinois in 1890 and followed his 
university work with several years' training in the office of a 
firm of consulting engineers distinguished for its railway work. 
This constitutes his history until he became chief draftsman of 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy in 1894. In 1899 he was 
appointed mechanical engineer, in 1902 he became superintend- 




F. H. Clark. 

ent of motive power and three years" later general superintendent 
of motive power of the entire Burlington system. Mr. Clark 
has found time, in spite of his rather exacting duties, for much 
important work during the past few years in connection with 
the American Railway Master Mechanics' and Master Car Build- 
ers' Associations, his record as the presiding officer of the latter 
organization, 1909-10, being one of exceptional activity. He is 
known as a man of few words and is a good listener ; that he 
has the third usual attribute of this trio— that of capacity for 
deep thought — is proven by his record. Mr. Clark's work in new 
fields will be watched with much interest by his host of friends. 

J. T. McGrath. 

The employees of the Battle Creek shops have prepared, 
under the direction of M. H. Westbrook, general foreman, 
the following biographical sketch of J. T. McGrath, their 
former master mechanic, which Mr. McGrath himself is far 
too modest to have prepared: 

J. T. McGrath, who, as noted in the December issue of 
the Railway Master Mechanic, has been appointed superin- 
tendent of rolling stock and equipment of the Chicago & 
Alton, started railroad work as an apprentice at the age of 
thirteen in the Toronto shops of the Grand Trunk Ry. in 
the year 1882, and after having completed his apprenticeship, 



was given a position as chargehand. In 1897 he was pro- 
moted to the position of general foreman of the main 
shops at Stratford, Ont, where his ability as an organizer 
was quickly recognized by the higher officials, and in 1898 
he was appointed master mechanic on the western division 
with headquarters at Port Huron, Mich. His efforts were 
attended with success from the first, he not only increased 
the output very materially but in so doing created and 
maintained a most friendly relationship between himself and 
all of the employees. This relationship soon led him to rec- 
ognize the need of a building where social and educational 
functions could be held by the employees, there being no 
building of this kind in that locality. A large dwelling house 
which was on the company's premises was, at his instruc- 
tion, converted into a building suitable for a literary and 
scientific institute, a library installed, classes were com- 
menced in drawing, electricity, and practical mechanics, and 
expert instructors were appointed, all of which were free to 
the shop men. Also in this building were installed fine baths 
for the use of the employees. So successful was this move- 
ment that a musical organization was immediately formed 
consisting of a brass band of thirty pieces and an orchestra 
of ten which were considered to be among the best amateur 
organizations in the state. A camera club was also formed 




H- F. Lowther. 

which was entirely successful from the start, as it led to very 
many pleasant outings, particularly in the summer time. 
Mr. McGrath was one of the most enthusiastic members of 
this club. After these organizations were running success- 
fully, a horticultural society was started and at the first 
meeting held, two hundred and eighteen of the shop men 
registered as members. This society held annually an ex- 
hibition of flowers and vegetables at one of which sixteen 
hundred entries were made. 

This club very quickly made a name for itself throughout 
the state and having heard of it, the Governor of the state 
came up to see the grounds. He expressed himself of having 
seen nothing in the state which could equal it and he imme- 
diately offered to give a valuable prize to be competed for 
at the next annual exhibition. The men of the shop also 
formed hockey, baseball and football clubs and played games 
with the other shops on the system as well as local games 
with similar teams and at any of the games one of the most 
enthusiastic "rooters" for his team was Mr. McGrath. The 
company qmckly saw and appreciated what Mr. McGrath was 
doing for his men at Port Huron and instituted a similar 
general movement at all the big shops on the system. 

After being at Port Huron for seven years the company 



[January, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



31 



decided to build new locomotive shops and entrusted Mr. 
McGrath with the designing and planning of the same. It 
appealed so forcibly to the officials that he was given every- 
thing he requested and which resulted in the building and 
equipping of what is considered by all of the prominent 
railroad experts who visit it to be one of the most original, 
modern and up-to-date shops in America. This was com- 
pleted in two years and he and his whole force were removed 
to Battle Creek. 

He has now succeeded in building up around him a most 
complete railroad shop organization, introducing the most 
approved modern shop systems. He has patented and is 
successfully marketing several of his special railroad tools and 
machinery, among them being a complete flue repair de- 
partment, including automatic safe end cutting machine, 
pneumatic flue welder, pneumatic flue expanding and hot 
saw, also a most successful pneumatic turntable motor. 

Personally a most approachable man, always willing to 
hear what any of his men or boys have to say and giving 
to each every consideration. He has taken special in- 
terest in advancing his apprentices and has afforded them 
every opportunity to better their conditions in many ways. 
If it can be said he has a hobby, it is for cleanliness and 
tidiness about the shops and surroundings and it has never 



which has since become a part of the Pere Marquette Sys- 
tem. In 1900 he was promoted to the position of assistant 
foreman and 1903 to that of general foreman car depart- 
ment, Saginaw District, which position he held to the time 
of his death. Mr. Mann was possessed of a sterling char- 
acter and was universally esteemed and respected by all 
who- knew him, both in and outside of railway circles. He 
was a member of the Master Car Builders' and Chief Inter- 
change Car Inspectors' and Car Foremen's Associations and 
had always taken an active interest in all matters pertaining 
to the work of his department. On October 4, 1910, Mr. 
Mann was stricken with apoplexy from which he never 
rallied, his death taking place November 12. He is survived 
by his wife and one daughter, Miss Gertrude Mann, of Sagi- 
naw, Mich., and in his death the world loses one of its best 
citizens, the Pere Marquette Railroad one of its most effi- 
cient and faithful employes and his family a loving husband 
and father. 



William W. Chilton, general foreman of the car depart- 
ment of the New York Central & Hudson River R. R., died 
October 26, 1910. Mr. Chilton was born November 21, 1853, 
at Lowell, Mass., and began his railroad work with the 
Fitchburg Railroad, later known as the Boston & Maine, 




J. F. Mann. 

yet gone on record that a sufficient excuse for a dirty shop 
or department has been invented. Upon the announcement 
being made that he was about to leave, the shop men pre- 
sented him with a beautiful diamond ring, the presentation 
being made by W. E. Skimmin, the oldest employee. Mr. 
and Mrs. McGrath entertained the shop employees, their 
wives and sweethearts in the shop auditorium where upwards 
of six hundred were in attendance. 

He goes to his new duties with the best wishes of all his 
employees who, while feeling his removal a direct personal 
loss, are unanimous in the opinion that the C. & A. employees 
will soon learn to appreciate the value of their newly ap- 
pointed superior officer. 



OBITUARY. 

Joseph F. Mann, general foreman of the car department 
of the Pere Marquette R. R., died November 12, 1910. Mr. 
Mann was born May 13, 1862, at Belfast, N. Y., and with his 
parents moved to Saginaw, Mich., in 1865, which has since 
been his home and where he was educated in the public 
schools, entering railroad service in 1876 as a car re- 
pairer with the then Flint & Pere Marquette Railroad, but 




W. W. Chilton. 

where, he remained twenty-five years, the later part of 
which he was employed as foreman under F. W. Brazier 
and F. W. Eddy. On May 1, 1900, he left the service of 
the Boston & Maine and accepted a position with the X. Y. 
C. Lines at Albany, N. Y., as foreman of the freight car 
department, where he was employed until November 1. 1902. 
when he was transferred to Watertown, N. Y.. as general 
foreman of the car department which position he held until 
his death, October 26, 1910. Mr. Chilton was possessed of 
an exemplary character and loving disposition, ever faithful 
to his duties and the company he represented, and was es- 
teemed and respected by all who knew him. He was a mem- 
ber of the Chief Interchange Car Inspectors' and Car Fore' 
men's Association of America and always took an active part 
in all the proceedings of the association. Mr. Chilton is sur- 
vived by his wife, who, by bis death, loses a kind and loving 
husband. 



STRANGE IF TRUE. 

The following is taken from the "Electric Traction Weekly" 
The recent investigations into the causes of accidents by 
the railroad commissions of Indiana and Illinois and the replies- 



-32 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[January, 1911.] 



made by the interurban operators indicate in the strongest possi- 
ble manner that experienced steam railroad trainmen do not 
make the best motormen and conductors for high speed inter- 
urban roads. The evidence on this point formed one of the 
strongest pleas by the defendant companies as to why the re- 
•quirement suggested by the commission that the interurban 
motormen shall have had at least one year's experience in 
steam or interurban train service before qualifying as a motor- 
man on the lines in these states should not stand. 

Perusal of the report of the Indiana conference and that 
of the Illinois conference will show that some of the strongest 
operating men in the country are in favor of the plan of 
training their own men by their own methods for their own 
service. Interurban officials, who themselves have had long 
•experience on steam roads, testified that originally they had 
been in favor of the steam road men, but that practical ex- 
perience in the newer field indicated that conditions were vastly 
different from those with which they had been heretofore 
familiar. Opinions expressed by these men indicate that the 
steam road employe becomes machine-like in his methods and 



that it is difficult to impress upon him the difference between 
a 40-car freight train and a single-car interurban. He is apt 
to regard the interurban car as something of a toy and he 
does not show the proper respect for its equipment. It is 
difficult for him to learn the intricacies of the electrical ap- 
paratus and he dislikes to undertake to make emergency re- 
pairs to bring a car home. Men who have been employed on 
steam roads as brakemen or flagmen are often ignorant and 
it is difficult to train them in operating rules. About the only 
steam road man who seems desirable to the majority of inter- 
urban operators is the young man who has spent a year or 
two in the steam service and has not reached the higher grades 
in the service and wants a position where he can be at home 
with his family at night. Such men are willing to sacrifice 
the question of the higher wages paid by steam roads to first 
grade locomotive engineers for the better runs and shorter 
hours of the interurban service, and where they have not 
become set in their ways and show a willingness to learn the 
difference between the two systems and the two types of equip- 
ment, they make excellent interurban trainmen. 




WSSMffi ISI&iiufacturens 



A HIGH DUTY SHAPER. 

Among the machines purchased for the new machine and 
-erecting shop of the Chicago & Northwestern Ry., as noted 
in the Railway Master Mechanic for December, 1910, were 
four high duty 24-in. shapers manufactured by Gould & 
Eberhardt, Newark, N. J. This concern has a reputation 
■for excellence of output of years' standing. 

The shapers are heavy, powerful and accurate machines 
•of pleasing design. Plenty of metal is intelligently distrib- 
uted throughout frame of the machine where most required, 
insuring stiffness under heaviest cuts. In addition they are 
remarkably quick-acting machines for the medium and lighter 
work. The column is wide and deep, and furnishes ample 
bearing for the ram, especially at the extreme forward end 
•of the stroke, and is stiffly ribbed to resist strains. The 
main gear hub bearing is cast solidly with the main wall of 
the frame, and stiffly supported by internal ribs in the frame 
wall, obviating the tendency to spring. The base of the 
machine is of pan construction both inside and out, for 
catching oil-drippings, etc., and preventing oil-soaked floors. 

These shapers are fitted with a "Double Train Gear 
Drive," which consists of a double main or bull wheel, one 
"being smaller in diameter than the other. This combination 
permits the working of high-speed cutting steels to the limit, 
and provides a high number of metal-removing strokes to 
the ram for the light finishing cuts, without excessive peri- 
pheral velocity to the gearing, or a mechanism having a 
multiplicity of wearing parts. It also provides great power 



and slow speed for the long and heavy roughing cuts. This 
construction insures maximum output, long life to the ma- 
chine and is quiet running. The cone shaft is the only 




Gould & Eberhardt 24- Inch High Duty Shaper. 

revolving shaft in the machine. The shaft upon which the 
intermediate gear runs is held stationary in the frame. This 
shaft is hardened and ground and is so arranged that the 
intermediate gear has ideal bearing surface and exception- 




Battery of Gould & Eberhardt Shapers. 



[January, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



33 



ri !i 
— f to 

: i^ 



CM \f\ 




^Sf<T7?g/y/9K S°Z/7SY Trt/=?OttGrt /ZOOS? 



^~-/£ *J rt/Gftr >~r/9ri/J 



Details of Jones "Peerless" Car Door. 



ally good lubrication. All gearing is cut from the solid and 
is quiet running; all running bearings subject to heavy wear 
are bushed, preserving original centers. All shafts and 
screws are made from a special high grade of machinery 
steel. All bearings are of generous proportions, and all slid- 
ing surfaces are accurately hand-scraped to surface plates. 

The 24-in. machine shown in the illustration has a hori- 
zontal table travel of 30 inches, the vertical movement of 
the table is 15J^ inches and the maximum distance from the 
ram to the table is 21 inches. The floor space required is 
106 inches by 50 inches. The machines have a net weight of 
4,400 pounds. 



door is moved about 5 inches from either a closed or open 
position, after which the wheel revolves on the axle, which 
binds in the converging ends of the slot in the hanger. This 
feature prevents slamming of the door. 

The cotter pin keeps the axle from becoming displaced in 
any way. 

The weatherproof feature was proved some time ago in an 
experimental test before several officials. This test entailed 
the directing of a powerful stream of water against the door 
from all directions. It is stated that no leakage resulted. 



JONES PEERLESS CAR DOOR. 

The illustration, herewith, shows an improved design in car 
doors, manufactured by the Jones Car Door Co., Monadnock 
Block, Chicago. The drawing shows the door as it was applied 
to cars of the St. Louis & San Francisco R. R. The construc- 
tion is at once evident and the advantages are substantially as 
follows : 

The upper surface of the track protects the hangers from 
eaves' drippings and acts as a trackway for the wheels, should 
the door lift up while being started, making it impossible for 
the door to bind against the bottom of the track. 

The track is the strongest section used in connection with 
the car doors; it will not bend, and it also helps to strengthen 
the plate. 

The Z-bar, which is fastened to the top of door, keeps the 
latter from displacement, protects the top from water, prevents 
it from warping and carries all water off outside of the car, 
including any which might get back of the track. 

The wheel deflectors force the door tight against the car 
body when the door is in a closed position. When in an open 
position, the bevel surface of the trackway causes the wheels 
to move to the outside of same, thereby providing ample clear- 
ance. 

The loose axle and wheel both revolve in the hanger until the 



BUCKWALTER ELECTRIC BAGGAGE TRUCKS. 

The principal feature of the Buckwalter electric baggage 
truck is the use of double end control, which embodies a fold- 
ing platform for the operator and sockets for controller and 
steering handles at each end, so that the truck can be operated 
with equal facility in either direction, thus avoiding the neces- 
sity of turning on narrow platforms or runways. The bag- 
gage porter stands on a platform at the end of the truck 
which happens to be pointed toward his destination. He 
simply plugs in the steering and controller handles in their 
proper sockets, and the truck is ready for operation. 

A small platform is hinged at each end of the truck, the two 
being connected so that the operative position of the one in- 
volves the closing of the other. Allowing the operator to ride 
enables the truck to be operated at two or three times the speed 
of a hand truck, and conserves his energy for transferring of 
baggage at his destination. As he stands squarely on both feet 
and leans against the end of the truck he lias positive control 
of the steering apparatus. 

The four-wheel steering arrangement enables the truck to 
be turned in a very small radius, as compared with its - 
permitting it to be operated safely in narrow pas 
This also has the advantage that the driver need only see that 
the front end of his truck clears a column or other obstruc- 
tion, as the (hen rear end tracks with the trout. 

The tread of the wheels is widened so that the wheels are just 



31 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[January, 1911. J 




Drop Frame Electric Truck. 

within the protection of the side sills; and a special form of 
steering knuckle was developed to reduce hub projection to 
within the rim of the wheels, which still further reduces the pos- 
sibility of collision with railway equipment, columns or other 
trucks. The sockets for the controlling apparatus do not pro- 
ject beyond the rear end of the truck, which reduces the liability 
to damage on elevators. 

The truck is constructed on the four-point support principle to 
provide for the greatest stability to reduce throwing of bag- 
Lee Each wheel carries its quota of weight on account of the 
flexibility of frame construction. The storage batteries and 
m0 'or are flexibly suspended from the frame to redact vibra- 
tioT The latter Is geared through heavy double reduction spur 
gearing directly to the wheel rims. The controller is operated 
d recti? from either end of the truck and provides three speeds 
namely two, four and six miles an hour in either direction. The 
brake?' are likewise operated from the driver's platform from 
either end of the truck and operate on the trailing wheels. The 
b ake shoes are of the internal expanding type, bearing directly 
on the wheel rims, and develop about twenty times the braking 
lr it is oossible to get with a hand truck. The brakes may 

^™^£*<™ ^ ° f the ° perators ' platf : r r 

dat a« applied automatically when the driver step^o^h 
platform. The brake is also connected to open the elec nc 

u tho HHver leaves the truck or applies the brake. 
C 1hf, rucks -tai in two types. The straight frame type 
. JT L Vtations where the platform is approximately on 

ThTarop frame trucks are intended for stations having de- 
pressed tlkt and, as the height of these trucks is only mne 
inches, the truck floor is approximately on a level with the 




Straight Frame Electric Truck. 

baggage car floors, which reduces the labor of handling baggage 
to a minimum. Twenty-five of these trucks are. in use at the 
new Pennsylvania station at New York City and a like num- 
ber are on order. Three are in use at the Grand Central sta- 
tion, New York City. 

The saving of labor due to these trucks varies with the serv- 
ice. In the ordinary passenger station the saving amounts to 
two or three men per truck, while another of the trucks in shop 
service at Altoona has replaced four men. Their greatest value 
lies in the expedition with which baggage is handled, as the time 
between the baggage room and the trains is more than cut in 
half, while the fact that the operator arrives at the train in 
fresh physical condition enables him to unload his truck very 
quickly. Baggage masters estimate that delays to trains for bag- 
gage have been reduced from three to ten minutes since the in- 
troduction of these trucks. Since using these trucks it has been 
found that the baggage departments can get along and handle 
their work during rush periods, as occur in the spring vacation 
season, Labor Day and holidays, without taking on "green" men 
from other departments, which, by maintaining the baggage or- 
ganization intact, reduces the delays and misunderstandings with 
the public, due to mistakes in improperly forwarding baggage, 
while at the same time effecting a considerable reduction in the 
wages of the extra men. 

The double end baggage trucks were designed and patented by 
T. V. Buckwalter, Altoona, Pa., and are manufactured by the 
Elwell-Parker Electric Co., Cleveland, O. L. C. Brown, 50 
Church street, New York City, is sales manager for the latter 
company, and to him all inquiries should be addressed. 



PRACTICAL OIL BURNERS, FORGES AND TORCHES. 

Since the introduction of oil as fuel in the railway shops there 
has been a growing demand for a good burner for getting the 
greatest amount of heat out of the oil fuel. Attention has been 
called fo a practical burner familiarly known as the Hauck 




Fie 1. 



Fig. 2. 



[January, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



35 




Fig. 3. 



Fig. 4. 



Fig. 5. 



burner. This device is particularly adapted for nearly all kinds 
of railway and manufacturing shop work. Referring to Figure 1 
the method of using the burner for different classes of work 
will be noted. The boiler maker can easily concentrate the flame 
to the spot required to be heated without heating the finished 
portion of boiler. The flame is controlled from any angle and 
with pointed or spreading heat driving into any corner, for lay- 
ing up seams on dome flanges, throat sheets, mud rings, etc. 
For straightening distorted rings or buckled sheets it is partic- 
ularly well adapted, also for flanging or off-setting work. 

For the man who has pipe bending to do, the Hauck burner 
finds favor, as it affords a convenient and less expensive method 
as compared with coal heat. The heat with this oil burner is 
carried directly to the portion to be bent or straightened (Fig. 
2), producing quick results. In the blacksmith shop this method 
comes in handy in heating frames to be welded on the engine. 
The heat is intense and puts the broken frame in a condition 
for welding in comparatively short time. 

By referring to Fig. 3 one can understand the application of 
oil heat applied by this burner in the machine shop. This illus- 
tration shows how a bent piston rod was said to have been 
heated and straightened in ten minutes, which is a commendable 
record. For shrinking tires, or bands, melting out bearings, and 
many other places in the shop, this device demonstrates its use- 
fulness. 

The brazing forge shown in Fig. 4 is designed to meet with 
popular favor on account of its wide range of usefulness. The 



outfit complete consists of a stationary burner placed under the- 
bed and attached to the oil tank. A portable burner can also be 
attached to the tank and used in connection with brazing or for 
forge work. These forges are built to order and their con- 
struction is arranged to meet the necessary conditions, with or 
without wheels, or with hoods when required for compressed air 
or steam, or the hand pump attachment can be supplied when 
required. 

Fig. 5 illustrates two sizes of the Hauck kerosene torches, 
but they make many larger sizes. They are simple in design, 
and very strongly built to stand rough usage. These torches 
have solved the problem to use kerosene with better results than 
gasolene. They are adaptable for various heating operations, 
gasolene. They are adaptable for various heating operations, 
light brazing, tinning, producing an intense clear flame, etc. 

These oil burners, forges and torches are placed on the mar- 
ket by the Hauck Manufacturing Co., 140 Cedar Street, New 
York City. 



WEAVER ROLLER JAW DRILL CHUCK. 

High speed steel has called for drill chucks which will with- 
stand the increasing strains to which they are subjected and it 
has also brought the straight sliank drill into more favor be- 
cause of its greater strength. The difficulty in using the 
straight shank has been in getting a satisfactory chuck. The 
chuck illustrated here, which is made by the Weaver Mfg. Co., 
of Springfield. Til., is a decided departure from the principles 






Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 



Fig. 3. 



36 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[January, 1911.] 





W. C. McAdoo, Mgr. Schoellkopf, Hartford & Hanna Co. Chas. H. Spotts, Asst. Mgr. Schoellkopf, Hartford & Hanna Co. 



of construction universal with other drill chucks. As the name 
implies, the characteristic feature of this chuck is the three 
hardened steel rolls which take the place of the sharp jaws of 
other chucks. The rolls are tool steel hardened and ground and 
their smooth finished surface will not mar or deface the drill 
shank no matter how intense the pressure or "grip" may be. 

Figure 1 shows the cage which contains and controls the three 
rolls which operate between the drill shank and the three cam 
shaped planes which constitute the inner walls of the chuck body. 
The rolls are shown in Fig. 2. The cage may readily be 
slipped out of the chuck body by the withdrawal of a pin and is 
geared to a worm in such a manner as to be rotated backward 
and forward by the key, thus carrying the rolls up or down the 
cam faces to conform to the varying size drill shanks. Fig. 3 
shows the one piece chuck body on the inside of which may be 
seen the cam shaped surfaces upon which the rolls work. As 
the grip of the chuck varies directly with the increase of re- 
sistance of the drill, the operator merely turns his key until the 
rolls are in contact ; it is not necessary that he strain his mus- 
cles and temper in twisting the key tight enough to make the 
drill stick. The extreme simplicity of this chuck is a strong 
point in its favor. As will be seen from the cuts, its parts are 
few and simple, with no complicated or delicate parts to break 
or wear and the heavy body has no parts to become broken by 
careless handling. 



"STEELKOTE" PAINT. 

An old establishment and well known supply house — 
Schoellkopf, Hartford & Hanna Co., of Buffalo — has estab- 
lished a new department to its business and is energetically 
.going after the railroad business on "Steelkote" structural 



paints. General sales offices for the paint department have 
been opened in the Hudson Terminal, 30 Church- Street, 
New York City, under the personal direction of Mr. W. C. 
McAdoo, manager, and Charles H. Spotts, assistant man- 
ager, two "old-timers" in railroad supply lines. 

Mr. McAdoo states that the "Steelkote" standard black 
paint has been manufactured for three years, but during 
this time the paint has been under practical tests by the 




Factory in Which "Steelkote" Paint Is Made. 

firm, chemical plants and railroads, to secure positive evi- 
dence of its protective value before opening offices for its 
sale in different parts of the world. Railroad officials will 
be particularly interested in the statement as to the "Steel- 
kote" line of paints. 

Steelkote "Standard" paint is black and cannot be made 
in colors without impairing its protective value. It is espe- 
cially resistant to acids, alkalis and extreme dampness. 




Tank Cars of the Contact Process Co., Painted With "Steelkote" Acid-Proo* Paint. 






[January, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



37 




Swing Saw for Car Shop Use. 

Steelkote "Standard" black was designed primarily for pro- 
tection of chemical plants, steel cars, bridges subjected to 
brine drippings and sulphurous gases, and steelwork covered 
by building materials. It is a truly protective paint — not 
decorative. Mr. McAdoo states that, recognizing the fact 
that the railroad trade demands cannot be met with one 
class of paint, the new policy of Schoellkopf, Harftord & 
Hanna Co. places it in a position of supplying special paints 
for special purposes, the chemists, laboratories and prac- 
tical paint representatives being constantly engaged in pro- 
ducing the class of preservative material that represents the 
three factors that most appeal to railroad officials — decora- 
tion, protection and moderate price in structural paints for 
exposed metal surfaces. The supplying of paint for steel 
cars will be given the special attention of both Mr. Mc- 
Adoo and Mr. Spotts, who have had long years of experi- 
ence in this particular line of trade. "Steelkote" will be an 
extensively used paint in the future by virtue of its own 
qualities, the firm behind the paint and the activities of its 
manager and assistant manager. 



CAR SHOP SWING SAW. 

A new swing cut-off saw for car shop use has been placed 
on the market by J. A. Fay & Egan Co., 145-165 W. Front 
street, Cincinnati, O. 

This saw, which is illustrated herewith, is especially designed 
for heavy cut-off in car shops. In its construction, the manu- 
facturers have given special attention to the frame, making it 
very heavy and substantial. It will be noted from the illus- 
tration that the main driving pulley is very large, an essential 
in the manufacture of heavy material. The manufacturer's 
automatic adjustable counterweight makes it easy to operate 
this machine and insures a quick return of the saw when re- 
leased. The saw mandrel is fitted with the manufacturer's 
expansion bush saw flange, which permits the use of a saw 
having a slightly larger hole than regular. The journal bear- 
ings are self-oiling from chambers underneath. A guard is 
furnished with each machine to which is attached a handle 
for operating. 

Capacity: With the largest saw practicable (56 in. diameter) 
it will cut off 19 in. square or 48 in. wide by 2 in. thick. 



TURNTABLE TRACTOR FOR HEAVY DUTY. 

The increasing use of Mallet locomotives of great weight 
and length has forced the railroads to face the difficult problem 
of turning these locomotives. In the first place they are very 
heavy, the weight running to 350 tons and over, but what makes 
the problem of turning even more difficult is the great length 
of wheel base. Furthermore, if a table but slightly longer than 
the locomotive is used, it will be very much more heavily loaded 
at the end under the locomotive than under the tender even 
when the tender is fully loaded with coal and water. To make 
it possible to balance such locomotives under all conditions 
would require the construction of turntables of excessive length, 
the direct and indirect expense of which would be enormous. 
The other alternative is to turn the engines on tables merely 
long enough to carry them without making any attempt at bal- 
ancing. When one realizes that this means carrying an un- 
balanced load of upwards of 50 tons in some cases on the trucks 
at one end of the table it will readily be seen that not only must 
a powerful tractor be used, but one having great tractive effort. 
Messrs. Geo. P. Nichols & Bro., Chicago, have recently de- 
veloped an electric tractor for this class of service which in 
general arrangement and appearance is similar to their standard 




Nichols Tractor Applied to Virginian Ry. Turntable. 



38 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[January, 1911.] 



electric tractor but with its tractive effort increased to meet the 
severest requirements of the service referred to above. 

The illustration shows one of these tractors handling the Vir- 
ginian Railway Co.'s engine No. 600 on a 100- ft. turntable. This 
locomotive weighs 310 tons and is 96 ft. 4 in. long. The trac- 
tor is one of four of equal power in service on the Virginian. 
The same equipment is in successful service, performing equally 
heavy duty, on other railways. 



STOCKBRIDGE TWO-PIECE CRANK SHAPER. 

In the illustration is shown a machine which has been 
designed with the idea of meeting all the requirements of 
an up-to-date manufacturing tool and to this end a heavy, 
rigid machine has been built, the shaper weighing 2,850 lbs. 
Besides the regular features characteristic of Stockbridge 
•shapers, this machine embodies several new features de- 
signed to add materially to its productive capacity. Among 
these is the column ways on which the cross rail slides. The 
method of attaching the cross rail to the column is com- 
paratively new to shaper practice, though long employed in 
milling machine design. 

With this construction one gib is cast solid with the cross 
rail, which, besides adding to stiffness, prevents possibility 
of the rail tipping away from the column when the adjust- 
ing gib, which is on the working side of shaper is loosened. 
With this construction no time is lost in going around the 
machine to tighten and loosen binder bolts every time 
the cross rail is raised or lowered, as is necessary where two 
loose gibs are used. By simply tightening the gib binder 
•screws on the working side of the shaper the cross rail is 
locked to the column. 

The rocker arm is of special design. The slide ribs are 
cored in a U shape, making an exceptionally strong con- 
struction. The slot in the rocker arm is of unusual depth 
and width to provide ample surface for the crank block. 

The ram is carried around on a semi-circle on the top and 
the sides are built straight down. This construction, to- 
gether with internal ribbing, gives an unusually strong and 
stiff ram. The head is accurately graduated and can be ad- 
justed to any angle. It is locked in place by two bolts, one 
on either side. For taking up the wear in the ram ways, 
tapered packings are provided, which run the entire length 
of column and are adjusted from either end by means of 
screws. 




The cross feed is automatic in either direction. Adjust- 
ment of the feed can be made while the machine is in mo- 
tion. The cross feed is so constructed that there is no 
necessity of changing the position of the cross feed rod, 
when it is desired to reverse the direction of cross feed. 
The reversing is done by movement of the block in the 
slide to one side or the other of the center, the slide having 
a reciprocating motion. 

The base extends well out in front and has slots for strap- 
ping the work to it if desired. With this machine an angle 
iron is provided which bolts to the base and carries a sliding 
upright, which adjusts itself to the various heights of the 
knee automatically. Setting up the two bolts locks the slide 
in position. In conjunction with this construction the knee 
is hooked over the saddle, the saddle taking the forward 
thrust, which would otherwise come on the bolts which 
fasten the knee to the saddle. 

The cone is supported on a separate bearing built out 
from the side of the column. The bearing on which the 
cone runs is self-oiling. All pull of belt is carried on this 
bearing, thus relieving the driving shaft. The driving shafts 
are- carried through the column and are supported at either 
end by bushed boxes which are self-oiling. All change gears 
are made of steel. The four-step cone, with back gears, 
gives eight changes of ram speed. 

From the dimensions given it will be noted that this ma- 
chine is particularly heavy and of unusual capacity for a 
16-inch machine. 

Actual length of stroke 16% in- 
Vertical travel of table 1454 in- 
Horizontal travel of table 23 in. 

Minimum distance of ram to table 2^ in. 

Maximum distance from ram to table 17 in. 

Feed to head § l / 2 in. 

Top of table 14% x 13J4 in. 

Sides of table 14% x 13% in. 

Ram bearing in table 30 in. 

Length of ram .36 in 

Width of ram in table 10 J4 in 

Poppit takes tool .>g x 1% in 

Takes shaft for key-seating 2% in. 

Vise opens 12 in. 

Size of vise jaws 12 x 2 l / 2 in. 

Tight and loose pulleys on countershaft 14 x 3^4 in. 

Speed of countershaft for cast iron.. 300 rev. 

Finished weight of machine 2850 lbs. 




fiLLiter&ture 



Stockbridge 16- Inch Back-Geared Shaper. 



J. Faessler Mfg. Co., of Moberly, Mo., has issued catalog 
number 27 of boiler makers' tools which includes roller flue 
expanders, sectional loading expanders, flue cutters and coun- 
tersinking tools. 

The latest catalogue of the Emerson Steam Pump Co., of 
Alexandria, Va., is a credit to the company, both typographic- 
ally and with reference to the subject-matter. 

The Smooth-On Mfg. Co., of Jersey City, N. J., has issued 
an attractive little booklet describing the firm's latest product — 

Smooth-On iron paint. 

* * * 

The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company has 
just issued its Part Catalogues Nos. 6141 and 6143. No. 6141 
lists parts for the Westinghouse type 306 interpole railway motor 
for direct-current circuits. No. 6143 lists standard metallic 
brushes for A. C. and D. C. circuits. 



[January, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



39 



J. A. Fay & Egan Co. have issued a new catalog No. 84 con- 
taining 384 pages in two colors, illustrated with fine half-tone 
plates, bound in a five-color cover. This catalog is a reduced 

reproduction of the company's large general catalog. 

* * * 

The Carlyle Johnson Machine Co. has issued catalogue "E" 
for 1911. It is enclosed in a handsome cover of two-toned blue, 
with a clutch cut and company monogram embossed thereon, 
and is filled with attractive illustrations showing the Johnson 
clutch, factory views, etc. It deals almost exclusively with 

driving of machinery through friction clutches. 

* * * 

The Adams Co. of Dubuque, la., has issued circular 821 deal- 
ing with the Farwell gear tester. 

^ % * 

Billings & Spencer Co., of Hartford, Conn., has issued a very 
attractive catalogue of drop hammers and forging machinery. 



Idustrial /Notes 



The Cleveland Tool & Supply Co., Cleveland, Ohio, has 
purchased the stock, fixtures and good will of the Excelsior 
Supply Co., Detroit, distributer for Shelby seamless mechani- 
cal steel tubing in Detroit. The Cleveland company will 
maintain the present warehouse and office at 29 East At- 
water street, with an increased stock of tubing, as distributer 
for .the National Tube Co., and will handle from Detroit 
the business formerly carried on by the Excelsior Supply 
Co., in eastern Michigan. The transfer took place Decem- 
ber 12. Mr. W. M. Roberts, -formerly with the Excelsior 
company, will continue in charge of the Detroit warehouse. 
The Hill-Evans Rail Chair & Coupling Co., Belfast, Me., 
has been incorporated with $50,000 capital. The company 
will make railway supplies and appurtenances, especially the 
Hill-Evans coupling and joint, patent No. 958,241, May 17, 
1910, and owned by Jesse C. Evans, Palmer G. Hill, Shel- 
ton M. White and William J. Alexander, of Lumberton, 
N. C. The directors are Austin W. Keating, president; 
Ralph O'Connell, treasurer; Maurice W. Lord, clerk, all of 
Belfast. The stockholders are the four men from Lumber- 
ton and the three from Belfast. 

The following officers of the Haskell & Barker Car Co. 
were elected on Dec. 22: President, W. J. McBride; treas- 
urer, Charles Porter; secretary, Louis Boisot; auditor, S. J. 
Taylor. 

The Locomotive Superheater Co. has announced the fact 
that Mr. George L. Bourne has been elected second vice- 
president of the company, with headquarters in the People's 
Gas building, Chicago, 111. 

The Railway Safety Equipment Co., Chicago, has been 
incorporated to manufacture an automatic stop device and 
other railway supplies. The incorporators are Clyde A. 
Mann, James J. Sheridan and C. F. Ross. The capital at 
present is nominal, but will amount to $250,000 shortly. The 
automatic stop will be made under the Collord-Rohe patents, 
which include patents on switch connections and semaphore 
equipment. 

The Linde Air Product Co., which has operated in Buf- 
falo. N. Y., for two years, has purchased a site at Wall 
Station, near Pittsburg, and will erect a plant and begin 
work at that place. 

William Taylor, formerly in charge of the Southern affairs 
of the Galena Signal Oil Co., Franklin, Pa., has been made 
Southern representative of the Nathan Manufacturing Co.. 
New York. 

A quantity of track material for the Panama Canal work. 



about 8,000 tons will be advertised for within the next few 
weeks. It is to form part of the rack railroad on which 
the electric locomotives, which will tow ships through the 
locks, will run along the top of the lock walls. It includes 
all materials necessary for the construction of the railroad, 
excepting a small quantity of materials on hand and the rails 
splice bars and steel track bolts, and includes also 52 switches 
complete, with frogs. The larger items are: 3,212,544 pounds 
of steel cross-ties, 1,934,240 pounds of rolled steel conductor- 
slot covers, 6,554,000 pounds of carbon steel track castings, 
831,744 pounds of copper conductor rails, 721,250 pounds of 
steel conductor rails, 1,273,090 pounds of steel channels, 445,- 
000 pounds of malleable iron castings, and smaller quantities 
of tie clips, bolts, nuts, splice bars, rivets, insulators, etc. 
About 2,000 tons of 90-pound steel rail for the towing sys- 
tem will be included in the annual contract for rails. The 
rack railroad will be installed by the Commission and the 
delivery of the material extends over a period of two years, 
so that the erection may keep pace with the concret con- 
struction of the locks. A description of this electric system 
may be found in the December 1910 issue of the Railway 
Master Mechanic. 

The Kennicott Co., Chicago Heights, 111., has leased one- 
half of the 14th floor of the Corn Exchange Bank building, 
Chicago, to be occupied by its sales office exclusively. The 
company is engaging in new lines and increases in its previous 
lines are responsible for this step. 

The Steel Fire-Proof Construction Co. of Cincinnati is now 
occupying the factory formerly used by the Ritter Folding 
Door Co., in Cincinnati. 

Cass L. Kinnecott, vice-president and general manager of 
the Kennicott Co., Chicago Heights, 111., will deliver an ad- 
dress before the engineering students of the University of 
Illinois, early in February, on The Application of Water 
Softening to Economical Locomotive Operation. 

The Jeffrey Manufacturing Co. Columbus, Ohio, has opened 
a new office in the Fourth National Bank building, Atlanta. 
Ga., with Mr. D. C. Rose, formerly with the Dodge Mfg. Co.. 
as manager. A stock of Jeffrey chains and catalogs will be 
on hand. This is the tenth Jeffrey branch office in the United 
States, although there are over 100 Jeffrey agencies situated 
in the' principal cities of the United States, as well as in the 
leading commercial centers all over the world. Jeffrey prod- 
ucts consist of elevating and conveying machinery for hand- 
ling and distributing material for every possible purpose, in- 
cluding the designing, supervision, manufacturing, assembling 
and erecting of same. 

Mr. T. H. Price, who has been connected with the Horace 
L. Winslow Co. of Chicago, has been appointed representative 
in the railway lubrication department of the Indian Refining 
Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

S. L. Kemps has been elected secretary of the T. H. Sym- 
ington Co., Baltimore. Md. 

Of the locomotives recently ordered by the New York Cen- 
tral, 85 will be fitted with superheater of the Locomotive 
Superheater Company, New York. 

The St. Louis Car Roof Co. has been incorporated with 
office at St. Louis, Mo., and $100,000 capital stock, by James 
B. Case, Lucian R. Bleackmer, David H. Hays and others. 

The Calumet Car Co., which recently completed a new car 
repair plant at Calumet, Ind.. will begin operations with the 
wrecking of 3.000 box cars for the Chicago Great Western 
Charles J. Nash, chief mechanical engineer of the W. H. 
Miner Co.. Chicago, and for 14 years mechanical engineer of 
the Pullman Co. at the Chicago works, was on Decern 
1 appointed a representative of the Westinghoiwe \ir Brake 
Company. Pittsburgh, Pa., with headquarter- in the Rail* 
Exchange Building, Chicago. 



40 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[January, 1911.] 




gcenf K&ilffi&IJ Mechanical patents 



Material for this department is compiled expressly for Railway Master Mechanic by Watson & Boyden, Patent 
and Trademark Attorneys and Solicitors, 918 F Street, N. W., Washington, D. C, and to them all inquiries in regard 
to patents, trademarks, copyrights, etc., and litigation affecting the same should be addressed. 

A complete printed copy of the specification and drawing of any United States patent in print will be sent, postpaid, 
on application to the above firm, to any address for ten cents. 



Car Brake-Beam Safety-Chain Holder. 
Carl L. Schwartz, St. Louis, Mo. 

976,220. Patented Nov. 22, 1910. 

This invention relates particularly to the holder or clip 
usually combined with a wheel or finger-guard, for the at- 
tachment to an outside hung car brake-beam (or when the 
latter is suspended from the car body independently of the 
truck) of the safety chain, which in the case of breakage 
of one of the brake-hangers prevents the brake-beam from 



carding the entire yoke in case any portion thereof breaks. 
To this end the rear section of the yoke is provided with 
lips 9a having concaved inner edges which conform to the 
concave bottom walls of the slots 8» into which said lips 
project. 

Valve Gear. 
James G. Blunt, of Schenectady, N. Y. 
976,542. Patented Nov. 22, 1910. 

This invention more particularly relates to locomotive en- 





Brake Beam Chain Holder. 



Valve Gear. 



falling to the track, and the invention has for its object to 
facilitate access to the fastenings of the holder for discon- 
necting it and the chain from the brake-beam when in 
service. To this end a rod F passes through the flanges 
of the brake-beam and has a bend or crook 3 adapted to 
receive the link of the safety chain. The projecting end 3' 
of the rod forms a guard finger for preventing excessive 
longitudinal play of the brake-beam. 

Draft-Rigging for Railway Cars. 
Charles S. Shallenberger, of St. Louis, Mo., Assignor to 

Scullin-Gallagher Iron and Steel Co., St. Louis. 
976,508. Patented Nov. 22, 1910. 

This invention relates to draft rigging, and particularly to 
the drawbar yokes used in tandem draft riggings. The ob- 
ject of the invention is to provide a yoke that is composed 
of a number of independent sections which are detachably 
connected together so that a new section can be substituted 
for a broken section and thus overcome the necessity of dis- 



gine valve gears of the so-called radial type, and its object 
is to provide a valve gear of such type which, while em- 
bodying all the advantages of those now in service, shall 
attain the additional ones of simplicity and economy of con- 
struction and maintenance, requiring only such machine 
work as can be effected on lathes or boring mills, and, in its 
practice, of producing positive movement at all points of 
cut-off, by avoiding the ordinary link block. The illustra- 
tions show a side view of the complete valve gear and a 
detailed view on a larger scale of the operating links. The 
radius bar 5 is connected directly to the operating rod, thus 
obviating the lost motion which results from the sliding 
block and link construction heretofore employed. The point 
of cut-off is controlled by rocking the reverse shaft 6, which, 
it will be seen, results in raising or lowering the forward end 
of the radius bar, the links 4 a and 4 b permitting this move- 
ment. It will be seen that this improved gear is of the well- 
known Walschaert type, the so-called "link motion," how- 
ever, being entirely eliminated. 



[February, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



41 



Established 1878 

Published by THE RAILWAY LIST COMPANY 



WILLIAM E. MAGRAW, Pres. and Treas. 


CHAS. S. MYERS, Vice-Pres. 


LYNDON F. WILSON, Editor 


C. C. ZIMMERMAN, Bus. Mgr. 


0. W. MIDDLETON, Assoc. Editor 


J. M. CROWE, Mgr. Cent. Dist. 


WARREN EDWARDS, V. P. & Assoc. Editor 


J. K. GREENE, Sec. 





Office of Publication: 315 Dearborn Street, Chicago 

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A Monthly Railway Journal 

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machinery and supplies. 

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Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 
at Chicago. Illinois, Under Act of March 3 1879. 

Vol. XXXV. Chicago, February, 1911 No. 2 



CONTENTS. 

Editorial — 

Federal Locomotive Boiler Inspection 41 

Retrospection 42 

Why Valve Castings Leak 42 

Electric Locomotives for the B. & O. R. R 43 

Stockton Terminal, Chi. Gt. Western R. R 45 

The Proper Procedure 46 

Intercepting Valve, Articulated Locomotive 47 

Novel German Car Tipping Installation 50 

Locomotive Ash Pans 51 

Shop Kinks 57 

At Springfield Shops, Wabash R. R 57 

Pneumatic Spring Band Stripper 59 

Several Operations for Multi-Spindle Drills 60 

A Half Truth 61 

Mallet Articulated Locomotives, Chi. Gt. Western R. R.. 62 

Practical Application of Lifting Magnets 63 

A Suggestion Concerning Side Rod Strains 65 

Recent Progress in Air Brake Apparatus 66 

General Layout for a Locomotive Repair Plant 69 

Present Status of Mechanical Refrigeration 72 

Personals 74 

Obituary 7,-, 

Pump Troubles 7.-, 

Among the Manufacturers 7T, 

Hot Saw and Burring Machine 76 

The Milburn Light 77 

An Automatic Paint Brush 77 

New Literature 77 

Industrial Notes ; - 

Recent Railway Mechanical Patents 80 

The Foreman's Dream B0 



FEDERAL LOCOMOTIVE BOILER INSPECTION. 

The agitation for a federal law to cover the inspection of 
locomotive boilers has at last resulted in the passing of a 
bill covering the alleged necessities of the case by the upper 
house of congress. As the bill in its present form does not 
seem objectionable to either the railways or the labor organi- 
zations, it is probable that it will become a law. The objec- 
tionable features of the original bill having been eliminated, 
it would seem that in its present condition it can be of little 
harm, while the beneficial results will more than usually be 
dependent upon the capability and diligence of the chief 
inspector, an appointive position. 

Briefly, the provisions are as follows: The application 
will be upon all railways operating interstate. All steam 
locomotives must be operated only in a "proper and safe" 
condition with respect to their boilers and appurtenances, 
the boilers to be inspected by the railways in accordance 
with rules to be prescribed. A chief and two assistant in- 
spectors are to be appointed by the President. The chief in- 
spector will divide the country into fifty districts, with an 
inspector over each district. These inspectors are to be paid 
$J,800 per year and are selected by competitive examination. 
Boiler accidents resulting in serious injury or death must 
be reported to the chief inspector. These reports cannot 
legally be used as evidence in damage suits. The penalty of 
violation is $100. 

In case the bill is made a law, the moral effect on the 
small road will in the nature of things be the greatest benefit 
to the public. Large railways have long enforced inspection 
rules far superior to any yet applied by the Government 
in marine inspection. It is possible, moreover, that such a 
law will be more of a benefit than hindrance to the large 
railways, in that it will make mechanical department em- 
ployees to a more or less extent responsible to the Federal 
Government for neglect of duty. On the other hand, many of 
the small roads do not operate interstate, and this renders 
such a law inoperative in the field where its application 
would be most desirable. 

A very wise provision is contained in the clause which 
makes it illegal to use the information contained in the in- 
"spector's reports in prosecuting damage suits. It would 
appear probable, however, that difficulties would arise in 
proving the source of information used by plaintiffs to be 
the reports in question. 

At a conservative estimate, there are in operation on rail- 
ways in the United States about sixty-six thousand locomo- 
tives. Of these about forty thousand are owned by twenty- 
two of our large systems, leaving twenty-six thousand which 
are divided among upwards of eleven hundred small roads. 
Taking the total number of locomotives above stated, and 
dividing the country into fifty districts, with an equal num- 
ber in each, we find that each of the fifty inspector- i- up 
against the simple proposition of familiarizing himself with 
the boilers of thirteen hundred and twenty engine-, most oi 
them in active duty, and therefore moving over divisions 
of from eighty to two hundred and fifty mile- long These 
facts have probably been fully considered, however, and the 
bill regarded as a step in the right direction. 



42 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[February, 1911.] 



RETROSPECTION. 

It is hard to imagine what would happen if all of our rail- 
ways should cease operation for a month or even a week. 
They have become such an important factor in the work of 
the world that we wonder how people managed to exist with- 
out them. Yet their development has covered a period of 
scarcely more than a hundred years and when it is consid- 
ered that practically no advance was made in transportation 
methods during the first eighteen hundred years of the 
world's history, the results of the past hundred years are 
remarkable. Indeed this is the one factor which has pro- 
duced such a marked change in the social and political condi- 
tions during the past century. Although steam was first put 
to practical use in 1773 it was not until the early part of the 

nineteenth century that it was successfully applied as a means 
of locomotion. About 1813, George Stephenson built his first 

'traveling" engine and as the noise of the exhaust frightened 
horses he was compelled by the officials to muffle it in some 
way. This he did by passing it through the stack and was 
delighted to find that it doubled the steaming capacity, which 
goes to show that sometimes government regulation produces 
results. Some twelve years later the first railroad, the Stock- 
ton & Darlington, was opened with Stephenson as chief en- 
gineer, "superintendent of motive power" and locomotive 
engineer as well. He took the first train over and at times 
reached the startling speed of twelve miles an hour. It is 
interesting to note the dimensions of his "Rocket," built a 
few years later. The total weight of the engine was four 
and a half tons, the boiler was six feet long, three feet in 
diameter, with a firebox two feet three inches high, and the 
cylinders were 8x15 inches, developing about six horsepower. 
With this machine Stephenson was able to make thirty miles 
an hour in a spurt and this on a poorly constructed track of 
wooden rails. 

Although four locomotives were brought over from Eng- 
land to this country in 1828 but one was ever used and that 

but once or twice. The first locomotive built in this country 
was finished in 1830 and on its first trip one of the wheels was 
so weak that it was sprung, throwing the engine in the ditch. 
A few months later a negro fireman thought to prevent the 

waste of steam by sitting on the safety valve and as a result" 
the boiler blew up, killing the fireman and injuring the engi- 
neer. About this same time Cooper built his "Tom Thumb" 
and it seems that he had trouble with his boiler tubes because 
he couldn't get any pipe and had to use musket barrels. He 
also discovered the advantage of forced draft and used a 
bellows worked by a belt from the axle. It is stated that the 
"Tom Thumb" with a 3J4x24^-inch cylinder pulled four and 
a half tons up an eighteen-foot grade at twelve miles an hour, 

and this pei'fcuniance induced the directors of America's first 
practical raiho.vl, the Baltimore & Ohio, to offer special 

prizes for the most improved locomotive to be delivered to 
them before June 3, 1831. On the return trial trip the "Tom 
Thumb" entered into a race with a crack horse and car be- 
longing to the stage line and had practically defeated the 
horse when the blower belt slipped off. Of course the steam 
went down and the horse finally humiliated the "Tom Thumb" 
by winning the race. 



Although railway motive power men still have their trou- 
bles it is a source of satisfaction to think of what has been 
done since those early days and that progress has steadily 
been made in the direction of efficiency. Perhaps our rail- 
ways could be run still more efficiently but progress takes 
time and the year 1911 will show its share of problems solved. 



WHY VALVE CASTINGS LEAK. 

The leakage of valve castings when tested by pressure is 
one of the exasperating difficulties of valve manufacturers, 
says the "Brass World." When good steam metal is used 
for the mixture, the leakage may run all the way from 3 or 4- 
per cent in the best managed establishments, up to 15 or 20 
per cent in those not so well conducted. It is always a 
factor of uncertainty, and consequently annoying. 

There are several causes which may result in the leakage 
of steam metal valve castings: 

1. The metal mixture. The presence of too much zinc is 
a detriment, as it produces dross on the melted metal. 
Aluminum is a very flagrant cause of leakage, and when 
scrap is used, this metal is apt to creep in. 

2. The sulphurizing of the metal. When the fuel used for 
melting contains an excess of sulphur, the metal absorbs it. 
Sulphurized metal is always dirty, and the dirt or dross be- 
comes entangled in the molten metal, remains there when it 
sets, and thus forms a channel through which liquids or air 
may pass when pressure is applied. 

3. Blowholes in the castings. Overheating metal or al- 
lowing it to remain in the furnace for some time after it 
has been melted, causes gas absorption with the accompany- 
ing blowholes. Pinholes are small blowholes. These cavities 
allow water or steam to pass, and the valves therefore leak. 

4. Use of too short a gate or runner in casting. In casting 
steam metal there is always a certain quantity of dross 
formed. If it passes into the casting on account of the 
shortness of the gate or runner, leakage results. Owing to 
the desire of valve makers to have as little scrap as possible, 
the patterns are often made with shorter gates and runners 
than is admissible for good practice. It is quite a frequent 
source of leakage in valve castings. 

5. Too thin walls in the valve. While not an intentional' 
error on the part of the valve maker, it frequently happens 
that the corebox is not properly made, or not well set in the 
mould. The result is a casting with one thick side, while 
the other is quite thin. 

6. Use of inferior scrap. While the scrap may be of the 
right mixture, its conditions will often cause leakage. For 
example, chips alone are unsuited for melting, as they oxi- 
dise to such an extent that the metal becomes filled with 
dross. To use them, they should be melted and first run 
into ingots. If this is not done, a certain percentage only 
should be employed. The best results, however, are ob- 
tained by first running into ingots. 

7. Pouring metal too cold. When steam metal is not 
poured at a sufficiently high temperature, the film of oxide 
which always forms upon exposure to the air becomes en- 
tangled in the metal and remains there. The casting may 
then have a good appearance, and the oxide be invisible to 
the naked eye; but nevertheless, it forms a channel through 
the metal to cause leakage. When the metal is poured at a 
suitable temperature, the zinc burns on the surface of the 
stream, and apparently acts as a reducing agent, for there 
is then no film which forms to become entangled. 

Pouring the metal too cold is probably the chief cause of 
leakage in steam metal valve castings. The use of too short 
a gate or runner undoubtedly is the next in importance. 



[February, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



■43 



Electric Locomotives for the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. 



During the present year the service on the Baltimore belt 
line of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad has required the addi- 
tion of the two electric locomotives which are illustrated and 
described in this article. The locomotives were designed and 
equipped by the General Electric Company, the mechanical 
portion being furnished by the American Locomotive Com- 
pany. The complete locomotive as shown herewith is similar 
to that built for the Detroit River Tunnel Company, but dif- 
fers from it in details and is the first of this type to be used 
on the Baltimore & Ohio. The cab resembles the type which 
has been widely used for switching locomotives on interurban 
electric railways, while the trucks and running gear are suit- 
able for the severe duty demanded in trunk line service. 

The running gear is articulated and consists of two four- 
wheeled trucks connected through a massive hinge which 
allows the two trucks to support and guide one another with- 
out interfering with the lateral flexibility required in curving 
with a long wheel base. The framing is massive and the sec- 
tions are heavier than actually required for mechanical 
strength on account of the necessity of obtaining ample 
weight for tractive effort. The side frames are steel castings 
5 in. thick, bolted together through steel end frames and 
bolster castings of a box girder pattern. Draft gear and 
buffers are carried on the outer end frames. The wheels are 
steel tired, 50 in. in diameter, with the motor gears mounted 
directly on extensions of the wheel hubs. The journal boxes 
are of cast steel and are carried in pedestal jaws between 
shoes 9 in. wide and have journal bearings 7^ in. x 14 in. 




Fig. 1. — Locomotive for the Baltimore & Ohio. 

The weight of the locomotive is carried on the boxes through 
semi-elliptic journal box springs equalized together to obtain 
the most uniform possible distribution of weight over groups 
of springs. This construction concentrates the principal haul- 
ing and buffing strains in the trucks themselves and relieves 
the platform and cab of all stresses except those due to its 
own weight and that of the control and operating apparatus 
mounted on it. 

The cab platform is 38 ft. 6 in. in overall length. It, is car- 
ried upon side bearings on the two tracks, and upon two cen- 
ter pins, one of which has a slight longitudinal sliding motion 
in order to accommodate the variation in center pin distance 
due to curving. 

The platform is built up of 10-in. longitudinal sills 34 ft. 
1 in. in length and riveted to 10-in. sills. The body bolsters 
are built up of 1-in. x 12-in. plates to which are riveted the 
center pin castings referred to above. A cover plate below 
the two center sills forms, with the floor above, an enclosed 
air space which serves for distributing air from the blower 
located in the center of the main cab for forced ventilation 
of the motors. The whole platform is braced and squared by 
heavy floor plates extending the whole width of the plat- 
form and riveted to side sills and end sill-. 



The cab consists of a main operating cab located in the 
center of the platform and sloping auxiliary end cabs extend- 
ing toward the ends of the locomotive. A series of interior 
illustrations are presented to show the study that has been 
expended on the location and arrangement of apparatus and 
wiring. 

The drawing shows the arrangement of the principal pieces 
of apparatus as arranged for the Detroit locomotive and 
followed for the Baltimore machines. The auxiliary cabs are 
6 ft. in width and contain parts of the apparatus which are 
not subject to inspection and repairs. In the outer end of 
this cab are located the main air reservoir and sand boxes 
for sanding the leading wheels. The rheostats come next on 
the floor of the cab. Perforated side sheets allow a circula- 
tion of air through and around these rheostats for ventila- 
tion. The upper part of these side sheets is hinged and held 
with spring locked buttons to permit the convenient inspec- 
tion of rheostats and wiring. The end cab is held to the 
platform and main cab by means of bolts, but for major 
repairs these can be removed and the end cab completely 
removed from the locomotive to give access to all the ap- 
paratus contained in it. 

The contactors are located in the auxiliary cab, but stand 
in a bank facing the main cab. During operation these con- 
tactors are inclosed by asbestos-lined folding doors which 
shut them off from the main operating cab, as shown in sev- 
eral of the succeeding views. The space on either side of 
the auxiliary cab is devoted to a platform running from the 
main cab to the ends of the locomotive, permitting, on one 
side, access from the main cab to the coupler, and, upon the 
other side, affording an uninterrupted view for the operating 
engineer. 

Turning now to the main operating cab, it will be noted 
from the views of the interior that all wiring is in conduit. 
Even the bell and whistle ropes are drawn through pipes, 




Fig. 2. — View from Engineers Seat. B. &. O. Locomotive. 



-14 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[February, 1911.] 







aunToowiat «ot r» awwnioi muss («ii«ut AwwvtD 
Fig. 3. — Elevation Showing Arrangement of Apparatus. 



both for protection and for conformity in appearance with 
the rest of the piping and wiring. The central piece of ap- 
paratus in the cab is the air compressor. This is a CP-26 
compound compressor, motor-driven, with a capacity of 100 
cu. ft. piston displacement per minute when pumping against 
130 lb. reservoir pressure. The center of the main cab is 
the most feasible point for locating the compressor as it per- 
mits the various items which may require attention, such 
as valves, piston rings, brushes, etc., to be accessible from 
every side. In passing from the low pressure to the high 
pressure cylinder, the air is carried by a 2-in. pipe to the 
roof of the cab and through about 35 ft. of pipe lying on 
the roof in order to provide the radiating surface necessary 
to reduce the temperature of the air before entering the high 
pressure cylinders. A similar length of radiating pipe is 
inserted between the high pressure cylinder and the main 
reservoir for the same purpose. The compressor is con- 
trolled by an electro-pneumatic governor mounted on the 
A side of the cab and arranged for maintaining the reservoir 
pressure between the limits of 120 lb. and 130 lb. 

A fan for forced ventilation of motors is placed beside the 
compressor. This fan delivers air into the enclosed space 
or distributing chambers previously described. The air from 
this distributing chamber is carried through branch pipes to 
the motor. Against the side walls of the cab are mounted 
racks for paddles and flags, and electric coil heaters for 
heating in the cab. Sand boxes for sanding the track in 
front of- the rear truck are also placed in the middle of the 
side walls. They are operated from the engineer's position 
simultaneously with the forward sand boxes in the auxiliary 
cabs. 

The control is in duplicate at the two opposite ends of the 
cab, and consists of the master controller, air brake valves, 
air gages and ammeters. The handles for bell and whistle 
ropes, the switches for headlights and valves for sanders are 
also within convenient reach. 

One of the great advantages of this sloping cab and open 
side platform design is that the engineer's window is about 
12 ft. back from the front end of the locomotive. This 
arrangement affords protection in case of collision and buf- 
fing accidents, while giving the engineer a view which is 
practically as comprehensive as if he were at the extreme 
front end of the locomotive. 

The motor equipment consists of four GE-209 motors. 



Each motor is furnished with twin gearing, a pinion being 
mounted on each end of the armature shaft and a corre- 
sponding gear on each driving wheel. With absolute align- 
ment of the armature shaft and axle insured, the strains on 
the gear teeth are reduced to a minimum. The motor is a 
600-volt commutating type. The equipment of four motors 
can exert a tractive effort of 46,000 lb. at 14 m. p. h., which 
is the theoretical slipping point of the wheels, assuming a 
coefficient of adhesion of 25 per cent. 

To obtain some idea of the power of these locomotives, 
they may be compared with the heaviest types of steam 
passenger locomotives. The Baltimore & Ohio electric loco- 
motives weigh 90 tons on drivers. The weight on the drivers 
of the Pacific type of steam locomotives, which is the type 
used for heavy passenger service, very rarely exceeds 75 tons. 
A weight of 90 tons to 100 tons on drivers is obtained only 
on freight locomotives of the Consolidation and Mikado 
types. The weight on drivers, which determines the maxi- 
mum pulling power of the electric locomotives, is therefore 
comparable with the heaviest types of steam locomotives 
for freight service. 

In the steam locomotive, however, on account of boiler 




Fig. 4. — No. 1 End Contractors, B. & O. Locomotive. 



[February, 1911.] RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 45 

limitations, it is impossible to carry the maximum tractive tractive effort. With a light passenger train, a single 90-ton 

effort at speeds higher than 8 m. p. h. or 10 m. p. h., while electric locomotive will develop speeds of 25 m. p. h. to 35 

the electric locomotive will develop its maximum tractive m. p. h. on the level. The new locomotive is therefore an 

effort at 14 m. p. h. This tractive effort of 46,000 lb. at engine capable of handling the heaviest freight trains over 

14 m. p. h. corresponds to an output of 1,700 hp. The electric the tunnel grades or the highest speed passenger trains at 

locomotive, however, is more flexible and has a greater power the greatest speed consistent with its tunnel service, 
than indicated by these figures. By means of the multiple The following table gives the principal dimensions of the 

used for heavy passenger service, rarely exceeds 75 tons. A new locomotive: 

unit control, which is a feature of these locomotives, two of Number of motors 4 

these 90-ton units can be coupled together and operated by Gear ratio 3.25 

one engineer in the forward cab. All the motors are con- Number of driving wheels 8 

trolled simultaneously by one operating handle, and one Diameter of driving wheels 50 in. 

engineer thus has under his control a maximum capacity of Total wheelbase 27 ft. 6 in. 

3,400 hp. or a maximum tractive effort of 90,000 lb. developed Rigid wheelbase 9 ft. 6 in. 

from one 180-ton locomotive. Length inside knuckle 39 ft. 6 in. 

It might be noted that ISO tons represent approximately Length of main cab 15 ft. 6 in. 

the weight of a. single large steam locomotive and its tender, Length of cab overall 33 ft. 6 in. 

and that in the steam locomotive only half this weight is Total weight 184,000 lbs. 

on drivers, while in the electric type the whole 180 tons is Tractive effort at 25 per cent coefficient 46,000 lb. 

on drivers and is capable of being applied for developing Speed at maximum tractive effort 14 m. p. h. 



Stockton Terminal, Chicago Great Western R. R. 



Recent legislation, which has limited the hours of service 
of train employes, has made it necessary to rearrange some 
of the division terminals of the Chicago Great Western R. R. 
The old arrangement of terminals on the eastern division 
made Dubuque, which is 175 miles from Chicago and 70 
miles from Oelwein, the intermediate point. As this arrange- 
ment made one portion of the division more than twice as 
long as the other, and as it was found that the grades east 
of Stockton' could be reduced to a maximum of .7 per cent, 
while the grades west of Stockton, maximum of which being 
1 per cent, could not be easily reduced, it was decided to 
make the division point at Stockton, 111., and use a stand- 
ard consolidation engine, with a tractive power of 46,600 
pounds, to handle the same trains east of Stockton that the 
standard Mallet engine, with a tractive power of 81,000 
pounds, would handle west of Stockton. 

During the past year the new terminal has been con- 
structed and was occupied January 15th. 

This terminal provides for a system of yard tracks, repair 
tracks, engine terminal tracks, a 12-stall roundhouse, 100 
feet in depth, two stalls of which are set aside for boiler 
room, machine shop and engine room, store room, engi- 
neers' room, and roundhouse foreman's office; a 90-ft. steel 
turntable and concrete pit, operated electrically by a Nichols 
tractor; 100-ton concrete link-belt coaling station, operated 
electrically and equipped with scales for weighing coal deliv- 
ered to locomotives; sand house, with sand storage; oil 
house; 100,000-gallon steel water tank; modern concrete cin- 



der pit, operated by means of a locomotive crane; a rest 
house for trainmen; and a train dispatcher's and j r ardmas- 
ter's office. 

The roundhouse is equipped with a modern washout and 
heating system and an electric plant for power and lighting 
purposes. 

The general layout of the yard tracks, the details of the 
roundhouse, oil house and the general plan of the heating 
and washout system is shown in the accompanying illustra- 
tions. 

The turntable is operated, as stated above, by an electric 
tractor manufactured by the well known firm, Geo. P. Nich- 
ols & Bro., Chicago. This tractor was ordered from stand- 
ard specifications. 

The heating system, which is of the hot-blast type, was 
installed by the Massachuetts Fan Co., First National Bank 
building, Chicago. 

The washout system was installed by the Cowles-MacDow- 
ell Engineering Co., McCormick Building, Chicago, and con- 
nections have been installed between each of the pits, so that 
one set of connections serves two pits. 

The power plant consists of two 150-h. p. return tubular 
boilers installed by the Erie City Iron Works. Electricity 
for lights and for operating the turntable, coal shed and 
machine shop is furnished by two.. direct connected 35-k.w. 
D. C. generators, directly connected to simple high -peed 
Ideal engines. 

The oil house is equipped with tanks and pump- in -tailed 



Turn fable 90 
Round House 



©Water Tank. Cap. 100,000 Oab. 
SO 1 ' 



^u> — W SO' Tower. 

Stockton Terminal, Chicago Great Western R. R 



Cinder Pit 



Fire Hydrant 




46 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[February, 1911.] 



by the S. F. Bowser Co., of Ft. Wayne, Ind. This equip- 
ment deserves considerable explanation, as it is well adapted 
to hundreds of small division terminals of this type. 

Oil House. 

This system proves to be not only a great convenience 
but a source of profit, from the very fact that the waste of 
•oil so common with the air pressure and faucet systems is 
entirely eliminated, for with ordinary care in handling oils 
with the Bowser system, it is not possible for waste to oc- 
cur, besides which the ease and dispatch by which oils can 
be transferred into storage tanks, also the quickness by 
which the oils can be delivered over the delivery counter, 
means a very great saving. The equipment in question con- 
sists of two cylindrical and five rectangular tanks, all con- 
structed of heavy steel plates, representing a total storage 
of about 13,500 gallons. ' The oils stored are fuel, gasolene, 
car, headlight, engine, valve and signal car. With the ex- 
ception of the gasolene tanks, which are buried outside, and 
the fuel tank, which is placed underground near the round- 
house, with the pump inside of the building, all the other 
tanks are placed in the basement and connected with the 
Bowser standard long-distance self-measuring pumps in the 
storeroom above, which are shown in one of the illustrations. 
The pumps are placed as near the delivery counter as pos- 
sible. The pump for the gasolene tank is placed on the 
•outside nearest the wall and connected with the tank, which 
is buried outside. This class of fluid can be handled without 
any danger whatever in the storeroom, providing, of course, 
that the ordinary precautions are taken. 

All the Bowser pumps are supplied with a lock and key, 
the latter being in charge of the storeroom attendant, and 
the pumps can be kept locked and no one except those au- 
thorized can draw any oil without the attendant's authority. 
By this means the gasolene pump is always kept locked and, 
as we have said before, there is no danger whatever in han- 
dling- this class of oil in the storeroom. 




Bowser Oil Pumps at Stockton. 

the oil house is shown by the tanks midway between the 
round house and water tower. The track at the right leads 
to the main line and Stockton, about a mile and a half dis- 
tant, and at present it is rather inconvenient for the men to 
get to town, so the rest house is pretty well crowded. The 
compan}' owns a large tract of land in the vicinity and there 
is plenty of room for expansion; in fact, it does not seem 
improbable that the capacity of the roundhouse will have to 
be doubled inside of another year. A noticeable feature of 
the roundhouse is the ease with which it takes the Mallets 
in use on this road, although they are not of the largest 
type. The roundhouse is being efficiently taken care of by 
Locomotive Foreman W. H. Murray. 

We are indebted to Mr. J. G. Neuffer, superintendent of 
motive power of the Chicago Great Western R. R., for most 
of the above information. 




Stockton Terminal from Coaling Station. 

Provision is made so that the tanks for fuel, engine, car 
and headlight oils can be filled from the outside direct from 
tank cars. At the same time provision is made so' that all 
of the tanks, with the exception of the fuel and gasolene, 
can be filled from the storeroom. This is accomplished by 
placing the barrels on one of the Bowser barrel skids and 
strainer, where it is wheeled over the fill box for which it is 
intended. The bung of the barrel is removed and the oil 
is transferred to the storage tank without a drop being 
wasted. 

One of the photographic reproductions shown herewith, 
taken shortly before the completion of the terminal, gives a 
birdseye view from the top of the coaling station and shows 
the amount of filling which has been done. The location of 



THE PROPER PROCEDURE. 

On one of our western roads some years ago especial at- 
tention was being paid to the use of oil on locomotives, and 
in an effort to cut down the consumption, the engine men 
were required to give detailed reports on the amounts used 
on each run. Naturally the men grew to be very economi- 
cal .in the use of oil. One day a bright young fireman came 
up for examination for promotion to the other side of the 
cab. Among other questions, the examiner asked him how 
much oil he would use on say a hundred and fifty mile run, 
and he replied about a pint and a half. The examiner thought 
it a little high, but he was passed on this section. He was 
then given the questions on train dispatching and passed 
them satisfactorily. Finally he came to the "supposition" 
cases and was asked, "Say you are running south on a single 
track road with clear orders and in the same block is a train 
which, through error, is running against you. You are 
coming down a grade when the other headlight flashes up 
in front of you. What would you do?" 

The young man thought carefully for a few minutes and 
finally said: "I'd shut her off, open her pet-cocks and 
throw her over, then I'd give her steam, call for the brakes, 
grab the two oil cans and jump.' : 



The Corning Draft Gear Co., Hammond, Ind., has been 
incorporated with $150,000 capital stock. The company will 
manufacture iron and steel specialties, devices used by rail- 
roads, draft gears, etc. The company's Chicago office is 
located at 206 Fisher building. 



[February. 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



47 



Intercepting Valve of the Articulated Locomotive 



Among the distinctive features of the American articu- 
lated compound locomotive, practically the only ones which 
enter into operation are the intercepting valve, the power 
reversing gear, and the by-pass valves. The intercepting 
valve is identical in principle with that used on the well- 
known two-cylinder cross-compound locomotives built by 
the American Locomotive Co., commonly known as the 
Richmond Compound, differing from the latter only in cer- 
tain modifications of the design which the use of four cyl- 
inders instead of two necessitated. Engineers, therefore, 
who have operated the two-cylinder cross-compound of this 
build, will be perfectly familiar with the construction and 
operation of the intercepting valve as applied to the Ameri- 
can articulated compound locomotive. 

This valve is located in the saddle of the left high pressure 
cylinder, to the left of the vertical and above the horizontal 
center line of the cylinders. It consists, in reality, of three 
valves, viz., the intercepting valve, the reducing valve or 
sleeve, and the emergency or high pressure exhaust valve. 

This valve shuts off, at the proper time, communication 
between the receiver and the high pressure cylinders; to 
prevent the pressure in the receiver backing up against the 
high pressure pistons, when the locomotive is working with 
live steam in all four cylinders. 

The reducing valve or sleeve fits on the stem of the 
intercepting valve, along which it is free to slide longitudin- 
ally. Its duty is three-fold: 

First, to close the intercepting valve in starting and when 



A wrought iron pipe leads from the emergency valve 
chamber along the left side of the locomotive to an elbow 
at the rear of the main exhaust pipe. This elbow connects 
with a passage surrounding the main exhaust opening. 

When the locomotive is changed into simple working, the 
emergency valve is opened, which allows the exhaust steam 
from the high pressure cylinders to pass through the 
wrought iron pipe to the exhaust pipe in the smoke box 
and to the atmosphere. 

Opening of the emergency valve is accomplished by open- 
ing the emergency operating valve. When the emergency 
operating valve is closed (or, in other words, when the 
locomotive is working compound), the handle of the valve 
points forward. To open the emergency operating valve 
and change the locomotive into simple, the handle must be 
turned so as to point backward. The opening and closing 
of the emergency valve is thus under the control of the 
engineer. 

It is important to bear in mind that the emergency valve, 
as its name indicates, should ordinarily be used only when 
the locomotive cannot otherwise move the train; and, as 
soon as a speed of three to four miles per hour has been 
attained, the locomotive should be changed back to com- 
pound. 

Except for changing the locomotive into simple, the 
movements of all the parts of the intercepting valve are 
automatic. 




Fig. 1. — Position of Intercepting Valve a Moment After Throttle is Opened When Locomotive is Started in Ordinary Way. 



the locomotive is changed from compound to simple work- 
ing; 

Second, to let live steam from the boiler into the receiver 
and low pressure steam chests in starting and when the lo- 
comotive is working simple; 

Third, to regulate the supply of this live steam and keep 
its pressure at a predetermined amount. 

The emergency or high pressure exhaust valve, which is 
located at one of the other ends of the intercepting valve 
chamber, is the device which makes it possible to change 
the locomotive from compound to simple working (that is, 
using live steam in all four cylinders). 



The illustrations show the entire mechanism assembled, 
and the arrangement of the various steam pipe? and pass- 
ages. These illustrations also give the intercepting valve in 
its four different positions; namely: 

First, the moment after the throttle is open when starting 
in the ordinary way. the reducing valve (\) being open and 
the intercepting valve (2) and the emergency valve (6). 
closed; 

Second, at the time when the predetermined pressure has 
been reached in the receiver pipe, when the reducing valve 
(1) is closed and the other parts remain in the same posi- 
tion as in Fig. 1; 



48 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[February, 1911.] 



Third, in the compound position, when the intercepting 
valve (2) is open and the reducing valve (1) and the emer- 
gency valve 6 are closed; 

Fourth, in simple position, when the emergency or high 
pressure exhaust valve (6) and the reducing valve (1) are 
open, and the intercepting valve (2) is closed. 

In the illustrations, the course of the steam is indicated 
by arrows. These illustrations help to make clear the ex- 
planation of the principle and operation of the American 
system of compounding which follows. 

As will be seen from the illustration, the reducing valve 
(1) is so fitted on the stem of the intercepting valve (2) 
that when the former opens, it closes the latter, and vice 
versa. The reducing valve, however, can be closed without 
opening the intercepting valve. 

Operation of the Intercepting Valve 

Live steam from the boiler is, as indicated by the arrows, 
always admitted through the cored passages in the cylinder 
casting to the chamber (A) formed in the intercepting valve 
chamber head (4) and surrounding the reducing valve (1). 
Chamber (C) communicates with the receiver pipe or steam 
passage to the low pressure cylinders, and chamber (F) con- 
nects directly with the exhaust passages from the high 
pressure cylinders. The chamber (L) communicates with 
chamber (M) through the emergency or high pressure ex- 
haust valve (6). The latter chamber is connected with the 
exhaust pipe in the smoke box, as previously explained. 

With the intercepting valve in the position shown in Fig. 
1, steam from the boiler, following the course of the arrows, 
flows through the passage in the left high pressure cylinder 
to chamber (A) and acting against the shoulder (E) of the 
reducing valve (1), has forced this valve open or inward, 
closing the intercepting valve (2) and uncovering the ports 
(B). This allows live steam to pass into the chamber (C), 
and thence into the receiver and to the low pressure steam 
chests and cylinders. Live steam, at the same time, passes 
through the high pressure valves into the high pressure 
cylinders in the ordinary way. The intercepting valve (2) 
being closed, communication between the exhaust passage 
(F) from the high pressure cylinders and the chamber (C) 
is cut off. This thus prevents the pressure in this latter 
chamber from backing up against the exhaust side of the 
high pressure pistons; and, consequently, these start free 
from back pressure; while, at the same time, the low pres- 
sure cylinders are being supplied with steam direct from the 
boiler. The pressure of this steam is so regulated by the 
reducing valve (1) that it bears the same relation to the 
boiler pressure as the high pressure piston areas bear to 
the low pressure piston areas, thus making the work in all 
four cylinders equal (the high and low pressure cylinders 
having the same length of stroke). For instance, if the area 
of the low pressure cylinder is two and one-half times the 
area of the high pressure cylinder, then the reducing valve 
(1) would be so designed as to reduce the pressure of the 
live steam admitted by it to chamber (C), to l-=-2.5 or 40 
per cent of the boiler pressure. 

From the above, it will be seen that the locomotive auto- 
matically starts with live steam in all four cylinders, or in 
other words, as a single expansion engine. 

Piston (3) and the chamber (H) in the outer end of the 
intercepting valve chamber head (4) constitute simply an 
air dash-pot, to prevent slamming of the valves when chang- 
ing from compound to simple when running. 

Figure 2 represents the intercepting valve at the moment 
when the predetermined maximum pressure in the low pres- 
sure steam chests is reached. In this case, it will be noticed 
that the positions of the valves are the same as in Fig. 1, 
except that the reducing valve (1) has been moved out, clos- 
ing the ports (B) thus cutting off the supply of live steam 
to the chamber (C), and to the low pressure steam chests; 



until by the movement of the low pressure pistons the pres- 
sure in that chamber has been lowered to the required 
amount. 

The reducing valve (1) automatically keeps the pressure 
in the chamber (C) down to the desired amount because 
of the fact that the area of the shoulder (E) is, as previously 
stated, usually 1-^2.5 or 40 per cent of the area of the end 
(D) of the valve. Consequently, when the pressure in the 
chamber (C) exceeds 40 per cent of the boiler pressure, it 
will overcome the force of the steam at boiler pressure, 
acting on the shoulder (E); and move the reducing valve 

(1) outward, closing ports (B). 

The intercepting valve automatically assumes the position 
Fig. 3, the compound position, after one or two revolutions 
of the driving wheels. In this position, the intercepting 
valve (2) is opened, allowing the exhaust steam from the 
high pressure cylinders to pass into the chamber (C), and 
so to the receiver and the low pressure cylinders. The 
opening of the intercepting valve (2) has closed the reducing 
valve (1), which thus cuts off the supply of live steam to 
the chamber (C) and receiver. 

The principle by which these movements are automatic- 
ally performed may need explanation. The exhaust steam 
from the high pressure cylinders in the chamber (F) acting 
against the inner face of the intercepting valve (2) and also 
against the inner end of the intercepting valve stem (being 
admitted to the chamber (L) through the holes in the un- 
balancing valve (5)), tends to open the intercepting valve 
(2). This force is resisted by the pressure on the outer 
face of the intercepting valve (2), the pressure on the outer 
and inner faces of the unbalancing valve (5) being balanced. 
The combined areas of the face of the intercepting valve 

(2) and the end of its stem are greater than the area of the 
outer face of the valve. Thus steam in the chamber (F) at 
a low pressure acting against this larger area overcomes 
the resistance of the higher pressure steam in chamber (C) 
and forces the valve into the position shown. This prin- 
ciple is the same as in the case of the reducing valve pre- 
viously explained. 

These areas are usually so proportioned that when the 
pressure in the chamber (F) is 30 per cent of the boiler 
pressure, it overcomes the resistance of the steam in the 
chamber (C) at a pressure of 40 per cent of boiler pressure. 

As will be seen from the above, when the locomotive is 
working compound the low pressure steam chests receive 
all of their steam from the exhaust from the high pressure 
cylinders through chambers (F) and (C) and the receiver, 
the ports (B) having been closed by the outward movement 
of the intercepting valve (2). At full stroke, the pressure 
on the low pressure pistons would be, approximately, 30 per 
cent of the boiler pressure; while, on the high pressure 
pistons, would be exerted the pressure which the live steam 
from the boiler has, minus the 30 per cent in the receiver 
which acts on their exhaust sides. The pull on the cross 
heads of all four cylinders is practically equal, as the prod- 
ucts of the several piston areas multiplied by their respective 
pressures are equal in each case. 

Should the maximum power of the locomotive be required 
in starting or in ascending a heavy grade, it may be had at 
any time by simply turning the emergency operating valve 
(N) in the cab so that the handle points to the rear. The 
intercepting valve will then assume the position shown in 
Fig. 4. 

Opening the emergency operating valve admits live steam 
into the chamber (G) which forces the emergency valve (6) 
open against the resistance of its own spring plug the pres- 
sure of the steam in the chamber (L) (which is receiver 
pressure). 

On the opening of the emergency exhaust valve (6), the 



[February, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



49 



steam in the chamber (L) is immediately released. This 
unbalances the intercepting valve (2) with the result that 
the reducing valve (1) is moved inward or opened by the 
pressure of the steam from the boiler in chamber (A) acting 
against the shoulder (E). The reducing valve (1) carries 
the intercepting valve (2) inward with it, closing the latter, 
the two valves assuming the position shown in Fig. 4. Com- 
munication between the chamber (C) and the chamber (F), 
into which the steam from the high pressure cylinders ex- 
hausts, is thus cut off; while live steam from the boiler, 
at a pressure reduced to about 40 per cent of the boiler 
pressure, is allowed to pass through the ports (B) into the 
chamber (C) and thence through the receiver to the low 
pressure steam chests. 

By the use of the intermediate chamber (L) between the 
chamber (F) and the emergency valve (6), which is ex- 
hausted the instant that valve is opened, the intercepting 
valve (2) is closed and the reducing valve (1) opened before, 
or at the same moment that the receiver is actually exhaust- 
ed. Consequently, there is no drop of pressure in the low 
pressure steam chests during the change from compound to 
simple or prior to the entrance of live steam into the low 
pressure steam chests. 

As the emergency exhaust valve (6) is kept open by the 
pressure of the steam admitted to the outer side of the pis- 



tentionally reduced for operation under this condition. As 
it is, the actual increase in power at speeds of from three 
to four miles per hour would not be greater than the amount 
given above. 

The reducing valve (1) is so designed that at speeds of 
more than three or four miles an hour no increase in power 
is obtained by changing the locomotive into simple. This is 
done in order that the emergency feature will not be mis- 
used, with injurious effect on the machinery and the sac- 
rifice of economy in fuel consumption. 

If the pressure in the chamber (C) and consequently in 
the receiver pipe and the low pressure steam chests rises to 
more than 40 per cent of the boiler pressure when the en- 
gine is working simple, the reducing valve ( 1) will be forced 
outward to the position it has in Fig. 2, that is, closing the 
ports (B) and shutting off the live steam from the chamber 
(C). The other parts of the valve, however, will remain in 
the same position as shown in Fig. 4. The reducing valve 
(1) automatically closes under the conditions above stated. 

Upon the movement of the low pressure pistons, the 
steam pressure in the chamber (C) will be. reduced; and 
the boiler pressure acting upon the small shoulder (E) would 
again force the reducing valve (1) inward to its position in 
Fig. 4, opening the ports (B). Thus the pressure in the 
chamber (C) and low pressure steam chests would be again 




Fig. 2. — Position of Intercepting Valve When Predetermined 
Pressure in Receiver Pipe Has Been Reached. 

ton (8) by the opening of the emergency operating valve in 
the cab, the exhaust steam from the high pressure cylinders 
passes through the chamber (F) into the chambers (L) 
and (M), and so into the high pressure exhaust pipe and 
to the atmosphere. 

Thus when the intercepting valve is in position Fig. 4, 
that is when the locomotive is working simple, the high 
pressure pistons are relieved of the back pressure amounting 
to 30 per cent of the boiler pressure, which acts against 
them when the locomotive is working compound, with the 
intercepting valve in position Fig. 3. On the other hand, 
the low pressure cylinders are receiving steam direct from 
the boiler at a pressure of 40 per cent of that which it has 
in the boiler, instead of exhaust steam from the high pres- 
sure cylinders at a pressure of only 30 per cent of boiler 
pressure as when the locomotive is working compound. 
This explains the 20 per cent increase in the normal maxi- 
mum power, which, as already stated, is obtained by chang- 
ing the locomotive into simple. The increase would be 
greater, were it not for the wire-drawing of the steam 
through the restricted area of the ports (B), which are in- 




Fig. 3. — Intercepting Valve in Compound Position. 

raised to the required 40 per cent of the boiler pressure. 
This alternate opening and closing of the reducing valve (l"> 
will continue as long as the displacement of the low pres- 
sure pistons does not exceed the supply of steam that comes 
through the ports (B). When this condition occurs, the 
reducing valve (1) will remain open. 

These facts explain why, if the locomotive starts to slip 
when it is changed into simple, it automatically ceases with- 
out necessitating closing the throttle; since, with the rapid 
movement of the low pressure pistons the power of those 
engines is reduced; and. with the increased exhaust from 
the high pressure engines passing through the compara- 
tively restricted opening of the emergency valve (6), the 
back pressure on the high pressure pistons is increased, re- 
ducing the effective power in those cylinders 

It is very important for the engineer to remember that, 
the locomotive having been changed into simple working 
by opening the emergency operating valve (N) in the cab, 
it is necessary to close this valve (that is. turn it so that 
the handle points forward), in order to change the locomo- 
tive back to compound or normal working. With the emer- 



50 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[February, 1911.] 



gency operating valve closed, the steam will be exhausted 
from the chamber (G) in front of the piston (8). The ten- 
sion of the spring assisted by the steam pressure upon the 
inner end of the emergency exhaust valve (6) will then re- 
turn that valve to its seat, thus preventing the exhaust 
steam from the high pressure cylinders escaping to the 
stack. A few exhausts from the high pressure cylinders 
will, then, soon raise the pressure in the chamber (F), and 
force the intercepting valve (2), and with it the reducing 
valve (1) to assume the compound position, as shown in 
Fig. 3. 

If, upon starting the locomotive, it is desired to prevent 
the valves from changing automatically to the compound 
position, the emergency valve (6) may be opened in advance 
by opening the emergency operating valve (N), turning the 
handle to the rear. This, as previously explained, will pre- 
vent the pressure in the chamber (F) from rising sufficient- 
ly to force the intercepting valve (2) open. 

In changing from compound to simple when running, the 
sudden unbalancing of the intercepting valve (2) tends to 
close this valve rapidly, with the result that it would slam, 
were it not for the dash-pot which prevents this. The dash- 
pot piston (3) at the outer end of the intercepting valve 
stem works in the cylinder (H) formed in the outer end of 
the intercepting valve chamber head (4). When the inter- 
cepting valve is forced inward under full pressure, its too 



M^^^^^mB^ Wi 



BTtAH F=JP£ TO . 




Fig. 4. — Intercepting Valve in Simple Position. 

rapid motion is prevented by the slow escape of the air 
from under the piston (3) through the small port (J). This 
is practically the only function of the dash-pot. The port 
(K), extending through the center of the intercepting valve 
stem half way to the inner end, permits the escape of any 
steam that may leak past the small rings on the intercept- 
ing valve stem and reducing valve (1). 

All of the ports of the intercepting valve have important 
duties to perform, and their location and sizes must not 
be changed. 

The foregoing description with the lettered and numbered 
illustrations given is intended to make clear the construc- 
tion and principle of the compound device applied to the 
American articulated compound locomotive, and the duty 
which each part of this device has to perform. 

From the previous description of the intercepting valve, 
it will be seen, that to start a train with the articulated 
compound it is usually only necessary to open the throttle 
in the ordinary way with the reverse lever in the position 
required for the weight of the train or, ordinarily in the 



extreme notch; and with the cylinder cocks open. The 
intercepting valve will automatically assume the position 
shown in Fig. 1, and the locomotive will work simple until 
the pressure in the receiver has raised sufficiently to force 
the intercepting valve (2) into position Fig. 3, or compound 
position. 

If the locomotive fails to move the train when started in 
this way or is about to stall on a steep grade, it should 
be changed into simple working by turning the handle of 
the emergency operating valve in the cab, so that it points 
to the rear; which causes the intercepting valve to assume 
position Fig. 4. 

As explained, there is no increased tendency for the loco- 
motive to slip when working simple; and moreover, when it 
does slip, the slipping is automatically arrested after only a 
few inches of movement of the piston. If, however, the 
locomotive starts to slip, it is advisable to use sand should 
the rail conditions be at all unfavorable. 

The engineer can easily tell whether the locomotive is 
working simple or compound either by the sound of the ex- 
haust or by the position of the emergency operating valve 
in the cab. When working simple there, are eight exhausts 
to each revolution of the wheels; and, only four when work- 
ing compound. In the former case the exhaust has more 
the sound of a continuous blow, the separate exhausts being 
less distinct. When working compound, the handle of the 
emergency operating valve, as stated, points forward; and, 
to the rear when working simple. 

If the low pressure engine fails to start when the throttle 
is open, the trouble may lie in the reducing valve (1) having 
stuck in the closed position; due to the fact that it had not 
been properly lubricated or some foreign matter had worked 
into the bore of the valve. In such an event the admission 
ports (B) would be closed and no steam could get to the 
low pressure cylinder. 

Such a difficulty can ordinarily be remedied by giving the 
reducing valve a little more feed of oil for a few minutes; 
or, if necessary, the cover of the dash-pot (H) may be re- 
moved and with a piece of bent J4-inch wire the reducing 
valve (1) may be moved in and out a few times, after which 
it will probably clear itself when the throttle is open. 

The intercepting valve should be given a liberal feed of 
oil for a minute before starting and occasionally during long 
runs when the throttle is not shut off for a considerable 
length of time. Outside of this, one drop of oil every four 
or five minutes is ordinarily ample when running. 



NOVEL GERMAN CAR TIPPING INSTALLATION. 

At the harbor at Hamburg; Germany, there is an interest- 
ing type of electrically operated coal car tipping apparatus 
built at Nurenburg, as shown in the accompanying illustra- 
tion and drawing. As the water level of the Hamburg har- 
bor varies from 2 meters to 6.2 meters, special provision has 
to be made in this electric coal tipping device for these dif- 
ferences of level in loading the coal barges. 

On one side of the hoists, mounted in the small building 
above, an electric motor of 4.5 horsepower capacity is util- 
ized; another motor of 7 horsepower capacity supplies the 
power for driving the drum and hauling in the ropes of the 
tipping apparatus. 

The plant has a capacity of from 10 to 20 tons, and takes 
cars having wheel base from 2.5 meters to 4 meters. There 
are several of these electric coal tipping machines in Ham- 
burg harbor, as well as a number of electrically driven jib 
hoists and other labor-saving devices for unloading and load- 
ing coal and other material. The capacity of these tippers 
is said to be from 15 to 20 cars per hour, each holding from 
10 to 20 tons. The electrical equipment, including the mo- 
tors, controllers and switchboard apparatus, was installed 
by the Siemens-Schuckert-Werke of Berlin. 



[February, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



51 



For operating the motors of the coal tippers, electric 
cranes and hoists along the docks of the Hamburg harbor, 
current is supplied by underground cables, at a pressure of 
400 volts, from the Kuhwarder power house of the Ham- 
burg-American Line. The several electric coal tippers are 
located about 70 meters apart, with several tracks for han- 
dling the coal cars running along the wharves, as shown at 
the right in the illustration. 

A large direct current motor in the pit is utilized for sup- 
plying the main power for the tipper through worm gear- 




LOCOMOTIVE ASH PANS.* 

By George L. Fowler, Consulting Mechanical Engineer. 

The drawings furnished by the several railroad companies, 
showing designs of ash pans in use on their respective roads, 
have been examined with special reference to their applicability 
as fulfilling the requirements of law, namely, that on and after 
January 1, 1910, locomotives shall be equipped with ash pans 
that may be cleaned or emptied without making it necessary 
for a man to go beneath the engine or between the rails in 
order to do the work required. 

In considering this matter there are two points of view that 
may be taken — one is that of a strict literal interpretation of 
the law and the other that of the spirit. It is evident that the 
intention of its framers was to construct a statute to protect 
workmen from personal injury while engaged in the occupation 
of dumping and cleaning the ash pans of locomotive engines. 
That this might be accomplished it was enacted that ash pans 
must be used on locomotives moving interstate traffic that can 





ing, in addition to the two small motors of 4.5 horsepower 
and 7 horsepower capacity, having an output of 50 horse- 
power, and it is stated that in 30 seconds the car of coal 
can be tilted to 45 degrees and emptied into the coal barge. 

The coal cars are run onto the tilting platform and a pair 
of large hooks grip the car wheel axle firmly, holding the 
car to the platform, while the electric motor raises the rear 
end of the latter and the car of coal is discharged into the 
vessel or storage bin. The platform is then lowered by 
means of the electric motor, the car fastenings are removed 
and another loaded car quickly takes the place of the empty 
one. 

This car unloader was constructed at Nurenberg, Ger- 
many, by the Vereinigte Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Xuren- 
berg. The installation is supplied with arc and incandescent 
lamps for illumination, so that these labor-saving devices 
may be kept in operation day and night if it is found neces- 
sary. 



German Car Tipping Installation. 

be dumped and cleaned without making it necessary for the 
man to go between the rails or beneath the engine. To any- 
one familiar with mechanisms of this character it is evident that 
they must be of a very substantial construction, simple in de- 
sign, not apt to get out of order because of the stresses or 
heat to which they might be subject, and finally be easy to 
manipulate and not liable to clogging and sticking either by 
ashes or ice. Of all these requirements strength of construc- 
tion and simplicity of design are the most easily met, but it is 
quite possible that, in two designs that are nearly identical, 
one may be very efficient and the other impracticable. 

For example, where a simple slide is used to close a hopper 
pan: If one has free guideways from which the ashes are 
easily pushed and the other has a pocket or a closed end, the 
first may work year in and year out without causing trouble 
and the other be jammed at every operation So in the 



•From the report Of the Klook Signal and Train Control B 



52 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[February, 1911.] 



matter of warping plates; if these are not made of suitable 
metal, properly ribbed and strengthened, the heat of the ashes 
will distort them and cause them to bind. Finally, it was the 
undoubted intention of the framers of the law to require that 
all of the work of dumping and cleaning the ash pans and 
putting the engine back in working order should be done 
without the necessity of going between the rails or beneath the 
machine. If, then, an ash pan can be dumped and cleaned as 
required, while yet its parts can not be replaced without re- 
quiring that a man should go between the rails, it may fulfill the 
letter of the law, but it fails to meet its spirit and intention. 
Nor should a satisfactory ash pan be liable to frequent failure 
and disablement. It may be stated, then, that the requirements 



the frames, and where the length of the fire box is greater than 
the distance between the axles over which it stands. 

Shallow Pans. 

As for the so-called shallow pans, a number of arrangements 
are presented that make cleaning from the cab or the side of 
the tracks possible. These may be classified as the blower, 
drop bottom, slide, and side cleaning. 

Of these the blower method appears to be the most ex- 
tensively used. It is an application of a series of steam jets 
across one end, with nozzles so directed as to blow the con- 
tents of pan out at the other end. It is effective and can be 
made to clear the pan completely. Examples of the use of 
this type of pan are to be found on the Chicago, Milwaukee & 




SECTION A-A 



o o o o ■ o oo ooooo.-o o oo o o 



o; o o o 



Q OO OQOOOQ O O O O O 



o a o o ooooo o o o o o 




Shallow Ash Pan, E. J. & E., Illustrating Method of Cleaning with Steam Jet. 



of a pan suitable for this work are that it should be strong, 
simple, easily manipulated and not liable to get out of order 
from load, manipulation, or heat; and not the least of the re- 
quirements is that it should not be liable to freeze shut. 

It is not thought to be necessary to criticise the designs in 
the light of an ideal pan, but rather to regard them solely on 
the basis as to whether they fulfill, when in good order, the 
simple requirements of the law; and it is as such that they will 
be considered. 

Speaking broadly, there are two general types of ash pans in 
use on American locomotives, the hopper bottom and the shal- 
low, flat pan. The latter is almost wholly confined to old and 
light locomotives where fire boxes are low and between the 
frames, whereas the hopper type is in use on all locomotives 
where the foundation ring of the fire box is placed on top of 



St. Paul; the Wabash; the Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. 
Marie; the Seaboard Air Line; the Chicago Great Western; 
the Duluth & Iron Range; the Wheeling & Lake Erie; the 
Elgin, Joliet & Eastern; the Duluth, Missabe & Northern, and 
Colorado & Southern railways. In one case, that of the Duluth, 
Missabe & Northern, the jets are in two series; there is a 
shallow pan which extends over the top of an axle, and then 
drops down to a deep section back of the axle. Here there is 
a row of blowers at the front end of the shallow section, the 
steam from which drives the ashes into the deep section at the 
rear, from which they are ejected by a similar set of jets. 

Of the drop-bottom type there are two varieties, the slat 
and the drop door. The slat is represented by the shallow 
pans of the Chesapeake & Ohio and the Chicago & Eastern 
Illinois. In the former there are a series of cast slats extend- 




Shallow Ash Pan, Penn. Lines West, Illustrating Use of Swinging Drop Bottom. 



[February, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



53 




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Shallow Ash Pan, E. J. & E., Illustrating Use of Slats to Form Bottom. 



ing across and forming the bottom of the ash pan. They are 
pivoted on their center line and are moved by a rod connected 
to each one in exactly the same manner as an ordinary window 
blind. In. the ash pans of the Chicago & Eastern Illinois this 
is modified by the introduction of a series of dead plates that 
alternate with the movable slats. These dead plates have upper 
surfaces that are inclined, so that when the space covered by 
the movable slats is opened the ashes will slide out and fall to 
the ground. Another form of drop bottom is that of the 
Pennsylvania Lines West, where there are two plates that are 
hinged on bars extending the length of the fire box on either 
side, and which come together on the center line. By turning 
the bars, the plates may be swung down out of the way. In 



simplest of any construction, and while provision is made for 
cleaning from the sides, it is also possible that the men may 
assume the risk of going beneath the engine to do the work. 

Hopper Pans. 

Of the means for cleaning hopper-bottom pans, the sliding 
and the swinging door are the two classes in use. 

The sliding door ordinarily consists of a simple flat slide 
moving horizontally. When it is worked from the cab, its line 
of motion is usually parallel to the longitudinal axis of the 
engine. When operated independently, the slides have a trans- 
verse motion and are worked from one side of the track. 

The most common form of hopper bottom is that having a 
slide with a longitudinal motion, the slides of the several hop- 





i"r nf rail _ 



Hopper Ash Pan, R. F. & P., Illustrating Use of Slide in Bottom. 



the case under consideration this is done by a man at the 
side of the track, who works a lever by which the flaps are 
opened or closed. 

The slide method of closing the shallow pan is used on the 
engines of the Missouri Pacific. As it is evidently imprac- 
ticable to use a slide whose surface is equal to the area of the 
whole bottom of the pan, the bottom is divided into two small, 
shallow hoppers, each of which is closed by a slide, and these 
two are connected so as to be operated by a system of levers. 

The last method is that of having sliding doors in the vertical 
side sheets of the ash pan. With these it is necessary for the 
workman to draw the ashes out by hand, which he can readily 
do from one side of the track. Such a pan is illustrated in 
that of the New York, New Haven & Hartford. It is the 



pers being connected together so as to be operated in unison. 
This arrangement is shown in the drawings furnished by the 
Chesapeake & Ohio, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific; the 
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha; the Colorado & 
Southern; the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western; the Denver 
& Rio Grande; the Kansas City Southern; the Maine Central; 
the Missouri Pacific; the Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. 
Marie; the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac; the Sea- 
board Air Line, and the Wisconsin Central railways. On the 
drawings sent by the Missouri Pacific and the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific no means of operating these slides is shown 
other than by going beneath the engines. It is assumed, how- 
ever, that such provisions have been made on the engines 
themselves. 



5i 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[February, 1911.] 



While this method of operating ash pans will work satis- 
factorily when the parts are in good condition, it may happen 
that a jamming of the ashes in the clearance spaces will so bind 
upon the slides that they can not be moved with the ordinary 
means provided. Under such conditions the usual method is 
to go beneath the engine and jar the slides loose with a ham- 
mer. With this exception the arrangement fully complies with 
the requirements of the law. 

A modification of the plain flat slide, but operated in the 
same manner as that already described, is one in use on the 
St. Louis & San Francisco. Instead of the flat plate there are 
pans that slip beneath the mouths of the hoppers. When these 
are removed the ashes above fall to the ground; but no means 
is shown for cleaning the pans themselves without working 
beneath the engine, and no means is shown for operating the 
pans themselves. This plan can not, therefore, be approved 
until further drawings are provided showing the method of op- 
eration. It is known as "Anderson's locomotive ash pan." 

For simplicity of construction the plain slide, moving laterally 
and worked by hand from the side of the track direct, and as 
used on the New York, New Haven & Hartford, takes the lead. 
These slides are pulled out on either side of the engine and 
after the ashes have fallen out they are replaced. 

As to whether this design meets the law will depend upon 
the interpretation which may be put upon the law in the light 
of the question already referred to. In this case the hopper 
extends 9 ins. on each side of the center line of the tracks, or 
to a point 19J4 i ns - inside the rails. In order to place this slide 
back in position after it has been withdrawn, the man must 
have at least a portion of his body from 14 to 17 ins. between 
the rails and probably the whole of it beneath projecting por- 
tions of the locomotive. But the hopper can be cleaned without 
going beneath the engine or between the rails. 

Closely allied to the simple flat slide is one that is curved 
and moves through the arc of a circle. As constructed in 
the designs submitted to the board, it is an adaptation to the 
ash pan of the well-known cinder hopper or chute used on 
smoke boxes. In it the slide is carried on a pin which sus- 
tains the whole of the load, holds the mechanism in place, and 
serves as a pivot about which it turns. It is operated from 
the side of the engine, as on the engines of the Buffalo, Roches- 
ter & Pittsburg, or by a steam or air cylinder, as on those of 
the Chicago & Eastern Illinois. Both of these fully comply 
with the requirements of the law. 

Of the swiagiflg dosrs there are two general types in use. 
One is a simple flap, hinged at one edge and held and moved 
at the other by the operating mechanism. The other may be 
one of various modifications of a flat door pivoted at or near 
the center. Examples of the first-mentioned type are to be 
found in drawings submitted by the Chicago Great Western, 
the Chicago, Rock. Island & Pacific, and the Wabash railways. 
In all of these the operating mechanism is manipulated from 
the side of the engine, outside the rails. The Chesapeake & 
Ohio presents a combination of the slide and flap in an engine 
with three hoppers, two of which are closed by a flat slide 
and one by the swinging flap, all being connected together and 
operated by a single lever located well outside the rails. 

A modification of this arrangement is shown in the case of 
the Pennsylvania Lines West, where identically the same ar- 
rangement is used for hopper-bottom pans as for the shallow 
pans already described, with suitable changes of dimensions 
and of detailed arrangement of the parts. 

In a number of designs presented the doors are arranged to 
be swung out of the way and clear of the hopper. They are 
carried by swinging hangers and are usually directly supported 
on trunnions cast directly on the plates themselves. Examples 
of such doors are presented in the drawings of the Wabash; 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul; the New York Central & 
Hudson River; the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern; the 
Wheeling & Lake Erie; and the New York, Ontario & West- 




ern railways. In all of these the doors are both opened and 
closed from the cab or the side of the track, and therefore fully 
comply with the law. In some the operating mechanism is com- 
plicated, as in the case of the Wabash and the New York 
Central, though in most it is very simple. The general scheme, 
however, is to support the plate that closes the hoppers by trun- 
nions by means of swinging hangers, and in letting out ashes 
to push the plate out of the way. These hangers all stand at 



[February, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



55 



an angle when the door is closed, so that, as it approaches the 
closed position, it has an upward increment of motion. This is 
shown in its simplest form in the ash pan of the Wheeling & 
Lake Erie. 

Of all those shown, probably the most efficient is that used 
on the New York, Ontario & Western; the Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern; and the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton. 
In this there are two trunnions on the side of the plate. To 
the forward one the supporting hangers are pivoted, and to 
the back one the connection to the operating rod. The latter 
is worked from the cab. On the first motion of opening, the 



REVIEW. 

It will be seen, then, that so far as general design goes all of 
these ash pans fulfill the requirements of the law, with the 
possible exception of the one having transverse slides on the 
New York, New Haven & Hartford and those in which no 
operating mechanism is shown, as noted. As to whether all of 
these slide pans, however, will operate under the severe con- 
ditions of frost and snow to which they may be subjected will 
remain for the inspectors of the board to ascertain, so that a 
final approval for their use should not be given until this is 
known to be the case. 



^;;^w^ 




Hopper Ash Pan, B. R. & P.. Illustrating Circular Slide. 





Hopper Ash Pan, C. H. & D., Showing Swinging Door. 

inclined hangers cause the plate to drop away from the hopper, 
thus it is at once freed from any clogging of ashes or resist- 
ance of ice. As the plate moves forward the ashes drop off 
and are pushed to the back. This overloads the rear portion, 
which thus tends to tilt down. This tendency is accentuated by 
the thrust of the connecting bar, with the result that the plate 
is cocked to a sharp angle and swings up behind the hopper 
with a forward movement of the bar of but about one-half the 
width of the opening. In closing, the pull on the bar tends to 
draw the plate into a horizontal position. This device was pat- 
ented and was first used on the New York, Ontario & Western, 
where it was known as the "Beals ash pan." The patent has. 
however, long since exoired and it is free for common use. 



Hopper Ash Pan, Frisco. Showing Use of Pan Slides. 

In considering the relative merits of the pans that have been 
passed under review it must be borne in mind that any and 
all of them are capable of working in an efficient and satisfac- 
the pan with a swinging bottom is much less likely to become 
tory manner when they are in good condition. Speaking purely 
from personal experience and observation. I have found that 
disarranged than one with a sliding bottom. The latte 
much more liable to become clogged with ashes or frozen shut 
than the swinging bottom. 

If a sliding bottom pan. like that used by the Richmoi 
ericksburg & Potomac, become- frozen, it will be exceedingly 
difficult tn jar it loose without going beneath the engine. The 
ice may be cracked, but it will jam and prevent the movement of 



56 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[February, 1911.] 




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\J I k frir— "r^r^-iur— rd rJ 

V 'J • *, ,♦! ;" < '3 /| 




4 





Hopper Ash Pan, C. R. I. & P., Showing Flap Door. 



the slide ; so that, in order to insure a freedom from this trouble, 
some means of thawing out must be provided; this is done on 
some roads. 

On the other hand, the swinging door whose first movement 
is away from its seat on the frame, is not apt to be held by the 
ice, or if it is, a blow on the side of the pan will crack such ice 
and allow the door to drop away at once. 

In general, then, the swinging door as represented in the 
illustrations of the ash pans of the Pennsylvania Lines West, 
the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, and the New York, On- 
tario & Western are to be preferred. 

Of course, where the sliding door is used in a warm climate 
the danger of freezing does not exist and the precaution which 
would have to be taken in more northern latitudes would be 
unnecessary. 

The drawings accompanying this report may be taken as 
typical of all that have been discussed. 

CONCLUSIONS. 
The situation, as it appears to me, is as follows : 

For some time the builders and railroad companies have 
been applying ash pans to locomotives that are considered to 
meet the requirements of the law. 

Some of these would hardly be accepted except under a lib- 
eral interpretation. 

Some will work well under favorable conditions, but are 
liable to disarrangement and clogging. 

Some will work under all conditions and rarely fail. 

The designs submitted by the railroads may be grouped under 
(1) those using rotating slats, (2) slides, (3) steam blowers, 
(4) flap doors and (5) swinging doors. 

For shallow pans the steam blower and the flap door, as on 
the Pennsylvania Lines West, are to be recommended as the 
most efficient. 

For hopper pans I should place in order of excellence, de- 
pendability and efficiency, first, the swinging door (New York, 
Ontario & Western) ; second, the flap door (Pennsylvania Lines 
West and Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific) ; third, the hori- 
zontal slide (Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac), all of 
which are illustrated. 



Where the horizontal slide is used it will be advisable to pro- 
vide means for thawing in cold climates. 

Other types may be considered efficient, but to an inferior 
degree. 



R. H. Hyland & Company announce their removal from the 
Fisher Building, Chicago, to their new offices and warehouse 
at 725 South Dearborn Street. This company carries a com- 
plete line of railway and contractors' machinery and supplies, 
having taken over the business formerly carried on by G. H. 
Olmstead. The warehouse affords facilities which enables 
the filling of all orders promptly from stock. 




[February, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



57 




111 



aSHop JCinK^ 



±d&:Ati item ^bod enough to publish is ^ood enough to pay for 




AT SPRINGFIELD SHOPS, WABASH R. R. 

The shops of the Wabash at Springfield, 111., were built 
about 1864, but this does not seem to have hindered their 
efficiency, for the lack of some of the more modern facili- 
ties has stimulated the production of many labor-saving de- 
vices about the shop and compressed air is an essential fea- 
ture of most of them. In fact, it seems that if the air com- 
pressor went out of business temporarily it would shut down 
the shop. Incidently it may be said that the shop and 
grounds are kept in a clean orderly condition and this is al- 
ways a credit to those in charge. 




Fig. 1. — Handling Air Pumps, Springfield Shops. 

Figures 1 and 2 show the manner in which air pumps are 
handled at the repair bench. They are lifted by a radial air 
crane and placed on the small iron table and quickly bolted 
to it by two or four bolts as shown. The heavy support for 
this table is hinged to the bench and the table has two move- 
ments. It can be rotated upon its support and can be 
dropped from a horizontal position to a vertical one about 
the hinge as an axis. This latter movement is easily accom- 
plished by means of a horizontal air cylinder located under- 
neath the bench, but not visible in the photographs. At the 
end of the piston rod is a wheel (A) which when moved 
along the horizontal guides (B) rolls on a cam-like bearing 
under the table and allows it to be raised or lowered through 
an angle of 90 degrees. It allows the air pump to be han- 
dled quickly and easily and was devised by J. F. Green, 
general foreman. 




The pipe bending machine shown in the illustration was 
designed by Peter Lofy, foreman of the pipe and tin shop. 
It effects a considerable saving in this department. It is op- 
erated by air and takes all size pipes from ^ in. to 2y 2 in., 
copper pipe included. One inch pipes or larger are filled with 
sand which serves to retain the circular shape at the bend. 




Pipe Bending Machine, Springfield Shops. 

Figure 3 is a machine for putting bands on car and locomo- 
tive springs, the three air cylinders, A, B, C, which furnish 
the power, being plainly visible. Cylinder A in connection 
with block D is used to hold the spring in position while 
the hot band is slipped on. When the band is in place the 
spring is shifted to the other side of the machine and the 




Fig. 2. — Handling Air Pumps. 



Fig. 3. — Putting on Spring Bands. Springfield Shops. 

band is fastened in place by mean- of cylinders B and 
the action of which is readily seen from tin- illustration. This 
machine was devised by Sam Wheal, blacksmith foreman. 

Figure 4 shows a machine for putting on and removing 
hose fittings. Old fittings are removed at \ by mean- 
air cylinder 11 The hose is then clamped by block C, which 
is actuated by the air cylinder below and the new fitting 
is pressed in place by cylinder 1'.. tint- it n that this 

cylinder serves a double purpose, (.'lamp- are then tightened 
by the claw-like arrangement at D The valve near cylin- 
der 1! l- so arranged that both movements of the pi-ton in 
B and the Mock C can be controlled by it 



58 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[February, 1911.] 




Fig. 4. — Hose Fittings Machine, Springfield Shops. 

The flue swedger shown in Figures 5 and 6 originally had 
hand control, but by the addition of an old triple valve and 
an auxiliary valve at the top has been made to operate auto- 
matically by pressing the foot lever shown in the lower 
right hand corner of the illustration. 

In the office of General Foreman J. F. Green is a board 
from which one may tell at a glance the record and date of 
boiler washing of any engine on the division. The board 
is perhaps 3x6 feet in size and is painted black. It is di- 
vided up into thirty-one vertical columns, one for each day 
of the month, while the engine numbers are arranged in a 
column down the left side of the board, thus giving each en- 
gine a little square for each day of the month. In the cen- 
ter of each little square is a hole in which is inserted a peg 
showing the date and kind of washout given. Three different 




Fig. 5. — Flue Swedger, Springfield Shops. 



colored pegs are used- 



green a leg wash and red a change of water 



yellow denoting a complete wash, 

These pegs are 






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unless otherwise marked- 




Fig. 6. — Details of Flue Swedger, Wabash R. R. 



[February, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



59 




H. 






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Pneumatic Press Details, Wabash R. R. (Assembly Drawing on Next Page). 



plugged in three columns at the right side of the board until 
ready to be used. Each day as the reports come in, the clerk 
"plugs" up the board to correspond and at the end of each 
month makes up his report from it. Thus, say, opposite en- 
gine 718 we find yellow plugs on the 3rd. 10th, 19th and 31st, 
denoting a complete wash Qn those dates, and a red plug on 
the 14tb, denoting a change of water. 




taken off 13 bands in 24 minutes. The following description 
is based on the above drawing. 

A — Guide made of three pieces which are riveted together 
and bolted to frames. These frames are old front engine 
frames, with two old side rods bolted below and can be 
made from channel iron. 

B — Cross head made of wrought iron. 

C — Levers made from old steel axle. 

D — Pocket which is made from old steel axle, with teeth 
in back end. 

E — Brace for pocket. 

F — Top for screw. 

G — Band for top which is made hot and shrunk on. 

H — Grip block for tank truck springs. 
I — These U pieces are made from V 2 in. to 1 ' _» ins. thirk 



Fig. 7. — Truck for Light Springs. 

Figure 7 shows a handy truck for the lighter car springs. 
It is composed of only seven pieces and comes in handy for 
other purposes besides trucking springs. 



PNEUMATIC SPRING BAND STRIPPER. 



By S. Wheal, Blacksmith Foreman, Wabash R. R. 
In order to do away with sledging spring bands off by 
hand, which in addition to damaging the bands took hard 
labor and time, we got up the machine shown in the illus- 
tration With the aid of this machine and a helper we have 




Pneumatic Spring Band Stripper, Wabash R. R. 



60 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[February, 1911.] 




Pneumatic Press for Pressing Off Spring Bands. 



and are placed over the pin in the cross head to keep the 
levers the right distance from the spring. The levers can 
be adjusted with these U pieces to suit any spring and a 
third U should be placed over the pin between the levers. 

J — Grip blocks for driving springs are made with teeth 
to set on the teeth of the pocket. 

Grip block "H" is made for eight leaf tank truck springs, 
and is replaced on the teeth of the pocket by grip block 
"J" for other classes of springs. Driving springs are placed 
in the pocket and the grip block is placed on same, holding 
it in position. By adjusting the block the spring can be 
leaned backward or forward, so when pressure is on the 
levers they will be in the center of the spring band. These 
grip blocks are cut to put three to five plates of the springs 
and are the essential features of the machine. 




SEVERAL OPERATIONS FOR MULTI-SPINDLE 

DRILLS. 

The purchase of a highly efficient machine tool for rail- 
way shop work of special nature is sometimes postponed be- 
cause the small amount of this particular class of work does 
not warrant the necessary outlay. It is usually the case, 
however, that a hint from a foreman or machinist may result 
in the adapting of the machine to many operations the con- 
sideration of which would alter the decision with regard to 
its purchase. 

The accompanying illustrations are taken from photo- 
graphs of the operation of a Foote-Burt drill in the Battle 
Creek shops of the Grand Trunk Ry. 

Figure 1 shows a method of drilling the two holes in loco- 
motive eccentrics in one operation. The same setting of the 
heads is maintained in shifting to the second eccentric, at 
the left. While one eccentric is being drilled the other is 
changed for a new one without loss of time. Tapping the 
holes is a similar operation. 




Fig. 2. — Drilling 1%-inch and 2-inch Holes in Locomotive Spring 

Gear. 



Fig. 1. — Drilling and Tapping Eccentrics. 



[February, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



61 




Fig. 3. — Drilling Engine Truck Bolts. 

Figure 2 is the illustration of an operation for drilling loco- 
motive spring gear. Two sizes of drills are used at once, 
one hole being 1^4 inches, while the other is two inches. 

Figure 3 shows a method for drilling engine truck boxes. 
The spindles are spaced at a fixed distance and the holes are 
drilled in alternation. The operation is a particularly speedy 
one, as the clamping of the work is much simplified. 



A HALF TRUTH. 



By T. H. Symington. 

A half-truth is sometimes worse than a total misstatement 
of facts, and a half-truth furnishes Mr. Louis D. Brandeis, 
lawyer, of Boston, an argument on which to build up a fol- 
lowing in his attack on railroad operating efficiency in this 
country. 

Mr. Brandeis' explanation of how $1,000,000 a day can be 
saved in the operation of American railroads is of interest 
and importance only because of the large number of Ameri- 
can citizens who are unfamiliar with the facts, and who may 
form wrong impressions through the half-truths in his state- 
ments. 

I will overlook the fact that by inference Mr. Brandeis 
assumes that the majority of our railroad executives are 
shortsighted and incompetent. 

I am only competent to discuss one of the elements of 
saving proposed by Mr. Brandeis, namely, his statement that 
$50,000,000 a year could be saved in the one item of coal. 
Me does not state that for many years this item of railroad 
expense has had the constant attention of the ablest engi- 
neers in this country. Some years ago the railroads invested 
many millions of dollars in compound locomotives in order 
to effect coal economy, only to find that the increased oper- 
ating cost of the compound locomotives more than offset 
the coal saving and the compounds had to be abandoned. 
Most of the large railroads have for years been experiment- 
ing with mechanical stokers and other devices, and carrying 
on an extensive campaign of education among their locomo- 
tive firemen to reduce the consumption of coal. There is 
no one item of expense in the operation of railroads today 
that is receiving more general attention from railroad execu- 
tives, railroad engineers, designers of locomotive equipment 
and inventors generally than this problem of fuel economy. 



Mr. Brandeis does not state that it is a financial impos- 
sibility to build a new railroad except with heavy grades, 
crooked lines and light equipment, with low operating effi- 
ciency, and the evolution to low grades, straight lines and 
heavy equipment, with high efficiency, must be gradual and 
come through surplus earnings. The big factors of expense 
must be first considered before we can get at the finer de- 
tails of operating efficiency. In this respect a railroad is 
identical with any other business enterprise that can only 
gradually afford facilities and organization for economic 
operation. 

Fortunately, the majority of the American people are sat- 
isfied with the progress made in efficiency by our railroad 
executives, who represent the survival of the fittest among 
the hundreds of thousands of able Americans who have made 
railroad operation their life work. 

It cannot be denied, however, that Mr. Brandeis' half- 
truths are causing irreparable damage to the railroad and 
business interests of this country because of the crystallizing 
belief of his following that the railroads do not need any in- 
crease in rates, and because of the discrediting of our operat- 
ing methods and the uncertainty and alarm created in the 
minds of railroad security holders in this country and abroad. 

No one can deny that all real progress is secured through 
co-operation and harmony, nor can it be denied that criticism 
is only effective when it is constructive criticism. 

It is true that our railroads are not operated at 100 per 
cent efficiency, and it is also true that all of our railroad 
executives have plans prepared for future capital investment 
in the identical facilities that Mr. Brandeis argues are essen- 
tial for real economy. It is one thing, however, to know 
what facilities you need and quite another thing to get the 
money with which to provide them. 

It may be true that we are not making sufficiently rapid 
progress toward 100 per cent efficiency of operation, and I 
am sure that all railroad executives would welcome a solu- 
tion of this economic problem. 

I believe that it would pay the people of this country at 
this time to take Mr. Brandeis' following seriously in the 
interest of harmony and progress. I would suggest that the 
government appoint an operating railroad commission, with 
Mr. Brandeis as chairman, and that the Interstate Commerce 
Commission select an average trunk-line railroad, with pre- 
ferably difficult operating conditions and a poor credit, and 
turn this railroad ore: to the commission to operate for a 
period of 10 years. 

Beyond question, we should for this period of 10 years 
give to the railroads generally the increase in rates that our 
present railroad executives all state is essential to the de- 
velopment and progress of their properties. 

At the end of 10 years it might be possible for the govern- 
ment-operated railroad to set such a standard of operating 
efficiency that the rate question will automatically adjust it- 
self to the satisfaction of both railroads and shipper- 

It would, of course, be necessary for the government to 
guarantee the bonds and stock of the railroad thus taken 
over; .and I am quite certain that this program would result 
in such a tremendous increase in the wealth and prosperity 
of the country at large that tin- government could well afford 
to pay the owners of the experimental property any dam- 
ages, should such exist, that might result from tin- new 
method of raiiroad operation in the United Sta1 



First published in the Baltimore Sun. 



The Delaware & 11 ml -on Co i- in the market for a 5-in. 
semi-universal radial drill, a 1<> ft. x 10-in. bed toolmakcr- 
lathe. a 20-in. slide hack geared pillar <haper. a 20-in. double 
spindle bolt-threading machine and ,i No t high power 
milling machine. It is understood that this equipment 
for the company'- -hop- at Green I -land. X Y. 



62 RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC [February, 1911.] 

MALLET ARTICULATED LOCOMOTIVES, CHICAGO feed oil pumps for lubricating the same. The high-pressure 

GREAT WESTERN R. R. cylinders and air pump are oiled from a lubricator placed in 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works has recently completed the cab, and a separate lubricator is provided for the power 

ten Mallet articulated locomotives for the Chicago Great reverse cylinder. 

Western R. R., J. G. Neuffer, superintendent of motive Sand is delivered to the front group of wheels from two 

power. These engines, according to the railroad company's boxes placed over the forward deck plate, and to the back 

classification system, are known as "Class H-l," and they group from one large box placed over the boiler, 

bear the road numbers 600-609. They have the 2-6-6-2 wheel The tender frame is composed of 12-in. steel channels, with 

arrangement, and are by far the heaviest locomotives in reinforced wood bumpers. The trucks are of the arch bar type, 

service on this road. The general design follows that of with double* elliptic springs and steel bolsters. Solid rolled 

similar locomotives which have been operating with marked steel wheels are used in both the. engine and tender trucks, 

success, on the Western Maryland Ry. Further particulars regarding these engines are presented in 

The boilers of the Chicago Great Western locomotives have the following table : 

straight tops, with a minimum shell diameter of 86 inches. The Gauge 4 ft. &y 2 in. 

construction of the boiler shell and fire-box presents no unusual Cylinderss 23 & 35 x 32 in. 

features. The grate bars are divided into three groups by two Valves Balanced slide 

longitudinal bearers, and are arranged to rock in six sections. Boiler. 

Two drop plates are provided, and they are located at the back Type Straight 

of the furnace, in the outside sections. The rear ash-pan hop- Material Steel 

per is divided and has right and left-hand sections placed out- Diameter 86 in. 

side the frames and under the drop plates ; while the front hop- Thickness of sheets 15/16 in. 

per is placed between the frames. The hoppers have drop bot- Working pressure 205 lbs. 

toms, and the ash pan can thus be dumped at three points. The Fuel Soft coal 

front end has an unusually large netting area, with the adjust- Staying Radial 

able diaphragm placed back of the nozzle. The stack has an Fire Box. 

internal extension, no petticoat pipe being used with this arrange- Material Steel 

ment. Length 117 in. 




One of the New Mallet Locomotives for the Chicago Great Western R. R. 



The steam distribution is controlled throughout by balanced 
slide valves, driven by Walschaert motion. The dome is cen- 
trally located above the high-pressure cylinders, and live steam 
is delivered through external pipes arranged in the usual man- 
ner. The receiver pipe is placed on the center line, and has a 
ball joint at the back end only. The center of the ball joint 
coincides with the center of the articulated frame connection ; 
hence variations in the length of the receiver pipe are those due 
to temperature changes only, and to compensate for these a 
slip joint is provided. No reheater is used between the cylin- 
ders. The high-pressure cylinders are entirely independent of 
each other, while the low-pressure cylinder castings are bolted 
together on the center line of the locomotive. The valves are 
set with 3/16-in. lead on the high-pressure cylinders and 5/16-in. 
lead on the low pressure. The arrangement of the valve gears 
and power reverse mechanism is in accordance with the usual 
practice of the builders. 

The main frames are of cast steel, the rear frames being in 
one piece, while the forward frames have separate front rails. 
The top rail is extended back over the leading driving pedestals 
and is held in place by seven bolts, each 1%. inches diameter. 
The main bottom rail is cast in one piece with the frame, but 
is not extended to the bumper, the latter being braced to the 
cylinder casting by an auxiliary rail. The main frames meas- 
ure 5 inches in width and the auxiliary front rails A l / 2 inches 
in width. 

The equipment of these engines includes pneumatically oper- 
ated cylinder cocks for the low-pressure cylinders, and force 



n. 
n. 
n. 
n. 
n. 
n. 
n. 



Width ' 96 

Depth, front 77^ 

Depth, back 74 

Thickness of sheets, sides ^ 

Thickness of sheets, back % 

Thickness of sheets, crown $i 

Thickness of sheets, tube J^ 

Water Space. 

Front 6 

Sides 5 

Back 5 

Tubes. 

Material Steel 

Thickness No. 11 W. G. 

Number 450 

Diameter 2J4 in- 

Length 21 ft. in. 

Heating Surface. 

Fire box 226 sq. ft. 

Tubes 5540 sq. ft. 

Total 5766 sq. ft. 

Grate area 78 sq. ft. 

Driving Wheels. 

Diameter, outside 57 in. 

Diameter, center 50 in. 

Journals 10^4 x 12 in. 

Engine Truck Wheels. 

Diameter, front 30 in. 

Journals 6 x 12 in. 



[February. 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



63 




Elevation of Great Western Mallet. 



Diameter, back 30 in. 

Journals 6 x 12 in. 

Wheel Base. 

Driving 29 ft. 8 in. 

Rigid 10 ft. in. 

Total, engine 45 ft. 4 in. 

Total, engine and tender 71 ft. 11^4 in. 

Weight. 

On driving wheels 307,000 lbs. 

On truck, front 21,900 lbs. 

On truck, back 24,200 lbs. 

Total, engine 353,100 lbs. 

Total, engine and tender, about 500,000 lbs. 

Tender. 

Wheels, number 8 

Wheels, diameter 33 in. 

Journals 5 T / 2 x 10 in. 

Tank capacity 8000 gals. 

Fuel capacity 16 tons 

Service Freight 



PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF LIFTING MAGNETS.* 

By H. F. Stratton. 

The lifting magnet owes its success and rapidly increasing 
use to its ability to handle quickly and cheaply the various 
raw, semi-finished, and finished iron and steel products. It 
is in the transportation of such material that great economies 
have been effected, and I recently estimated that during the 
year 1910 lifting magnets will have saved the iron and steel 
industries about one million dollars. 

Before discussing the design and construction of magnets, 
it would probably be logical and pertinent to refer to the 
character of service which they encounter, and particularly 
to the extremely severe mechanical abuse to which they are 
subjected. For instance, a magnet weighing about two and 
one-half tons and picking up an average load of about a ton 
of pig iron, will, when used in the stock-yards of a steel 
plant, be called upon to make four lifts a minute for about 
twenty hours a day. The keynote of the steel business is 
tonnage and speed, and a magnet in a steel mill is operated 
solely with the idea of handling as much material as possible 
in a given time, and with no regard to the welfare of the 
magnet. A magnet may easily make a million lifts in the 
course of a year, and each time may be dropped into a pile 
of unyielding pig or scrap a distance of from five to fifteen 
feet. This necessarily means that the magnet is subjected 
to hammering and a series of impacts so terrific as not 
to be comparable with the service given any other piece of 
electrical apparatus. Magnets are almost always handeld by 
operators utterly ignorant of electrical matters, and frequent- 
lv their use has been regarded by laborers with open hostility 

*.\bstract of lecture before Ithaca Section A. I. E. F. 



because of the fact that they have made many jobs superflu- 
ous. 

Bearing in mind, then, the extraordinary roughness with 
which lifting magnets are used, the necessity of certain points 
of design will be appreciated, and indeed it will be seen that 
many of the structural features are merely a response to the 
demands of hard service, and are therefore in the nature of 
natural evolution of design. 

Essentially, the commercial lifting magnet of today consists 
of a disk-shaped steel casting having in it an annular recess 
for the accommodation of the magnet coil, an energizing 
coil with many thousand ampere turns to build up a magnetic 
field, suitable terminals for connecting the coil to the line, 
chains for the suspension of the magnet, and a non-magnetic 
bottom to hold the coil in its annular recess, to hermetically 
seal the bottom of the magnet, and to constitute a shield 
or guard for the hammering to which the magnet bottom is 
subjected. An auxiliary device is the magnet control for 
quickly energizing and de-energizing the coil. The steel shell 
must be made of special steel, soft and carefully anneale> - 
that the magnetic field can be quickly built up and quickly 
torn down. This steel shell should be ribbed over its entire 
external surface to allow for the rapid dissipation of the 
heat which is generated in the coil. 

The problems of coil design, coil anchorage, and coil pro- 
tection are many and perplexing. The coil is wound on a 
brass or aluminum spool, copper tape about ^ of an inch 
wide being employed. The insulation between adjacent con- 
volutions is secured by feeding in asbestos tape as the cop- 
per tape is wound. Four or five layers constitute one coil. 
and the insulation between layers must be good from both 
mechanical and electrical standpoints. After the coil has 
been completely wound it is clamped to a seat on the spool 
by means of vertical bolts and horizontal radial strap- so that 
the coil and the spool form an integral unit The coil i- 
next treated to an impregnating proce<- which i- as follows: 
The coil is placed in a large iron vessel which is hermetically 
sealed. About a 62-inch vacuum is then created in this 
and the temperature .is kept in the neighborhood of 300 
Fahr. The coil is kept in thi- condition for a number 
hour- until all the entrained moisture is completely expelled. 
Without first removing the vacuum, the vessel i- filled with 
a hot. inert, insulating, impregnating compound which com- 
pletely saturates the entire coil structure 

After the impregnation process ha- continued veral 

hours under high pressure and high temperature, the im- 
pregnating vessel i- unsealed and when the temperaturre ha- 
dropped sufficiently the coil i- removed. It is v 
mass of copper, asbestos, mica and impregnating compound 

This impregnation accomplishes two very important ad- 
vantage- — fir^t. it seals the ' in the exclu- 



64 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[February, 1911.] 



sion of moisture; and second, it provides for much better 
conduction of heat from the coil to the magnet case, from 
where it can be dissipated to the surrounding air. 

The coil is next put in place in the magnet shell, and here 
particular pains are exercised to make sure that all joints 
shall be watertight. The coil spool is machined all over and 
it mates with machined surfaces on the magnet shell. It is 
fastened home by numerous screws closely pitched, these 
screws being drawn up with a uniformly high twisting effort. 

The bottom of the magnet now consists of the portions of 
the steel projecting downward as poles and the brass or 
aluminum flange which is part of the coil spool. Brass or 
aluminum, however, would not stand two days of steel mill 
service. Therefore a shield is put over the brass or aluminum 
plate, this shield being made of manganese steel. Manganese 
steel, when containing the proper proportion of manganese, 
is non-magnetic and fortunately is extremely hard and strong. 
It is, in fact, so hard that after years of service it shows no 
appreciable wear, but only a polishing. A manganese plate 
cannot, of course, cover the poles of the magnet, since that 
would introduce permanent gaps between the poles and the 
load, and would thereby decrease the lifting capacity of a 
magnet. Therefore the poles must project right down to the 
load and must be of the same kind of steel as the magnet 
shell. These steel poles, however, are worn away at the 
rate of about an inch every six months. Therefore, for the 
sake of renewal, and for other reasons, these should be sepa- 
rate, so that when excessive wear has resulted it will not be 
necessary to renew the entire magnet shell, but merely these 
pole tips. 

Even the method of holding these tips in place has to be 
considered carefully and is interesting. Through bolts are 
employed, the heads being sunk in recesses cast in the pole 
tips, and the bodies projecting clear through the magnet so 
that the threaded portions come at the magnet top. Nuts 
are then put on the bolts, and these nuts are so located that 
they are almost entirely protected from any abuse. They 
can therefore easily be removed after the magnet has been in 
service for months or years. If the nuts were put on the 
bottom they would soon become marred and riveted so that 
the removal of the bolts would be impossible without actually 
cutting the heads off. The method of bringing out the coil 
terminals furnishes another illustration of where the design 
has been a matter of logical evolution. 

The magnet shell is designed so that there will be three 
openings on the top; two of these are employed for bringing 
out the terminals, there being one terminal in each opening. 
Strip copper is led out from the coil and is folded back and 
forward on itself two or three times to provide flexibility, 
and its end is then anchored to a terminal stud. This forms 
part of the terminal connection which is led out horizontally 
through an opening in the magnet cavity, and makes con- 
nection with a bolt terminal connection. 

After the magnet has been completely assembled, heated 
impregnating compound is poured in the openings at the top 
of the magnet until it completely fills the interior of the mag- 
net and its level reaches to the top of the terminal cavities. 
All three of the cavities are then sealed tight with casting 
bolted down on top of them. These castings, however, carry 
check valves which open outward and which allow the escape 
of any vapors generated inside of the magnet, or allow the 
escape of the impregnating compound itself should its volume 
under the influence of heat expand to such an extent that it 
exceeds the volume of free space inside the magnet. 

The impregnating compound is practically solid when cool, 
but when heated to the operating temperature of magnets 
becomes semi-fluid and expands in volume ten or fifteen per 
cent. One of the principal purposes of the three openings 
on the top of the magnet is to provide reservoir capacity for 



the ebb and flow of the impregnating compound as it expands 
and contracts due to heating and cooling. There must be 
sufficient reservoir capacity in these three risers so that 
when the compound is cold it will completely submerge the 
coil in all internal terminal details, and there must be suf- 
ficient space in these risers so that at ordinary operating tem- 
peratures the expansion of the compound will not cause any 
of it to be ejected. 

It is apparent, from what has been said, that great pains 
are taken to exclude moisture from the coil or terminals 
and this point must be continually kept in mind in the de- 
sign of the magnet bottom, the design of the terminals and 
in the method of surrounding the coil with impregnating 
compound. 

Until a few years ago magnets were supported by chains 
fastened to eye-bolts screwed in the top of the magnet. The 
dimensions of these eye-bolts were made several times 
larger than would be required to carry any conceivable load 
which might be imposed upon them, but in spite of this pre- 
caution, the breakage of eye-bolts was frequent and trou- 
blesome. The magnet, suspended from a crane, would fre- 
frequently swing back and forth and would sometimes strike 
the bottom of a steel car or a heavy steel ingot directly on 
one of its eye-bolts and this heavy side shock would shear 
off the bolt. Several years ago at the suggestion of Mr. 
Palmer, then electrical superintendent of the Jones & Laugh- 
lin Steel Co., the use of cast steel suspension lugs of the 
type which is now standard on lifting magnets came into 
practice. These lugs are made very strong, and are of 
such contour that it is almost impossible for them to re- 
ceive anything except a glancing blow, and it can be truth- 
fully said that their use has eliminated all of the troubles 
formerly experienced with eye-bolts. 

Nearly all of the features of design which have been so 
far mentioned might be locked upon as elaborations on the 
theoretical lifting magnet. They are necessary to meet the 
peculiar and severe conditions of service, and indeed it is 
only by the development of these structural features that 
the magnet has come to be a commercially successful piece 
of apparatus. Before leaving this phase of the matter, we 
may summarize the foregoing as follows: First, magnets 
are subjected to abuse more severe than any other piece of 
electrical apparatus, and second, it is highly important, even 
necessary, that the magnet should be so designed mechan- 
ically, that it will continue to work all day and every day 
under these conditions of service. 

From an electrical and magnetic standpoint, the lifting 
magnet is, of course, relatively simple. It consists essen- 
tially of an energizing coil and a steel casting constituting 
an incomplete magnetic circuit, which is partially or com- 
pletely satisfied when iron or steel load bridges the air gap. 

Since the circuit is highly inductive, particularly when the 
load consists of steel billets or ingots, thereby making a 
very good magnetic circuit, a perceptible length of time is 
required to build up and to tear down the magnetic field. 
The current change in the coil when the circut is established 
and then broken, depends upon whether the circuit is broken 
by placing a discharge resistance across the magnet termi- 
nals, or by completely rupturing the circuit. With a dis- 
charge resistance, the current dies away with marked slow- 
ness, but when the circuit is opened current persists only 
as long as the arc exists at the switch. Obviously using the 
discharge resistance means that the load will not be released 
with sufficient promptness, but it might be thought that 
opening the circuit would allow the instantaneous dropping 
of a load. It must be remembered, however, that though 
the current has dropped to zero, the magnetic field has not 
necessarily been completely torn down; as a matter of fact, 
there is some delay or pause in dropping the load, even 



[February, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



65 




Lifting Magnet of Large Capacity. 

with the complete rupturing of the circuit. Therefore, to 
provide for the rapid release of the load, a scheme has been 
devised whereby current through the magnet is reversed. 
This reverse current, however, is small in value, and while it 
readily tears down the magnetic held, it is not sufficient to 
energize the magnet to such an extent that it will retain the 
load. 

Different types of magnets are used for handling different 
characters of material. For pig, scrap, wire and tin. sheared 
plate, rail and ingot crops and similar material piled indis- 
criminately, the round type magnet has so far proven to be 
the most satisfactory. 

T-or handling material like rails, billets, etc.. which are 
generally piled evenly and regularly, a flat type, or what 
we term the "Bi-polar" type of magnet, has proven to be 
the most satisfactory. With this kind of a load, which is 
excellent from a magnetic standpoint, enormous lifts can 
be made. There have been installed at various rail mills 
throughout this country, magnets which in pairs have han- 
dled as many as nineteen 60-foot rails of a total weight of 
:50.400 lbs. 

Flat type magnets are also used for handling iron and 
steel sheet plates, although this is one of the most difficult 
applications of lifting magnets. These plates are generally 
long and thin, and therefore limber. They do not offer suf- 
ficient cross section to make the magnetic attraction very 



strong, and the tendency is for the plate to pry away from 
the poles at the edge of the magnet. This introduces an air 
gap and weakens the initial grip, and unless the magnets are 
amply strong, the plates will gradually tear themselves away 
from the magnets and drop. On account of this bending of 
the plates, they are practically always handled by magnets 
in groups of from two to six magnets, the magnets being 
supported by a spreader beam. However, plate handling by 
means of magnets is being carried forward in a number of 
places successfully and in an interesting manner. Magnets 
have been furnished to the Imperial Shipyards of Japan for 
handling ship plate, and these magnets were so constructed 
that they at first picked up the plate when in a horizontal 
position; the magnets were then free to rotate through 
ninety degrees so that the plate was in a vertical position 
and read} - to be installed on the battleship in its proper lo- 
cation. At the plant of the Illinois Steel Co., Chicago, plate 
magnets have also been installed, and at this plant the skill 
of the operators in the handling of plates is very marked 
and interesting. They sometimes pick up three or four 
plates at a time and by momentarily opening the circuit, 
allow only one plate to drop, re-establishing the circuit be- 
fore the balance of the plates have freed themselves from 
the magnet. 

In designing magnets for any character of service, due 
attention must be given to the total number of ampere turns. 
area of the magnetic circuit, area of the cross section of the 
load, area of the poles, and the proper proportions between 
all of these factors. It would be almost impossible to lay 
down any laws governing these points of design, and the 
selection of the correct electrical and magnetic character- 
istics cannot be reached by purely theoretical considerations, 
but must be influenced to a very great extent by systematic 
te-ts and previous experiments in magnet design. 

The question of safety is frequently raised, and during the 
time when the magnet was being commercially introduced, 
its use was frequently combated on the score that it was 
dangerous to workmen. Of course it cannot be denied that 
if a man is standing under a magnet that is carrying a load 
and the circuit is interrupted, something is going to happen 
to that man* I maintain, however, that it is safer to use a 
magnet for the transportation of material than to use chains. 
for several reasons. First, the magnet is inherently a labor- 
saving device, and when it is used the number of laborers in 
its vicinity is largely reduced and frequently the magnet en- 
tirely displaces ground labor. Second, a laborer always 
looks upon a magnet with a high degree of suspicion, since 
there is nothing tangible to hold up the load, and he avoids 
getting under a load supported by a magnet more than he 
would getting under a load supported by chains: in other 
words, he uses more caution. Third, the accidental open- 
ing of a magnet circuit probably does not occur a- often as 
the slipping or breaking of chains supporting a load. 



A SUGGESTION CONCERNING SIDE ROD STRAINS. 
By W. O. Moody. M. E.. 111. Cent. R. R. 

Experience with side rod> in fast service -com- to develop 

more trouble with, six coupled engines than with those of the 

four coupled type, assuming in each case that rods are of 

similar design and properly proportioned to the loads im- 

ed. 

If the rods were of uniform section from pin to pin. the 
curve of the neutral axis would assume the form as indicated 
by the solid line "b-b" on the accompanying -ketch, which 
has been purposely exaggerated to better facilitate illus- 
tration. In practice, however, wc meet with the hej 
rigid Midale connection coupled through the medium oi the 
knuckle pin to it< neighboring rod. The upward or down* 



66 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[February, 1911.] 



ward action of the rod "h," designated as front on the print, 
has a tendency to force the knuckle pin either below or 
above the center line of the rods due to the force of gravity. 
The action of back rod "e" at the same time has a ten- 
dency to resist this movement of the knuckle pin at certain 
periods of the stroke, and in so doing will force that part of 
the rod at the middle connection to an approximately hori- 




Sketch Showing Side Rod Strains. 

zontal position, inducing bending strains at or near the 
point "a" on front rod "h." The curve of the rods under 
this condition is indicated by the lower dotted line "c-c." 

We find that side rods on six-coupled engines in high speed 
service develop cracks near point "a" occasionally in the 
flange and again in the web of I-beam type of rod. To mini- 
mize this action the knuckle pin should be as close to crank 
pin as design will permit, while the web of the body of rod 
should be thickened from about "f" toward the strap and a 
large sweeping radius be used at "h." 

In connection with above, I would appreciate receiving the 
opinions of others regarding the theory of this action. 



RECENT PROGRESS IN AIR BRAKE APPARATUS 
FOR ELECTRIC AND STEAM ROAD SERVICE. 

By S. W. Dudley. 

The development and progress of the transportation facili- 
ties of this country have by no means lagged behind the 
continuous and rapid growth in other directions during re- 
cent years. New conditions have created new requirements 
so important as to demand better roadbeds, bigger locomo- 
tives, special types of motive power apparatus, heavier cars, 
higher speeds, and, as a natural consequence, a necessity for 
improved appliances for controlling train movtments. 

It may be fairly stated that the last twelve months have 
witnessed the satisfactory solution of some of the most dif- 
ficult problems which have thus far arisen in connection with 
the controlling of electric and steam railroad trains. The 
general and fundamental characteristics of the improved 
forms of air brake apparatus required by the intensive de- 
mands of modern traffic have been clearly established, re- 
duced to practicable form and introduced to such an extent 
and for such a period of time as to insure their permanency 
and capacity to satisfactorily meet the general operative re- 
quirements of the future as far as they can be anticipated. 

There remain, however, certain special classes of service 
or extremes of operating conditions requiring greater spe- 
cialization of apparatus in order to provide for maximum 
convenience, economy and safety of operation. It is with 
reference to such instances rather than in the further devel- 
opment of the general functional features of the air brake 
system, as a whole, that the most notable progress of the 
past year has been made. 

These more specialized developments may be classified as 
follows: 

1. The electro-pneumatic brake system for controlling the 
air brakes on electric trains (such as used in elevated and 
subway service) by means of electrically actuated valves. 

2. The automatic car and air coupler, providing for the 
connecting and locking of the car and air connections simul- 
taneously and automatically, developed with particular refer- 
ence to electric train service. 



3. The governor synchronizing system for insuring a 
proper and equal distribution of the labor of supplying com- 
pressed air for braking and other purposes between two or 
more motor-driven air compressors that may be associated 
in the same train. 

4. The control valve brake equipment — an improved pneu- 
matic brake containing a number of novel and advantageous 
features particularly designed to meet the requirements of 
heavy, high speed steam road passenger service. 

5. The "empty and load" brake for freight service; de- 
signed to provide braking powers for loaded freight cars 
more nearly proportionate to those realized on empty cars, 
than can be secured with the standard form of freight car 
brake. 

The Electro-Pneumatic Brake 
The electro-pneumatic brake, while by no means a new 
type of brake apparatus, has been developed and perfected 
during the past year to a point which established it as a 
wholly pract.icable.and the most nearly perfect brake system 
yet devised for controlling trains operating under the severest 
conditions. To the fundamental and most improved type 
of purely pneumatic brake, the addition of electrically act- 
uated valves affords means whereby the brake may be con- 
trolled electrically in applying and releasing for ordinary 
service operation. The promptness, uniformity and sensi- 
tiveness of the brake action made possible by this form of 
control afford a maximum of simplicity, convenience and 
economy in train service where frequent and quick stops 
must be made. The addition of these features to the pnen- 
matic form of equipment, without disturbing the pneumatic 
features of the brake in any way, adds a safety and protec- 
tive feature to the combination, which is of the utmost value 
as insurance against loss of brake power. That is to say, 
with the electro-pneumatic form of brake equipment the 
brakes can be applied and released through the medium of 
the electrically controlled application and release valves 
without in any way detracting from the responsiveness or 
efficiency of the pneumatic side of the equipment, should 
the power fail, or should it, for any reason, become necessary 
to operate the brakes pneumatically instead of electrically. 
These features of the electro-pneumatic form of brake equip- 
ment have been characteristic of previous development in 
this type of apparatus, but have been combined and extended 
to a considerable extent in the recently perfected form of 
this equipment. 

Tn addition, there have been new features added which 
largely increase the safety and efficiency of this form of 
equipment. The most important of these is the electric 
transmission of quick action to the brakes on all cars in the 
train in emergency applications. This insures simultaneous 
and instantaneous application of the brakes on every car to 
their maximum power, resulting in a gain of about one sec- 
ond and one-half in the time of obtaining maximum braking 
power on all cars of a ten-car train as compared with the 
best which could be obtained from the most improved form 
of pneumatic emergency brake. This saving in time is of 
great value where the service is congested and the speeds 
relatively high. 

The difference between the maximum service braking pow- 
er and the maximum available for emergency applications 
has been considerably increased to afford the greatest pos- 
sible retarding effort when needed, that is consistent with 
freedom from wheel sliding. 

The valves which have to do with producing the quick 
action application of the brakes are separated from those 
which are operative in ordinary service applications, with a 
resulting improvement in freedom from trouble on the road, 
due to quick action being obtained when not intended. All 
of the previous types of brake equipment were more or less 



February 1911/ 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



/ 



subject to inconvenience from this source under certain con- 
ditions of incorrect manipulation, lack of proper maintenance 
or adjustment, weather conditions, etc 

The electro-pneumatic brake is at present standard on the 
cars of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company, the Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Company subway, the Hudson & 
Manhattan tunnel system and the Boston Elevated Railroad- 
While the electro-pneumatic brake has been developed 
with particular reference to the necessities of short-headv 
high-speed electric train service as exemplified in the subway 
and elevated systems just mentioned, its advantages are of 
equal importance in steam railroad service, particularly where 
the conditions of operation approximate those of these elec- 
tric installations. 

The advent of train lighting by electricity and the rapid 
increase of knowledge of and experience with electrically 
operated devices in steam railroad service are bringing about 
conditions highly favorable to the introduction of electro- 
pneumatic apparatus wherever its superior operative and 
mechanical features are demonstrable. This phase of the 
situation has been constantly in mind during the develop- 
ment of the recent improved type of electro-pneumatic brake 
apparatus, with the result that in its final perfected form, 
the electro-pneumatic brake is capable of extension to any 
degree required by present or future demands, in either elec- 
tric or steam road passenger train service, so far as can be 
at present foreseen. 

The Automatic Car and Air Coupler. 

Various more or less successful forms of automatic con- 
nectors for making drawbar and air hose connections at the 
same time and automatically have been in service for some 
time, especially in electric traction sen-ice. During the past 
tr, however, a form of this device has been developed 
which contains certain improved features adaptable particu- 
larly to the conditions of subway or elevated service. Under 
the extremely severe requirements of such service as that of 
the Interborough Rapid Transit Company in New York, it 
becomes imperative that absolute protection against acci- 
dental uncoupling of the drawbars be secured, which can 
best be done by the substitution of an unfailing mechanical 
device, which at the same time affords a vastly increased 
protection to the railroad employes against unnecessary dan- 
ger to life. The automatic coupling of the car and air con- 
nections has farther distinctly economical advantages in the 
direction of time and maintenance by reducing the time re- 
quired to make up trains at terminals or couple to or un- 
couple from cars en route, and by reducing the cost of 
operation by saving the wear and tear on flexible hose con- 
nections. Furthermore, when coupled, all slack between c r 
is eliminated, (multiple-unit motive power trains permitting 
this desideratum which is impracticable with trains hauled 
by a locomotive at the head end), thus insuring against 
shocks in starting and stopping and largely reducing the pos- 
sibility of damage to equipment and discomfort to pas- 
sengers. 

The improved form of automatic car and air coupler is 
being applied to all of the cars of the Interborough Rapid 
Transit Company's Subway Division, and has already given 
ample proof of its efficiency under the extremely severe con- 
ditions imposed in this service. 

The Governor Synchronizing System. 

This system has been perfected during the last year, and is 
the most satisfactory and efficient apparatus for the pur^ 

Heretofore, in the operation of electric trains 
containing two or more motor cars, more or less difficulty 
has been experienced in securing an equitable division of the 
work of supplying the compressed air required for braking 



and other purposes among the different motor-driven air 
compressors included in the train. The result has been that 
some compressors are overworked, while others are not 
working up to their full capacity. Such an inequality of com- 
pressor operation naturally results in increased wear and 
tear on the overworked compre ; ::• wel as an actual 

decrease in the available air supply under certain conditi : 
due to the attendant loss in the efficiency of compressor 
operation. A number of different schemes for overcoming 
this difficulty have been tried out. Some have proved quite 
satisfactory for certain classes :f service, but, until the per- 
fection of the governor synchronizing system, there seemed 
to be no generally satisfactory method of accomplishing the 
desired results with a uniform type of apparatus applicable 
to all classes of vehicles and conditions of service operation. 

Briefly stated, the characteristic features of the governor 
synchronizing system are as follows 

The current supply to the motor of each motor-driven air 
compressor in a train is controlled by a switch, operated by 
air pressure as in the ordinary form of electro-pneumatic 
governor previously used, except that the cutting-in and cut- 
ting-out of this switch is controlled by the operation of a 
magnet valve instead of a pneumatic regulating portion con- 
nected to main reservoir pressure, as is the case with the 
ordinary compressor governor. In the governor synchroniz- 
ing system, this switch is called the compressor switch. In 
addition to the compressor switch, a pneumatically controlled 
switch called a master governor is used on each motor car 
similar in all respects to the previously used electro-pneu- 
matic compressor governor, except that instead of controlling 
the current supplied to the motors of the motor-driven air 
compre;:- acts simply as a pilot or ma- :tch to 

control the magnets which operate the compressor s-- : 
The magnets of the compressor switches are connected in 
parallel between the trolley (or positive battery term:- 
and a wire, called the synchronizing wire, which runs the 
entire length of the train. The cutting-in of any ma- 
governor connects the synchronizing wire to ground (or neg- 
ative battery terminal) and thereby operates all the com- 
pressor switch magnets. All the main reservoirs in the train 
are connected by means of a main reservoir line pipe run- 
ning the entire length of the train and connecting to the 
pneumatic controlling portion of each master governor. V 
all the compressors cut out. the pressure in this line being 
equalized, as soon as this pressure is decreased to a point at 
which any one of the master controlling mechanisms open?. - 
the c'osing of this master governor switch suppli- 
rent to the magnets of each compressor switch in the 
train, causing them to operate so as to cut in these switches 
and start all the compressors simultaneously Whether one 
or more of the master governors cuts in at the same time i* 
immaterial, since the compressors ntinue to operate 

and raise the pressure in the main reservoirs on each veh: 
and in the main reservoir line throughout the train, ui 
such time as the controlling portion of the last master g 
ernor remaining cut in ope: open the circuit to the 

compressor switch magnets, which causes all the compre- 

cut out and stop the operation of all the 
driven compre-- rs -:multaneously. It will be seen tha - 
this way all the compressors are forced to operate the same 
length of time and since the main n 

ized on all vehicles, the stronger compr the we 

er ones to the extent of insuring the 
compressed air being supplied at the expense oi 
amount of energy, time, and wear and tear on the appars 

The Control Valve Equipnv 
This type of equipment, markir. itest perfected de- 

pment in the art of braking he 



6S 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[February, 1911.] 



new form of apparatus, fundamentally designed to provide 
an adequate brake for the heaviest passenger cars now oper- 
ated or which may be built. During recent years the weights 
of sleeping and dining cars especially have begun to exceed 
the capacity of the largest single brake cylinder arrangement, 
and, as a result of special study of this problem, the control 
valve equipment was evolved to obviate the necessity for 
applying two single cylinder duplicate sets of apparatus per 
car, and to improve certain features inherent in the standard 
brake design which tend to reduce brake efficiency to a con- 
siderable degree when applied to the heaviest types of rolling 
stock. 

Xot only were the factors of weight, work to be done 
per unit of brake shoe area, lower efficiency of foundation 
brake gear, etc., aggravated to a marked degree, but limit- 
ing conditions were encountered in other directions. The 
capacity of the largest single cylinder (18 inches in diam- 
eter) was exceeded, even with the highest brake cylinder 
pressure that could be permitted. It was generally recog- 
nized that a larger size brake cylinder would be imprac- 
ticable from a manufacturing, operating and maitenance 
standpoint. A higher pressure than the standard 110 
pounds, or a greater increase in the leverage ratio of the 
foundation brake rigging, above the recommended 9 to 1 
maximum value, was impossible with the type of equip- 
ment in general service. These and other mechanical lim- 
itations barred further progress in the directions pre- 
viously followed, and a general recognition of the serious 
nature of the problem confronting the railroads and brake 
manufacturers resulted in a. joint conference and discus- 
sion at which representatives of the Master Car Builders' 
Association and railroads from all parts of the country 
were present, at Union Station, Pittsburg, Pa., in the late 
summer of 1909. The tentative recommendations of this 
meeting were reduced to practice and its conclusions con- 
firmed in a series of high speed passenger brake tests, 
inaugurated and successfully carried out by the Lake Shore 
& Michigan Southern Railroad on its main line near Toledo, 
Ohio, during the fall and early winter of 1909. The fact 
that these tests were made with the heaviest classes of 
modern rolling stock, under road conditions representative 
of the best of modern railroad practice, and the scientific 
and comprehensive manner in which the tests were con- 
ducted and the results analyzed and at once put into effect, 
give these tests a position of importance second only to 
the classic Westinghouse-Galton Brake Trials in England 
during 1878 and 1879. 

From a study of the results of these tests, it became evi- 
dent that, in the first place, two brake cylinders per car 
were required to provide the necessary power for controll- 
ing the heavy types of cars which had to be reckoned with, 
and, in the second place, suitable valve mechanism was 
required for properly controlling the operation of these two 
brake cylinders and securing certain desirable operative 
functions heretofore impossible with previous forms of pas- 
senger car equipment, as well as permit of ready extension 
as still more severe demands might arise in the future. 
These considerations led to the development (during the 
progress of the tests referred to) of what is known as the 
"PC" brake equipment, which uses in place of the ordinary 
triple valve, what is known as a control valve, providing the 
following features of operation: — 1 — Automatic in action. 2 
— Efficiency not materially affected by unequal piston travel 
or brake cylinder leakage. 3 — Prompt serial service action. 
4 — Graduated release. 5 — Quick recharge and consequent 
ready response of brakes to any brake pipe reduction made 
at any time. 6 — Predetermined and fixed flexibility for serv- 
ice operation. 7 — Full emergency pressure obtainable at any 
time after a full service application. 8 — Full emergency pres- 
sure applied automatically after any predetermined brake 



pipe reduction has been made after equalization. 9 — Emer- 
gency braking power approximately 100 per cent greater than 
the maximum obtainable in service applications. 10 — Maxi- 
mum brake cylinder pressure obtained in the least possible 
time. 11 — Maximum brake cylinder pressure maintained 
throughout the stop. 12 — Brake rigging designed for maxi- 
mum efficiency. 13 — Adaptable to all classes and conditions 
of service. 

All the novel functions mentioned are incorporated in the 
new device in such a way that the requirements of inter- 
changeability with existing apparatus have been fully satis- 
fied. 

The "Empty and Load" Brake Equipment. 

This type of equipment, while designed with particular 
reference to the handling of loaded freight cars on grades, 
has also the same fundamental advantages for baggage and 
express cars, or for any railroad vehicle which may be 
classed as a load-carrying car. It will readily be seen that 
the necessity for operating such cars empty as well as when 
loaded, requires that the brake shall not be too powerful for 
the empty weight of the car. Otherwise, wheel-sliding and 
damaging draw-bar stresses will result. 

Various schemes have been proposed and experimented 
with to a greater or less degree whereby a variable braking 
power can be obtained, commensurate with the weight car- 
ried on the wheels, which will automatically adjust itself to 
the condition of the car whether it is empty or loaded. 
While the great desirability of such a form of brake appara- 
tus has long been recognized by all familiar with the hand- 
ling of this class of service, there have been mechanical or 
operative objections to all of the schemes thus far proposed, 
or certain desirable features have been lacking. 

In the form of "empty and load" brake apparatus, which 
has been perfected during the last few months, advantage 
has been taken of a broad knowledge of the fundamental 
principles affecting the operation of braking apparatus from 
its earliest to its latest forms and of accumulated experience 
with a number of different types of "empty and load" equip- 
ments under a great variety of conditions, with a result that 
the equipment has been reduced to the minimum number of 
parts and complication of apparatus consistent with the fun- 
damental features of operation desired. 

Two brake cylinders are used, one for the empty car and 
both together when the car is loaded to say two-thirds or 
more of its rated capacity. Practically the same mechanism 
is used to control the operation of these two cylinders, ex- 
cept that an additional change-over valve mechanism is added 
for cutting the "load" brake in or out, either manually, or, 
under certain circumstances, automatically. The only addi- 
tion to the foundation brake gear is that required to connect 
the "load" cylinder with the standard lever arrangement 
which is still used in connection with the "empty" side of the 
equipment. On the empty car the operation of the equip- 
ment is similar to that of the present type of freight appara- 
tus employing what is known as the type "K" triple valve. 
When the car is loaded to two-thirds or more of its rated 
capacity, the "load" side of the equipment is cut in by hand, 
and the operation of the brake is thereafter that of the "load 
brake" until manually changed to "empty" or until the air 
pressure is entirely exhausted from the system. 

Moreover, the combining of an automatic change-over from 
"load" to "empty" on total depletion of the pressure in the 
air brake system, with a manual change only from "empty" 
to "load," insures that the brake will always be set for 
"empty" on the empty car and remain so unless intention- 
ally changed to "load" when the car is loaded. Means are 
provided so that the device can be locked in either "empty" 
or "load" position, where it will remain until unlocked and 
manually changed. 



[February, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



69 



At present this form of brake equipment is being applied 
particularly to mountain grade service where the capacity of 
the road is limited by the amount of tonnage which can be 
safely handled per train down the grade. For such a condi- 
tion the "empty and load" form of brake makes it possible 
to increase the traffic capacity of the road to a considerable 
extent at a relatively small increase in cost. 

It will be recognized, however, that this form of equipment 
possesses important operative advantages in the direction of 
greater uniformity of braking effort with empty and loaded 
cars mixed in the same train, thus largely eliminating shocks 
and consequent delays and damages to equipment and lading, 
which now assume enormous proportions. These and other 
characteristics make it the logical and ideal type of appara- 
tus for load-carrying cars in any kind of service. 



GENERAL LAYOUT FOR A MODERN LOCOMOTIVE 

REPAIR PLANT.* 



By H. H. Maxfield. 

The great weight of the modern locomotive, and the de- 
-sire to concentrate the heavy repairs to same, has resulted 
in the building of many new shops. While all of the shops 
thus far built have resulted in economy and efficiency as re- 
gards the maintenance of equipment, it is probable that 
very few, if any, have fully come up to the anticipation 
■of their designers, and even in the case of the few, there 
are undoubtedly many features of the layout which experi- 
ence shows could, with advantage, be modified. 

The following general scheme of a modern locomotive 
repair shop is the result of experience with one of the more 
recent of the modern shops. 

It has been the endeavor to indicate the various steps 
leading up to the final plan, and to give, as briefly as pos- 
sible, the reasons governing same. 

The first thing to be determined is whether the erecting 
shop should be of the longitudinal or cross type. It is as- 
sumed that the size and shape of the property available, 
which has a decided bearing upon this question, is such that 
it is possible to put tip either a cross or a longitudinal shop. 
For the purpose of this paper it will be assumed that a 
longitudinal shop is decided upon. 

The next to be determined is the location and general 
scheme of the machine shop. This shop should house, not 
■necessarily under one head, besides the machine department 
proper, the vise, air brake and brass, sheet iron, tin and cop- 
per, and pipe departments. All of these are of necessity inti- 
mately connected with the erecting department in their work, 
and not only should be adjacent to same, but should be 
under the same roof. 

The next department to be considered is the blacksmith. 
This department is principally a feeder of the machine de- 
partment. It, therefore, should be close to it. It should 
also be close to the power house, for it is a heavy consumer 
of steam, and practically the only consumer of steam in 
an electrically driven shop. It should consequently be lo- 
cated between the machine department and the power house. 

Coming now to the boiler shop, it will be conceded that 
inasmuch as there is a great deal of boiler and tube work 
done in the erecting department, this department, if for no 
other reason than ease of supervision, should be close to the 
erecting department. It should also be so located as to 
avoid unnecessary time and labor being consumed in trans- 
ferring boilers and tubes between it and the erecting de- 
partment. The most convenient location for such a building 
would be as a continuation of the erecting shop. It should 
not be under the same roof on account of the incessant din. 



♦Abstract from a paper read before the Xcw York Rail- 
road Club. 



It is best located by placing it in a line with the erecting 
shop, but removed from same a reasonable distance. The 
middle track of the erecting shop should be continued 
through the boiler shop, in order to afford an easy method 
of handling boilers and tubes between these departments. 

The paint department is one which in the rush of re- 
pairing locomotives is not given much consideration. Prac- 
tically all of the locomotive painting is done in the erecting 
shop, and a large proportion of the tender painting, other 
than varnishing, is done in the boiler shop. It does a good 
deal of work in connection with the wood department, espe- 
cially as regards cabs, pilots and miscellaneous work. It 
should therefore be adjacent to the wood department, and 
reasonably near the boiler and erecting departments. This 
can best be accomplished by housing the paint and wood 
departments under one roof, and placing a fire wall between 
same. 

A most important department to be located is the stores 
department. This, of course, should be convenient to every 
department, but, as this is practically impossible, it will have 
to be located with reference to the largest consumers of 
material stored therein, which are the erecting, machine, vise, 
air brake and brass, sheet iron, and tin and copper depart- 
ments. It will be best located by placing it alongside of the 
erecting and machine shop building on the opposite side 
from the smith shop. 

The location of the scrap bins will depend to a great ex- 
tent upon the size and shape of the property available. At 
its best it is an unsightly proposition, and for this reason the 
scrap bins should be located outside of the area bounded 
by the main buildings. They should be reasonably accessible 
and should be reached by trucks and cars from either end of 
the shop yard. If we locate the longitudinal center line of 
the scrap bins some distance beyond the outside line of the 
power house building, we will have reached a satisfactory 
solution of the problem. 

In the location of the office building, if a separate one is 
provided, the main essential is that it should be reasonably 
accessible to all the shop departments, and as convenient as 
possible to the main entrance of the plant, so that visitors 
and applicants for work can, if desired, be kept out of the 
plant proper. It should also be located so that the private 
office commands a fair view of the plant in general. These 
conditions can perhaps best be met by placing it in line with 
the storehouse and about twenty-five feet in advance of the 
line formed by the ends of the boiler, wood and paint, and 
oil house buildings. 

The only satisfactory way to handle locomotive after- 
trial work is to provide a separate building for this purpose, 
making it an auxiliary of the erecting shop, and under the 
supervision of that department. This auxiliary shop, or after- 
trial shop, as I prefer to call it, should be reasonably close 
to the erecting shop, and yet far enough away to prevent 
the escaping smoke and gases from flooding the otiier build- 
ings. It should be adjacent to the track upon which engines 
are tried, and also adjacent to the track over which incomi 
engines pass. Alongside of this building should be a coal 
platform and an ash pit. If we locate this building about 
200 ft. from the far end of t he erecting shop, and about 
ft. to one side of it on the storehou-e side, the various con- 
ditions mentioned above will be met. 

It will be noted that we have a rectangular space between 
the ends of the storehouse and the erecting and machine 
shop, smith shop and power house on one side, and the boiler 
shop, wood and paint shop and oil house Oil the <>thcr The 
width of this space or street is a matter ice, but it 

should not be less than ><n ft., and it i- preferable, as a mat- 
ter oi appearance, to have it ioo ft. 

The space formed by the side of the erecting machine 
shop and the boiler shop on the one hand, and the store- 



70 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[February, 1911.] 




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[February, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



71 



house and office building on the other, should be served by 
a traveling crane for the purpose of handling material. This 
space should be not less than 90 ft. wide to allow for the 
necessary tracks, platforms, etc. Between the erecting and 
machine shop and smith shop buildings should be a space of 
80 ft. to allow of tracks, storage of material, etc. The same 
distance should be allowed between the boiler- shop and 
wood and paint shop. 

The width of the various buildings should be about as 
follows: 

1. Erecting shop, 90 ft. center to center of columns. This 
allows of three tracks spaced 30 ft. center to center, upon 
all of which locomotives can be repaired, and, in addition, 
locomotives can be carried between these tracks without dan- 
ger of interference. 

2. Machine shop bays, 60 ft. center to center of columns. 
This allows ample aisle room and a sufficient crane runway 
space betwen the machines. 

3. Boiler and tank shop building. This being, in a sense, 
a continuation of the erecting and machine shop building, 
will be of the same cross section. 

4. Smith shop, 90 ft. center to center of columns. 

5. Paint and wood shop building. The building should be 
180 ft. deep, which will allow ample space for six tenders 
on each track. 

6. After-trial shop. This shop will require a maximum 
space of 75 ft. in width, while the coal platform and ash pit, 
etc., will require practically the same. 

7. Storehouse, 60 ft. center to center of columns. This 
will allow adequate bin and aisle space. 

8. Office building. This building should have a width of. 
50 ft. 

9. Scrap bins. These will require a space of 90 ft. in 
width, making due allowance for necessary tracks, platforms, 
etc. 

There is no doubt but what the weight of evidence is in 
favor of the erecting bay being in the middle with the ma- 
chine bays on either side. Experience with such an arrange- 
ment confirms this. 

The light machine shop department requires only partial 
crane service. This is advantageous, for it allows of a gal- 
lery being put in this bay, running the full length of the 
building, the width of the gallery being something less than 
one-half the width of the bay (in the present case say 25 
feet). This allows us to group under the gallery the lighter 
machines, i. e., those working on material light enough to 
be put in and taken out of the machines by hand, driving 
same from countershafts attached to the gallery. It also pro- 
vides floor space in the gallery for the air brake and brass 
department, the tool manufacturing department, the tin man- 
ufacturing department, and the department for repairs to 
electrical equipment. 

That portion of this bay not covered by the gallery should 
be served by traveling crane. On the ground floor of this 
bay, in addition to machinery, will be located the vise, pipe, 
and sheet iron and copper departments. In the heavy ma- 
chine bay will be found sufficient floor space for the repairs 
of engine trucks, thus relieving the erecting bay to this ex- 
tent. 

The character of the work to be done in the boiler shop 
building lends itself very nicely to the same general design 
as the erecting and machine shop. 

The center bay will be devoted to the repairs of boilers, 
tender frames and cisterns. In one of the side bays will lie 
located the strictly boiler working machinery, flanging fires, 
laying off tables, etc., while in the other bay will be located 
the tender truck, boiler tube and ash pan departments. A 
gallery in this building is not necessary. 



In the smith shop building will be located the spring and 
bolt departments. 

The wood and paint shop building can be of the conven- 
tional paint shop design, a certain number of bays being as- 
signed to the wood department and entirely shut off from 
the paint department by means of a fire wall. 

The after-trial shop should be rectangular in shape and 
should have three tracks running through same, each track 
long enough to accommodate two engines with their tenders. 
This building should be equipped with wheel pits and an 
overhead traveling crane. 

The power house should be divided longitudinally, thus al- 
lowing of the best arrangement of boiler and engine rooms. 
This building should have a fairly deep basement under the 
engine room for convenience in running wires, piping, etc., 
also for locating auxiliaries. Under the boiler room should 
be a basement or tunnel for coal and ash handling machinery. 
It is preferable to have a basement under the entire building. 

The storehouse should consist of two stories and base- 
ment, should have, at least, one fire-proof vault for the stor- 
age of combustible material, one or more freight elevators, 
and by all means should be divided into at least two parts 
by a fire wall. If the master mechanic's (or shop superin- 
tendent's) offices are located in this building, they should be 
on the second floor. It is preferable, however, to have the 
executive offices in a separate building. 

The paint, oil and waste storehouse should, of course, be 
of fire-proof construction, and should be one story and base- 
ment. The size and general arrangement of this building will 
depend upon whether or not it is intended to supply only 
the immediate shop requirements or to make it a general 
supply point. In this paper we will assume the former. 

In order to complete the layout of a plant such as we 
have been discussing, we will make the following assump- 
tions: 

First: Number of locomotives to be maintained. 750. 

Second: Average weight of locomotives, 80 tons. 

Third: Character of territory served, generally level. 

Fourth: Character of traffic, mixed — high speed passen- 
ger, local passenger, fast freight and slow freight. 

Under the above conditions approximately 1:20 per cent 
of the locomotives would pass through the shop for repairs 
each year, these repairs varying from new firebox and gen- 
eral repairs to machinery, to repairs such as renewal of 
broken parts, repairs due to wreck, or heavy running repairs 
which are not usually attempted at the ordinary engine 
house. With an equipment of 750 locomotives the shops will 
have to turn out 900 per year, or an average of 75 per month. 
A shop of this character should be able to turn out on an 
average three locomotives per track space per month, assum- 
ing that the shops are working under the piece-work system 
or under some individual effort system. Therefore in the 
erecting shop we will require :?."> engine pit spaces. Tn addi- 
tion, sufficient space should be provided to allow of making 
necessary repairs to frames, etc., while the boilers are in the 
boiler shop having fireboxes renewed. 

If we make the erecting shop building 500 feet long, and 
utilize the center track, with the exception of an engine space 
on either end, for repairs, and make the sidetracks 360 feet 
long, utilizing all the space of same for repairs, with the ex- 
ception of one engine space at the entrance end. we will 
have ample room to accommodate 25 locomotives under re- 
pairs at one time, and also provide a space of approximately 
9.800 square feet for repair- to frames In addition to this 
should be provided, at least, 6,000 square feet in the heavy 
machine shop bay for repairs to engine trucks Tin- gives 
a total of 51.000 square feet of floor area for the erecting 
work. 

The floor area required by tin other department- is ap- 
proximately as follow- 



72 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[February, 1911.] 



Erecting and machine shop building: 

Erecting department (as above) 51,000 sq. ft. 

Heavy machine department. * 24,000 " 

Light machine department...... 14,900 " 

Vise department 9,100 " 

Sheet iron and copper department 3,500 " 

Pipe department 2,500 " 

Tool manufacturing department (in gallery). 3,000 " 

Tin manufacturing department (in gallery) . 4,000 " 

Air brake and brass department (in gallery) . 4,000 " 

Electrical repair department (in gallery) . . . 1,500 " 



Total 117,500 " 

Boiler and tender shop building: 

Boiler department 9,900 sq. ft. 

Boiler machinery department 13,200 " 

Tube and ash pan department 8,400 " 

Tender department 9,900 " 

Tender truck department 4,800 " 

Total 46,200 " 

Smith shop building: 

Smith department 18,000 sq. ft. 

Spring department 3,600 " 

Bolt department 3,600 " 

Total 25,200 " 

Paint and wood shop building: • 

Paint department 10,800 sq. ft. 

Wood department 10,800 " 

Total 21,600 

After-trial shop 12,600 sq. ft. 

Power house 30,400 " 

Storehouse 28,800 " 

Paint and oil storehouse 8,000 " 

Office building 8,000 " 

To provide space as above, the general dimensions of these 
buildings will be as follows: 

Erecting and machine shop, 210 feet x 500 feet (with 25 
ft. gallery). 

Boiler and tender shop, 210 feet x 220 feet.' 

Smith shop, 90 feet x 280 feet. 

Paint and wood shop. 120 feet x 180 feet. 

After-trial shop, 60 feet x 190 feet (with offset 15 ft. x 
115 ft.). 

Power house, 95 feet x 160 feet (one story and basement). 
Storehouse, 60 feet x 160 feet (two stories and basement). 
Paint and oil storehouse, 50 feet x 80 feet (one story and 
basement). 

Office building, 50 feet x 80 feet (one story and basement). 



PRESENT STATUS OF MECHANICAL REFRIGERA- 
TION IN RAILWAY WORK. 

By Chas. A. Haeussler. 
Mechanical refrigeration in the production of ice and cold 
storage is no longer a novelty in the industrial world to- 
day. Being a somewhat recent application, however, its 
development has steadily progressed, with considerable 
changes from time to time, so that there has been no op- 
portunity for general standardization of plants as yet, and 
in some fields the development of this particular branch has 
scarcely commenced. This is particularly so in the railway 
world. Mechanical refrigeration has proved its efficiency and 



ability in cold storage plants, department stores, hotels, and 
in the large ocean steamers, both for freight and passenger 
, service. However, in the railway world natural ice still holds 
its original position in the great majority of cases, in spite of 
the fact that in other departments it is hopelessly outclassed. 
The reason for this is not entirely clear. It is probably due 
to the fact that cold storage has been considered of minor 
importance in railway transportation up to the present time, 
but this department of the business of a railway is steadily 
becoming more and more important with enormous oppor- 
tunities for profitable development in this field. 

Now, in order to understand the position of mechanical 
refrigeration in regard to natural ice. Both exist today on 
the market, in apparent competition. There exists, however, 
no recent competition in the strictest science of the word. 
Artificial ice can be produced much cheaper than natural ice 
under almost any conditions. When the fact is considered 
that natural ice merely involves first cost on plant, cost of 
harvesting, storage, and conveyance to the market, together 
with loss due to melting, this is no small achievement. 
Artificial ice can be produced in large plants readily at a 
cost of about fifty cents a ton, if the plant is of ordinary 
efficiency. In isolated cases this cost can be lowered as far 
as a minimum of forty-three cents a ton, and this represents 
about the lowest limit. Thus, natural ice except in a few 
isolated cases, where cost of plant and equipment becomes 
practically negligible, and where the freight rate to the mar- 
ket can be neglected, is no competitor. The reason for the 
existence of natural ice in the market today, under any cir- 
cumstances, is merely due to the fact that sufficient artificial 
ice to satisfy the demand is never produced. Practically, 
artificial ice men have a ready market for their output at 
prices fixed to allow natural ice a reasonable profit. As an 
illustration of the remarkable progress of artificial ice today 
and the inadequacy of the supply, it can be stated that over 
4,000 new refrigerating plants were installed in the United 
States alone last year. 

Now, the situation in the railway world is essentially as 
follows: Natural ice is the chief source of cold storage here 
and the competition with artificial ice in this department has 
not been so great as in other lines, owing to the fact that 
freight charges are generally negligible. Thus, ice is gen- 
erally cut and stored at points along the railway wherever 
obtainable, and at the same time in locations suitable for 
utilization. When it is necessary to convey this ice to other 
points the freight rate is not considered in the great ma- 
jority of cases as a cost factor in its production. Thus, nat- 
ural ice occupies a stronger position in the railway world in 
regard to its competitor, than in any other of its utilizations. 
That this is a wrong condition for the railways to neglect 
freight rates on their own ice in a consideration of the cost 
of production is a foregone conclusion. 

Another reason of considerable importance, tending to ex- 
plain the backward question of the railroads in regard to 
mechanical refrigeration, is due to the fact that the appli- 
cations of mechanical refrigeration for cooling purposes in 
railway work are varied often almost as much as the different 
kinds of perishable freight. Further, mechanical refrigera- 
tion has been in a constantly changing development, and the 
manufacturers of refrigerating machines have readily found 
a wide open market without entering this field This field is 
a difficult one to satisfy, since perishable freight requires 
different kinds of refrigeration for its transportation. Thus, 
most fruit cargoes require a temperature of about sixty de- 
grees F., maintained throughout transit, for their best con- 
veyance. Milk and dairy products suffer least when con- 
veyed at a temperature of about fifty degrees F. Meats and 
many additional provisions carry best below the freezing 
point, whereas eggs and other commodities, utilize thirty-five 



[February, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



73 



to forty degrees and are spoiled with much variation from 
this temperature. 

Again, the nature of the business itself namely, transporta- 
tion, renders the application of mechanical refrigeration to 
cold storage when in transit a necessarily difficult matter. 
Thus, mechanical refrigeration loses a number of its advan- 
tages of direct application for a definite purpose, and gen- 
erally wherever applied, it has been as an intermediary in the 
process. The mechanical refrigeration has almost invariably 
been used to produce artificial ice, and this ice in turn used to 
produce the refrigeration, and hence it loses much of its 
economy due to direct utilization. Hence, when all these 
conditions are considered, it is not surprising that mechanical 
refrigeration has found easier lines of development, and has 
not troubled the railways to any great extent. 

Today, however, mechanical refrigeration is applied in a 
number of developments of railway work. The United Fruit 
Companies have a number of cooling plants in operation 
throughout the country for the refrigeration of their product 
in transit. A large number of railroads have cold storage 
houses operated by mechanical refrigeration in the large 
cities, for the storage of the perishable products immediately 
after transit. These houses, of course, in some cases, also 
utilize refrigeration in ice production, which sometimes finds 
its way into the cars in transit, but this is of comparatively 
minor significance in regard to the entire output. The Rail- 
way and Stationary Refrigeration Company utilizes mechan- 
ical refrigeration in car units for the conveyance of milk in 
the vicinity of New York, as has been said. This requires a 
temperature of about fifty degrees and this has been fairly 
efficient in this application. The general development of 
single refrigerating car units has not progressed, however, to 
such an extent as at one time seemed inevitable. This is 
due almost entirely to mechanical difficulties. A refrigerat- 
ing machine requires power and cold water for its operation, 
and considerable care in its maintenance. These three factors 
tend largely to eliminate the use of the unit car refrigerat- 
ing plant. 

Ammonia is generally recognized as the best substance for 
the conveyance of heat in refrigeration and occupies a place 
analogous to water in the production of power in the steam 
boiler. However, the difficulties encountered in the use of 
ammonia due to the necessarily high pressure, and the 
large quantity of cold water required for condensation has 
resulted in the adaptation of other less efficient fluids for 
the operation of these machines in this field. Thus, in the 
example mentioned, methyl chloride is used as a refrigerat- 
ing agent with a considerable saving in the design of the 
machine and the difficulty of maintenance, but with a remark- 
able diminution in efficiency in comparison to the ammonia 
type. The fact that this substance can be used in this ap- 
plication with any degree of success whatever, speaks vol- 
umes for the availability of refrigeration in this field. 

Among the other points which apply throughout the de- 
velopment in the application of mechanical refrigeration in 
this field is the fact that a large number of different types 
of refrigerating machines and systems are used. There arc- 
in existence today refrigerating machines using three differ- 
ent principles in their operation. The air machine, which 
uses air either at atmospheric pressure or under pressure 
and cools the same by causing the compressed air to do work, 
thus changing the heat in the air into work, which is taken 
out, leaving the air cooled. Air as low as 140 degrees F. 
below zero has been obtained readily by this method. This 
machine is often convenient on shipboard, where the use 
of ammonia or other refrigerating substances may prove un- 
desirable, but it is clumsy and inefficient in operation and its 
first cost is from two to three times that of an ammonia 
machine. Tn addition, it never exists in large units and all 



statements which have ever been made in regard to increased 
efficiency or large plants over small ones in any field what- 
soever, almost without exception apply equally in this field. 

The liquefiable gas machine utilizes the latent heat of 
vaporization of various liquids for the production of cold. 
Thus, in order to make water boil, heat must be applied. If 
the water can be made to boil without this application the 
heat is taken from the water itself with a consequent cooling 
effect on the water. The boiling point of water is too high 
to use in this application, hence a class of substances known 
as volatile liquids are used. Ammonia, sulphurous acid, 
methyl chloride, benzine, and a large number of other sub- 
stances have been used. Even gasoline has been developed 
as a refrigerating agent in this field. The material produces 
the refrigeration automatically by boiling away, if its boil- 
ing point is below the temperature of surrounding bodies. 
The sole end of the machinery in mechanical refrigeration, 
as developed in this type, is for the purpose of saving and 
reutilizing the refrigerating material. As has been said, am- 
monia is by long odds the most efficient agent for this pur- 
pose. It operates, however, at about a pressure of 180 
pounds for the regenerating device, and this has been a seri- 
ous objection to its utilization and development in the unit 
car system. The regeneration of ammonia is accomplished 
in two ways, by means of a compressor, which compresses 
the exhaust gas until it attains a condensing temperature and 
pressure above that of the atmosphere, whereupon it is spon- 
taneously condensed. The absorption machine, on the other 
hand, utilizes the absorption power of water for ammonia 
gas and the loss of this power with rise in temperature to 
produce the same effect. Regeneration is accomplished by 
the application of heat to the mixture with the evolution of 
the gas at a temperature and pressure sufficient to permit 
condensation. 

Now these two types, the ammonia compression, and ab- 
sorption machines, are the only really efficient types on the 
market. The compression machine is much simpler in theory 
and operation, but has considerable less efficiency in the 
actual process of production than the absorption type. This 
latter has comparatively few moving parts, is almost auto- 
matic and is generally installed in large units. 

In the application of mechanical refrigeration in railway 
work not only must all of these types be considered with 
their relative efficiencies and various advantages for different 
purposes, but a host of other conditions arise since the mere 
installation of a refrigeration plant at certain localities along 
a railway is not the accomplishment of transportation of 
perishable freight. As has been said, the cheapest and best 
method of applying this mechanical refrigeration has been 
through the heretofore production of ice as an intermediary. 
Further, the efficiency of the various types of refrigerating 
machines depend almost absolutely upon the duty they are to 
perform. Thus, the compression machine is superior for mild 
refrigeration, whereas the absorption is infinitely superior for 
sharp or extreme refrigeration. 

In the production of ice, the absorption type is superior, 
dependent only upon the size of the plant. For large plants 
its relative efficiency increases almost in direct proportion to 
the size of the plant. The use of ice as an intermediary in- 
volves a selection from several different methods. VU these 
factors must be considered in the installation of mechanical 
refrigeration in railway work. Further, its situation with 
respect to available coal and water supply is a matter of 
much importance, and many of the large refrigerating plants 
in large cities have their scale of profit dependent aim 
absolutely upon this simply and the temperature of the water. 
Large quantities of cold water arc required in the operation 
of a refrigerating plant of any type, and it can he said in a 
general way. the more water and the colder it is. the greater 



74 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[February, 1911.] 



will be the efficiency and the profit resulting in mechanical 
refrigeration. 

Individual unit refrigerating cars probably will never attain 
any great amount of success. A refrigerating machine is a 
complicated mechanical mechanism and requires care and 
attention, and practically all automatic machines at present on 
the market have proven failures at the present stage of de- 
velopment. With the large existing variations in mechani- 
cal refrigeration design, and its various applications in trans- 
portation, the use of ice or possibly cold brine as an inter- 
mediary in the application of the refrigeration is extremely 
probable. The chief development in railway work of this 
department will be in the construction of larger and larger 
refrigerating units, with special care paid to the distribution 
of these units, not only in respect to freight transportation, 
but also cost of production of refrigeration, from a coal and 
water consumption viewpoint, but also from a cost of han- 
dling the refrigerating material and making it available in 
transportation. Many improvements are possible in this line, 
and it is unfortunate that the great majority of railways do 
not consider the mechanical end at all in the installation of 
such plants. They appear to be interested merely in the 
transportation end of the business, and the two are so irre- 
vocably connected in this particular field that it is not sur- 
prising that the results obtained in the present actual develop- 
ment have not been as satisfactory as could be desired. 




C. W. Bradley has been appointed inspector of transporta- 
tion of the Chesapeake & Ohio, with headquarters at Rich- 
mond, Va. 

C. T. Hessmer, master mechanic of the Minnesota division 
of the Northern Pacific at Staples, Minn., has been appointed 



been appointed master mechanic of the Alliance division 
with office at Alliance, Neb., succeeding F. C. Stuby, assigned 
to other duties. H. M. Barr succeeds Mr. Raycroft. 

C. C. Walker, general superintendent of transportation of 
the Chesapeake & Ohio, at Richmond, Va., has been ap- 
pointed assistant general manager. E. P. Goodwin, general 
superintendent, at Huntington, W. Va., succeeds Mr. Walker, 
and J. R. Cray, superintendent, at Hinton. has been ap- 
pointed general superintendent of the West Virginia general 
division. J. W. Heron, in addition to his duties as chairman 
of the car allotment commission, will have general super- 
vision of coal and coke car distribution, reporting to the 
general superintendents. 

F. P. Gutelius, general superintendent of the Lake Su- 
perior division of the Canadian Pacific, at North Bay, Ont, 
has been appointed general superintendent of the Eastern 
division, with office at Montreal, Que.; J. G. Taylor, super- 
intendent of the Alberta division, at Medicine Hat, Alta., 
succeeds Mr. Gutelius, with office at North Bay. 

N. S. Brooks, general foreman of the Baltimore & Ohio 
at Keyser, W. Va., has been appointed an assistant master 
mechanic, with office at Cumberland, Md. 

J. C. Hines succeeds N. S. Brooks as general foreman of 
the Baltimore & Ohio, with office at Keyser, W. Va. 

J. Wellers succeeds T. O'Brien as general shop foreman 
of the Columbia & Puget Sound, with office at Seattle, Wash. 

A. A. Beavers succeeds G. W. Stubbs as master mechanic 
of the Gulf Line, with office at Ashburn, Ga. 

E. O. Rollings, assistant master mechanic of the Louisville 
& Nashville at Howell, Ind., has been promoted to master 
mechanic, with office at South Louisville, Ky. 

J. B. Huff succeeds E. O. Rollings as assistant master 
mechanic at Howell, Ind. 

Chas. Manley has been appointed superintendent of shops 
of the National Railways of Mexico, with office at Aguas 
Calientes. He succeeds J. E. Hickey. 




F. P. Gutelius. 



E. O. Rollings. 



T. H. Garland. 



master mechanic of the Seattle division, with office at Seattle, 
Wash , succeeding W. B. Norton, assigned to other duties. 
W. C. Radke succeeds Mr. Hessmer. 

J. H. Nelson, manager and purchasing agent of the Jack- 
sonville Terminal Company, has been appointed general su- 
perintendent of the Florida East Coast, with office at St. 
Augustine, Fla. 

T. J. Raycroft, master mechanic of the Sterling division of 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy at Sterling, Colo., has 



Frank Bradshaw has been appointed master mechanic of 
the National Railways of Mexico, with office at Mexico City, 
vice Chas. Manley, promoted. 

H. Jackson has been appointed master mechanic of the Na- 
tional Railways of Mexico, with office at Monclova. 

H. Stein has been appointed master mechanic of the Na- 
tional Railways of Mexico at Chihuahua. 

Willard Doud, shop engineer of the Chicago, Burlington 
& Quincy, has resigned, effective February 1, 1911. 



[February, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



75 



C. A. Wood succeeds C. VV. Tessier as general foreman 
car department of the National Railways of Mexico, with 
office at Aguas Calientes. 

E. L. Richardson has been appointed general foreman of 
the Norfolk & Western, with office at W. Roanoke, Va., vice 
G. W. Keller. 



T. H. Garland. 

On December 31, T. H. Garland, general agent, refrigerator 
service, of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, resigned to 
give his attention to the various devices developed and pat- 
ented by him which are now in general use on railroads. 
For the past eleven years Mr. Garland has been in charge 
of the perishable freight traffic on the Burlington, having 
been appointed to the position in February, 1900. The rap- 
idly increasing tonnage in this class of traffic prompted the 
Burlington to establish a special department to devise ways 
and means for the proper care of freight of a perishable na- 
ture from the time of loading at originating points until it 
was delivered to consignees, or to connecting lines. Mr. 
Garland's policy has been to constantly improve the service, 
considering this the most potent factor in the solicitation of 
freight traffic. While engaged in the work of developing this 
branch of freight traffic, Mr. Garland saw the necessity of 
having a better refrigerator car with which to handle perish- 




D. J. McOsker, 

able freight. He first turned his attention to providing a 
better means of ventilating refrigerator cars in order to carry 
off the heat and gases generated by fruits and vegetables. 
After giving the subject careful study he developed a car 
ventilator which is not only in use on refrigerator cars, but 
has become standard on passenger equipment on many of the 
larger railroads, the Pullman Company having over 5,000 of 
their cars now equipped with the device. Having made a 
thorough study of the conditions surrounding the transpor- 
tation of perishable commodities, he is now devoting his time 
to the further development of the refrigerator cars as vice 
president of Burton W. Mudge & Co., Chicago. Trial cars 
are in service equipped with new devices for ventilating, re- 
frigerating and steam heating. 



OBITUARY. 

D. J. McOsker. 

Daniel Joseph McOsker, mechanical expert for McCord 
& Co., Chicago, died Dec. 22, 1910. Mr. McOsker was born 
in Carleton, Mich., Sept 11, 1866. He was educated in the 
country schools at Monroe, Mich., and at the age of 14 year- 



moved from Carleton to Jackson, Mich., where he entered 
the service of the Michigan Central R. R. as a machinist 
apprentice, being transferred later to the car department at 
the same place. At the age of 21 years he moved to Chicago 
and accepted a position in the passenger coach yard of the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. He was later appointed 
foreman of the passenger yard, which duties he faithfully 
performed until he was called to enter the service of Mc- 
Cord & Co., April 15, 1905, as a mechanical expert. This posi- 
tion he held until his death. He was an active member in the 
Chief Interchange Car Inspectors' and Car Foremen's Asso- 
ciation of America, in which he counted his friends by the 
score. He left a widow and three sons, James D., 17 years 
old; Fred A. 8 years old; and Frank R. 9 months old. Mr. 
McOsker's death removed from our midst a friend and co- 
worker with whom it was always a pleasure to be associated. 
His duties were always thoroughly and faithfully performed, 
so that his taking away was a distinct and irretrievable loss 
not only to his family, but also to his association. 



G. P. Sweeley. 

George Parsons Sweeley, late master mechanic Alleghany 
shops, Pennsylvania Lines, Northwest system, who died at 
his home in Alleghany, on January 10, 1911, was very well 
known in mechanical circles, having been in continuous serv- 




Geo. P. Sweeley. 

ice with the Pennsylvania for more than 35 years. Mr. 
Sweeley was born in Montoursville, Pa., on July 13, 1856, 
and after being educated in the common schools, entered 
Renovo shops as an apprentice in 1875. He was made ma- 
chine shop foreman soon after completing his apprentice- 
ship, and thereafter was appointed successively, general fore- 
man Indianapolis shops, 1883 to 1888; general foreman 
Columbus shops, 1888 to 1893; master mechanic Crestline 
shops, 1893 to 1896; master mechanic Wellsville shops, 1896 
to 1900; master mechanic Alleghany shops from 1900 until 
his death. He was a member of the M. M. and M. C. B as 
ciations, the Pittsburg Railway Club, the Bellevue Club and 
the Masonic fraternity. He is survived by a widow, one 
daughter and twin sons, also bj a brother E, 11. Sweeley, 
general foreman, Long Island R. R. 



PUMP TROUBLES. 

A steam pump, to all appearance, is a comparatively simple 

piece t^i mechanism, but it can become a- balky as a gas 

engine at times, and it is often nearly as hard to find the 

trouble with it. One of the commonest troubles i- to have 



76 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[February, 1911.] 



the pump refuse to lift water at all, and this may be caused 
by a number of conditions. The lift required may be greater 
than the possible theoretical lift, which is 30 ft., although 
it is a very good pump which will lift water over 25 ft. The 
suction pipe may be clogged with waste and other matter, 
or it may be placed so that it just clears the bottom of the 
pit, thus preventing the intake of water. Or the pump may 
be taking air in any one of a number of places, thus de- 
stroying the vacuum which is the basis of its action. This 
is very often caused by the lack of care' in selecting pipe 
with good threads, and in screwing up the same as tightly 
as possible; or it may be that the gaskets on the water head 
and suction flanges are not drawn up tightly. Sometimes, 
too, the operator starts up the pump with the drain cocks 
in the water cylinder open and wonders why "she doesn't 
pick up." 

With a duplex pump, the gasket on the water end will 
sometimes be found to have broken out between the cylin- 
ders and the pump will discharge but little water, as it simply 
churns it from one cylinder to the other. This will some- 
times cause the pump to "limp," although it is also caused 



by the valves of one side being stuck, or by the gasket be- 
tween the two steam cylinders being blown out. 

The packing of the piston rods is sometimes turned down 
so tightly that the pump stroke is shortened a number of 
inches, resulting in a decrease of efficiency and a loss of 
power. This packing should be cut to the proper length, 
the joints staggered and the gland drawn up evenly on either 
side. Lack of care in this matter will cause undue friction 
and will also cause the piston rods to become worn with a 
shoulder, aside from the shortening of the stroke. The 
writer has sometimes found that a pump short-stroked be- 
cause the steam piston near the end of its stroke covered 
up the exhaust port too soon, and thus formed an excessive 
steam cushion which necessarily retarded its motion. This, 
of course, was the fault of the manufacturer in that the cores 
for the ports were not properly placed. It was found that 
the stroke on such a pump might be brought to the required 
length by drilling one or more small holes in the bridge 
from the exhaust port to the live steam port. This allowed 
the cushion of steam to be relieved at the end of the stroke 
by way of the live steam port. 




WSng ffi ISfefflufactarens 



HOT SAW AND BURRING MACHINE FOR FORGE 

SHOP. 

What appears to be one of the most interesting and 
useful machines recently placed on the market for the 
forge shop equipment is a hot saw and burring machine 
manufactured by the Ajax Mfg. Co., Cleveland, O. This 
machine has been designed and is intended primarily for 
service in connection with an upsetting forging machine, 
manufactured by the same company, and the designing 
and marketing of this machine has been prompted by the 
desire of the manufacturer to further economize in the 
production of machine made forgings. 

By the use of a hot saw and burring machine the headed 
forging may be sawed off the bar immediately after it is up- 
set, thus leaving a clean, square end, and likewise the burrs 
or fins which are formed after a set of dies have been used, 
can be removed very readily. 

The machine is as shown by illustration herewith, and is 
similar in general design to a double ended grinding or 




emery wheel stand. On one end of the shaft is a head fitted 
with a milled band and a milled disc face. This end is used 
for removing the fins or burrs from the upset forging. The 
opposite end of the shaft carries a hot saw for cutting off 
the forging from the bar. 

These machines are built in three sizes, with 14, 20 and 30 
ins. diameter of saws and burring heads. They operate at 
a high rate of speed and are consequently built rigidly with 
large bearings and ample provision for lubrication. The 
utility of such a machine will be fully appreciated by users 
of upsetting forging machinery. These machines, with illus- 
trations of some of the sawed and burred products, are shown 
in the new catalog of the Ajax Mfg. Co. 




Ajax Hot Saw and Burring Machine. 



Milburn Light. 



[February, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



77 



THE MILBURN LIGHT. 

The accompanying illustrations show an acetylene light 
manufactured by the Alexander Milburn Co. of Baltimore. 
This light is designed for railway wrecking or outdoor con- 
struction which is usually carried on under difficulties at 
night time. 

One of the illustrations shows a portable lighting outfit 
which may be very conveniently carried from place to place 




CLiterature 




Milburn Light in Use on Wrecking Outfit. 

without danger from the effects of vibration, wind or weather. 
It is storm proof and smokeless. 

The other illustration shows the application of the appara- 
tus to a wrecking outfit as used on the New York Central 
Lines. The light may be reflected in any direction for a 
considerable distance. The cost of operation is surprisingly 
low — it amounts to about 6 cents per hour for 5,000 candle- 
power. This is less than half the cost of the old style oil 
lamp. 

It is stated that the Milburn light operates without atten- 
tion after it has been filled and lighted. 



The latest catalogue of S. F. Bowser & Co., of Ft. Wayne, 
Ind., is a model; the type is clear and readable, the reading 
matter clean cut and to the point, and the whole is very 
well illustrated with halftones and sketches. All of the 
various Bowser oil pumps, registering measures and oil sys- 
tems are described together with a number of installations 

on various railroads. 

^ ^ # 

Record No. 68 of the Baldwin Locomotive Works, Phila- 
delphia, is exceptionally interesting, as it is devoted to Mallet 
articulated locomotives. Illustrations and descriptions are 
given of a dozen different types built for as many roads. 

* * * 

The Muncie Gear Works, of Muncie, Ind., has issued cat- 
alogue No. 5, covering a complete line of motor truck and 
delivery wagon parts, transmission jack shafts and acces- 
sories. 

* * * 

The Ingersoll-Rand Co., of New York, has issued a pam- 
phlet on "Sergeant" rock drills which is of the usual standard 
form for binding. A number of illustrations are given show- 
ing these drills in use on heavy work and also detailed 
description of the drill. The same firm has also issued a 
pamphlet on class "PB" air compressor, which is a duplex 
power driven compressor for belt or rope drive. 



*? 



■r 



, 





I 



MKMr 



Standard Autom 
AN AUTOMATIC PAINT BRUSH. 

A paint brush which does away with the necessity for dip- 
ping, but which has not the disadvantages of the spray type 
is manufactured by the Standard Automatic Mfg. Co., 50 
Church St., New York. 

The outfit consists of a large paint tank, either stationary 
or portable, an automatic valve, a line of flexible tubing and 
the automatic adjustable brush made of aluminum. The out- 
fit may be carried on the back of the operator. The device 
is especially adaptable to car or other vehicle work, and is 
used with economy in structural painting. 



An amendment to the postoffice appropriation bill has 
been agreed to which provides that after Jan. l, 1916, only 
steel cars shall be used in the carriage of the United States 
mails. Inasmuch as the entire number of mail cars now in 
use aggregates ],100, this means that about 200 of the steel 
cars must each year be added to the postal service depart- 
ment between now and the date mentioned. 



atic Paint Brush. 

The Garvin Machine Co., of New York, has issued two 
leaflets dealing with the No. 3 duplex milling machine and 
the vertical milling machine. 



The Gisholt Machine Co.. of Madison. Wis., has issued a 
leaflet on turret lathes for special work. 



The Adreon Mfg. Co.. of St. Louis, Mo., lias issued a num- 
ber of leaflets dealing with "Security" hack-up valves. "Acme" 
pipe clamp. Campbell's graphite lubricating system and 
"American" gravity couplings. These arc a few of the many 

products of this firm. 

* * * 

The Newport Rolling Mill Co. of Newport, Ky.. has pub- 
lished a booklet dealing with metal culverts and other ?imilar 
products made from its genuine open hearth iron. 



i 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[February, 1911.] 



industrial /Notes 



The Buckeye Steel Castings Co. has just closed a deal for 
a large tract of land at Indiana Harbor on which it plans to 
construct a plant to cost $1,500,000. The plant, it is expected, 
will be completed within two years and will give employment 
to 2,500 men. The company, however, will open for business 
in the spring with 1,000 employees. 

Thomas L. Mount has been appointed eastern sales agent 
of the Consolidated Railway Electric Lighting & Equipment 
Company, New York, with office in New York. L. J. Ken- 
nedy has been made western sales agent, with office at Chi- 
cago. 

The report of the American Brake Shoe & Foundry Co., 
for the year ended Sept. 30, 1910, has been issued, showing 
a 21.5 per cent gain in net income and a decrease in interest 
charges due to the retirement of $26,000 bonds during the 
year. The surplus after 7 per cent dividends on the $4,000,000 
preferred stock was equal to 20.6 per cent on $3,600,000 com- 
mon stock. This compares with a surplus over 7 per cent on 
$2,500,000 common in the 1909 fiscal year. 

Arrangements have been perfected by directors of the 
Crucible Steel Company of America for the formation of 
Pittsburg Crucible Steel Company and for the purchase of 
423 acres of the property of the Midland Steel Company on 
the Ohio river, below Beaver, upon which improvements will 
be made amounting in the aggregate to $7,500,000. Included 
in the deal are 1,800 acres of coal lands on the opposite 
side of the Ohio and 130 acres of limestone near Newcastle. 

The plant of the Hicks Locomotive &'Car Works at Chi- 
cago Heights, 111., will be sold Feb. 21, at 10 a. m., at the 
Clark street entrance of the County building, Chicago. The 
sale, which will be conducted by William Mclnnes, receiver, 
is by order of the United States District Court in Bankruptcy 
Proceedings, The plant comprises parts of five blocks of 
land, with extensive improvements and is estimated to be 
worth $500,000 or $600,000. Ringer, Wilhartz & Lauer are 
attorneys for the receiver. 

Joseph T. Ryerson & Sons, Chicago, at the annual meeting 
of directors, held January 23, elected the following officers: 
President, Clyde M. Carr; vice-president and treasurer, 
Joseph T. Ryerson; secretary, Gilbert H. Pearsall; chairman 
of the board, Edward L. Ryerson. 

The Railway Building Co., Manhattan, N. Y., has been in- 
corporated to do railway engineering and construction and 
to deal in railway supplies. The incorporators are Berkeley 
C. Austin, Eugene W. Austin both of No. 76 William street, 
and Walter L. Brunnell, No. 317 West 136th street, New 
York City. 

The Kentwood & Eastern Ry., of Kentwood, La., has 
ordered a 14 x 20 Mogul type locomotive from the Vulcan 
Iron Works of Wilkes-Barre, Penna. The Keokuk & Ham- 
ilton Water Power Co., of Wiles-Barre, Pa., has also placed 
an order with this firm for four 15 x 20 in. switching loco- 
motives. 

The Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company, Chicago, acquired 
the gasoline hand car business of the Duntley Manufacuring 
Company, Chicago, on January 1, and will in future make 
these cars on a large scale. These motor cars are now in 
use on 83 railways in this country. 

W. G. Tawse has resigned as road foreman of engines 
for the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad, to accept a 
position with the Locomotive Superheater Company. His 
headquarters will be in the Peoples' Gas building, Chicago, 
111. 

T. M. Murray, formerly master painter of the Pressed 
Steel Car Company and for seven years with the Protectus 



Company, has been appointed railroad representative of the 
Schoellkopf, Hartford & Hanna Company, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Mr. Murray will specialize in the sale of "Steelkote" paints 
for railroad structures. His headquarters are in the New 
York office, Hudson Terminal building, 50 Church street. 

The Sanitary Rag Company of Kalamazoo, Mich., has 
just completed and is occupying its new factory. The 
new building is of brick, four stories and basement, of 
modern construction including sprinkler system and fire pro- 
tection throughout. It is 175 by 75 feet and has excellent 
facilities for handling freight. Six cars can be loaded at once 
from one side of the building. The new plant has a capacity of 
20 tons per day of the well known product of this company, 
soft cotton wiping rags, and is equipped with the latest and 
most modern machinery for sorting, cleaning and baling, which 
includes laundry machinery, hydraulic presses and conveyors. 
The cost of the building and equipment is $80,000. The new 
plant is required by the growing business of the company, which 
has built up a large trade among manufacturers and railroads 
on its soft cotton wiping rags which are used in place of 
ordinary waste and which it is claimed, offer many advan- 
tages in economy and cleanliness. 

William Stevenson, for many years with the McGuire- 
Cummings Manufacturing Co., Chicago, has been appointed 
special representative of the Indian Refining Co., Cincinnati, 
Ohio, with headquarters in Chicago 

William H. Brown, a consulting engineer and formerly 
connected with the Westinghouse interests in New York, is 
dead. He was 61 years old. 

W. P. Pressinger has sold his interest in the Keller Manu- 
facturing Company, Philadelphia, Pa., and has resigned his 
position as vice-president of that company to become man- 
ager of the compressor department of the Chicago Pneumatic 
Tool Company, Chicago, with headquarters in New York. 

The Dearborn Drug & Chemical Works, Chicago, who has 
distributed its fuel water treatment and lubricants through 
an agency in the Philippines for the past two years, has de- 
cided to open its own branch office and warehouse in Manila. 
I 7 . O Smolt, who has been connected with mining proposi- 
tions since his graduation in chemistry from the University 
of Illinois in 1891, is now with the Dearborn company, and 
has gone to Manila to take charge of this work under the 
supervision of E. C. Brown, manager of the foreign depart- 
ment. Mr. Brown has been investigating steam plant and 
railway conditions in Japan, China and the Philippines for 
two years, and has made selling connections at Tokio, Tient- 
sin, Hongkong and Shanghai. 

F. K. Shults, until recently connected with the American 
Steel Foundries as their representative in New York and 
Eastern territory, has accepted a similar position with the 
Bettendorf Axle Company, Bettendorf, Iowa, of which com- 
pany he has been made a vice-president. Mr. Shults has 
opened an office in room 2040 Grand Central Terminal build- 
ing, New York City. The office at 30 Church street, room 
1021, will remain in charge of G. N. Caleb, vice-president, 
who has been with the Bettendorf company for the last eight 
or ten years. 

The Detroit Seamless Steel Tube Company, Detroit, 
Mich.,., announces the opening of a branch office at 1333-4 
McCormick building. Chicago, in charge of W. E. Marvel, 
formerly manager of the St. Louis branch of the Buda Com- 
pany, Chicago. Mr. Marvel will have the title of western 
sales manager, and will have charge of all western and 
southwestern business of the company, and also of the 
Michigan Malleable Iron Company and the Monarch Steel 
Castings Company, both of Detroit. 

J. H. Burwell, railway sales agent representing the Seeger 
Refrigerator Company, St. Paul Minn., has moved his office 
from 1-J9 Broadway, New York, to the Grand Centra! Ter- 
minal. 



February, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



79 



Railroad Electrification 



£LECTRIFICATION of impor- 
tant terminals and tunnels is a 
present necessity. 

Entire electrical operation of numer- 
ous steam lines for general service is 
certain. 

The three great systems have 
characteristic features of advantage 
for particular conditions, which a 
brief review may summarize. 

The Direct-Current System was the 
first in the field and has advantages 
in operative characteristics of the 
motor: — simplicity and ruggedness 
with high power, variable speed and 
ease of control. Westinghouse Inter- 
pole Construction has removed com- 
mutation troubles and Westinghouse 
Field Control has increased the range 
of flexibility. 

The limitations of the system are 
found in the high cost and low effi- 
ciency of the transmitting and dis- 
tributing system and in conversion 
losses, especially in moving heavy 
trains over long distances. 

The Single-Phase System gives 
operative qualities similar to those 
of Direct-Current, with somewhat 
greater flexibility as to power and 
speed. The first cost of the transmit- 
ting and distributing installation is 
low, and great economy for hauling 
heavy trains over long distances is 
secured. The motors are similar to 
direct-current motors and may be 
operated on direct current if neces- 
sary, but this requires additional, 
heavy and complicated control. 



The first cost and weight of 
Single-Phase rolling stock equipment 
is somewhat higher than that of 
Direct-Current apparatus. 

The limitations of Single - Phase 
operation have not yet been deter- 
mined. 

The Three- Phase System is 
adapted for roads where constant 
speed in uninterrupted hauls is eco- 
nomical. Sufficient variation of 
speed for starting and stopping is 
provided for by use of resistors. 
Overspeeds are impossible. Two or 
more efficient speeds may be pro- 
vided. The cost and weight of the 
motors is comparatively low and 
regeneration of power is possible 
with electric braking. 

The practically constant speed 
operation of the Three-Phase motor 
is against its use on ordinary main- 
line railways where variable speeds 
are used. Two overhead trolley 
wires increase the cost of installation 
and cause complications. 

In choice between the three sys- 
tems in America, local conditions 
should be considered ; but the coming 
general electrification of important rail- 
road divisions must be held in view. 

For more than forty years the 
Westinghouse name has been iden- 
tified with the best features of rail- 
way development and the largest and 
most important Direct -Current, Single- 
Phase and Three-Phase railwaj instal- 
lations in the world use Westinghouse 
apparatus. 



80 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[February, 1911.] 




Icenf Tfeilosay Mechanical p&tenfs 



Material for this department is compiled expressly for Railway Master Mechanic by Watson & Boyden, Patent 
and Trademark Attorneys and Solicitors, 918 F Street, N. W., Washington, D. C, and to them all inquiries in regard 
to patents, trademarks, copyrights, etc., and litigation affecting the same should be addressed. 

A complete printed copy of the specification and drawing of any United States patent in print will be sent, postpaid, 
on application to the above firm, to any address for ten cents. 



LOCOMOTIVE. 

979,208 — Harry Scheib and William A. Austin, assignors to Baldwin 
Locomotive Works, Philadelphia, Pa. Patented Dec. 20, 1^910. 
This invention has reference to certain improvements in ! com- 
pound locomotives of the articulated type in which there are two 
sets of cylinders at the forward end and two or more cylinders at a 
point intermediate the ends of the locomotive. The object of the 
invention is to so design the locomotive that it can be used either 
as a triple expansion locomotive or a compound locomotive in which 
the intermediately located cylinders are the high pressure cylinders 
and the forward cylinders the low pressure. The illustration shows 
a side elevation of the improved locomotive, and for a better under- 
standing of the construction those interested are referred to the 
complete patent. 



980,739. 



979.624. 




BRAKE-BEAM. 

979,624 — C. H. Williams, Jr., assignor to Chicago Railway Equip- 
ment Co., Chicago. Patented Dec. 27, 1910. 
This invention relates to a trussed structure particularly ap- 
plicable for use as a brake-beam. The novelty consists in forming 
the tension member 3 with reversely screw threaded ends adapted 




to be received in correspondingly threaded sockets formed in the 
strut and thrust block respectively. By turning the tension member 
with a wrench it will tighten up the trussed structure and place a 
camber in the compression member. 



CAR TRUCK. 

980,739— John C. Barber, assignor to Standard Car Truck Co., Chi- 
cago. Patented Jan. 3, 1911. 
This patent relates to improvements in the well-known Barber 
type of truck manufactured by the Standard Car Truck Company. 
In this new design the bolster is supported upon an elliptic spring 
which rests upon the middle of the equalizer bar, the ends of which 
in turn rest upon helical springs supported upon the side frame near 
the journal box. The complete drawing comprises seven figures, 
and those interested should obtain a copy of the patent itself. 



979.208. 




THE FOREMAN'S DREAM. 



William J. Miller ('course the name is fictitious) 

Is a man who was never at all superstitious; 

But a dream which he had is direct intimation 

Of his faith in the doctrine of predestination. 

Now, the said William Miller, please bear in your mind, 

Is a bright roundhouse foreman, who, like all of his kind, 

Has trials and troubles too many to state— 

And with this introduction his dream I'll relate. 

A spirit appeared at his bedside one night, 

Decked out in a garment of pure, spotless white, 

And thus addressed Bill : "To me had been given 

Command from the Recording Angel in Heaven 

To ascertain why 'tis your name should appear 

On the Great Book of Life, as the reason's not clear, 

The profanity record has been kept for ages, 

But nothing like yours appears on its pages; 

Therefore, 'tis decided unless you can show 

Just cause for defense, to send you below, 

Where the fire is unquenched, and those who have never 

Repented are roasted forever and ever." 

On hearing the latter, Bill tried hard to smile, 

And invited the spirit to tarry awhile. 

"If I fail to make my defense in full measure," 

He said, "I'll be sentenced with greatest of pleasure. 

Please remain here to-morrow, accompany me, 

And report to headquarters whatever you see." 

The spirit agreed, I am happy to say, 

And took notes of what happened the following day. 

First, a conceited young clerk, with expression Satanic, 

Brought a bundle of letters from the master mechanic, 

And here a few extracts I'll give as example 

Of the bunch that the spirit took away for a sample; 

"Please note that the superintendent complains 

Tou are using poor coal for our passenger trains." 

"Please let me know what excuse you can make 

Why so many new compound packing rings break." 

"Engine failures, last year, for the month were but seven; 

I regret for the same time this year there's eleven." 

"Tou must take up the matter and ascertain why 

We used too much oil in the month of July. 

Tou are surely aware that a half pint to use 

Of valve oil per hundred is simply abuse; 

I believe t'would be wise (at least we can try it) 



To give engineers feathers with which to apply it." 

"The President's special is leaving to-day 

At ten forty-five; there must be no delay." 

But, alas! for the plans of mice and men! 

The telephone rang at exactly ten ten, 

And old Phil, the caller, announced with a drawl : 

"De fireman is sick. Who else will I call?" 

A fire-up man appeared just then at the door — 

"The crown sheet is down in the 74." 

Then next comes an engineer, swelled up like a toad — 

Tou'd think from his looks that he'd surely explode — 

And asked loud in the name of the evil one; 

"Why hain't the work on my engine been done?" 

Bill Miller, he then made an angry retort; 

While the spirit examined the work report 

Of this same engineer;, and this was the news; 

"Wash out the biler and boar out the flews, 

The seems are a squirtin', cork all the leaks, 

Rite back driver box is so dry that it squeeks. 

Steampipes are leaking; pack the throttle well. 

Right main pin cut and runs hotter than (it should). 

All the rod bushings are loose on both sides. 

Set up the wedges and line up the gides, 

The air pump jerks on the upward stroak. 

Examin' and see if the valve ain't broak. 

Take down left mane rod, reduce the brass, 

And don't fail to put in a watter glass. 

Raze the front end an inch or more, 

And fix the ketch on the fire box door. 

I think from the way she burns her fire 

Her petticoat should be a little hire." 

Before the good spirit got through taking notes 

Prom the book containing the work reports, 

Prom the chief dispatcher came a message which read : 

"The Golden Gate Special's engine is dead. 

Send another at once to take the train. 

Why you sent this one on 21, please explain." 

Then a hostler announced that a broken switch 

Had caused him to put engine 12 in the ditch. 

The spirit departed, but on that same night, 

Returned with a crown, and in greatest delight 

Presented to "Bill's" most astonished vision 

A text of the Recording Angel's decision, 

And a list of the great hero saints all revealed, 

With William J. Miller's name leading the field. 

— Exchange. 



[March, 1911] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



SI 



Established 1878 

Published by THE RAILWAY LIST COMPANY 



WILLIAM E. MAGRAW, Pres. and Treas. 
CHAS. S. MYERS, Vice-Pres. 
C. C. ZIMMERMAN, Bus. Mgr. 
J. M. CROWE, Mgr. Cent. DIst. 



LYNDON F. WILSON, Managing Editor 
OWEN W. MIDDLETON, Assoc. Editor 
KENNETH L. VAN AUKEN, Assoc. Editor 
WARREN EDWARDS, 2d V..P. & Assoc. Editor 



Office of Publication : Manhattan Building, Chicago 

Telephone, Harrison 4948 

Eastern Office: 50 Church Street, New York 

Telephone Cortlandt 5765 
Central Office: House BIdg., Pittsburg, Pa. 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway power, car equipment, shops, 

machinery and supplies. 
Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 
Subscription price, $2.00 a year; to foreign countries, $2.50, free of 

postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 

application to the office, by mail or in person. 
In remitting, make all checks payable to the Railway List Company. 
Papers should, reach subscribers by the 16th of the month at the 

latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or failure to 

receive any issue and anothe r copy will be very gladly sent. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, Under Act of March 3, 1879. 



Vol. XXXV. Chicago, March, 191 1 



No. 3 



CONTENTS. 

Editorial — 

Shop Extension 81 

Conservation of Men 81 

Locomotive Boiler Troubles 82 

Care of tne Injured, Penna. R. R 82 

Shop Improvements at Huntington, C. & O. Ry 83 

Economy in Manufacturing Tools . . ; 88 

Locomotive Standardization, Chi. Gt. Western R. R.... 90 

Car Wheels Revolving Independently 91 

.Articulated Locomotives with Flexible Boilers 9.3 

Father of Efficiency 97 

Time Required for Change of Power 97 

Railway Electrification at Boston 98 

The Man who Knows 104 

New Electric Locomotives, Penna. R. R 10a 

Nickelized Chilled Car Wheel 106 

Locomotive Specifications 108 

English Built Railway Motor Car 109 

British Locomotive Standardization 110 

Care and Maintenance of Machine Tools llfc 

German Railway Gas-Electric Car 113 

Recent Court Decisions 114 

New Books 114 

Personals 115 

Among the Manufacturers 116 

Special Vertical Milling Machine 116 

Solid Adjustable Die Heads 116 

New Literature 117 

Industrial Notes 117 

"Recent Railway Mechanical Patents 120 



SHOP EXTENSION. 

The Huntington shop improvements of the Chesapeake & 
Ohio Ry., described on another page of this issue, are strik- 
ingly illustrative of the practicability of a comprehensive 
plan of extension for old and poorly equipped repair shops. 
The success with which the plan has been carried out is evi- 
dent after a study of the description, where it is shown 
that with the construction of only four new buildings and 
the extension of the remainder, the capacity was more than 
doubled. The usual difficulty with propositions of this na- 
ture is the lack of any allowance for future extension in the 
original layouts. This was the case at Huntington and in 
the modus operandi lies the interest. 

In the extension of the Chicago & Northwestern shops at 
Chicago, described in the December, 1910, issue of The 
Railway Master Mechanic, the results were far from satis- 
fying, as the plan adopted after long study resulted in one 
of the worst mix-ups ever viewed by man. Yet credit, 
rather than blame, should go to those who assisted in ob- 
taining the best layout possible. As pointed out in the de- 
scription of the last mentioned shops, the original construc- 
tion in 1874 allowed in capacity for upwards of four times 
the output needed at that period. The oversight rested in the 
fact that no provision was allowed in the yards for the ex- 
tension of buildings. The result is that two separate erecting 
and machine departments must be maintained for the same 
class of work, with a resulting confusion in the handling 
of the boiler shop output, stores, etc. At Huntington the 
original designers were just as shortsighted, and by happen- 
stance only it was possible to build in the extensions along 
the lines of a comprehensive general plan. 

The pity is that nearly all of these shops thirty or more 
years in operation are so well constructed as to leave noth- 
ing to be desired in that line and that being the case, it is 
not practical to consider a scheme of improvement which 
necessitates tearing down all the old buildings and starting 
over again. We do not know at this time whether in our 
new installations we have left ample provision for all ulti- 
mately necessary extension. We only think so. Placing re- 
liance on the ratio of the past, the presumption is that thirty 
years hence the extension of recently built shops will not 
be the difficult problem it has proved in most of the present 

day attempts. * 

CONSERVATION OF MEN. 

According to a bulletin of the Bureau of Labor the num- 
ber of deaths resulting from accidents among adult wage 
earners is about thirty thousand yearly, which is a rather 
conservative estimate as undoubtedly a great many of these 
cases are unreported. Thirty thousand lives a year is a big 
price to pay for ignorance, carelessness and the lack of 
safety devices, and our railroad shops are paying their share. 
It is true that year by year the use of safeguarding devices 
is being extended, but it is equally true that some of the 
old danger points are protected while the new ones are al- 
lowed to remain unprotected. Among the latter may be 
mentioned the proper insulation and protection of electrical 
equipment so as to minimize the possibility of contact with 
a high voltage. 

But it seems that much may still bo accomplished in rro- 



82 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[March, 1911] 



viding such machines as saws and grinders with safety de- 
vices. It is not always easy to create sentiment in favor 
of such devices; for one reason there is always a general 
tendency to leave well enough atone, and until a man has a 
few fingers chopped off in a gear, it is not likely that any- 
one will think about putting a guard on it; for another 
reason, the men do not always take kindly to protective de- 
vices, for occasionally they interfere with their work and 
consequently decrease their earning capacity if they are on 
piece work. In one woodworking shop which is quite well 
equipped with safety devices the latter are not in use half 
the time because the men with our characteristic American 
haste don't want to be bothered with them. Machine tool 
manufacturers are doing a great deal to protect the danger 
points of their products and it is up to the shop foreman 
and superintendent to see and insist that men be protected. 
Everybody's business is nobody's business, and if he does 
not keep an eye open for these places no one else will. A 
large percentage of accidents are due to ignorance and care- 
lessness and these are the most difficult to eliminate; in fact, 
the best way to reduce them is to make them impossible. 
Loose clothing draws in quite a number of victims; a young 
man decided to oil the upper bearings of his four-spindle 
drill press while it was running. He took his oil can, got 
up on the machine and reached over the top; the loose 
sleeve of his jacket caught in the gears and the muscles of 
his right arm were chewed off. A week later he died of 
blood poisoning. 

Aside from positive danger points there are what might 
be called negative danger points, not necessarily dangerous 
in themselves, but dangerous because of the accumulation 
of rubbish or the absence of light. Light is just as neces- 
sary in the dark corners of our shops as it is in the dark 
corners of our cities — it minimizes danger in either case. 
It is an actual fact proven by statistics that the greatest 
number of accidents occur during November, December and 
January, the months of minimum daylight. And it is not al- 
ways the question with artificial illumination of the amount 
of light, but the diffusion of the light. We beieve that good 
general illumination, with as few drop lights as possible, is 
the best for the shop, for after looking at his work with a 
strong drop light, a man is in semi-darkness when he looks 
away and may easily make a misjudged move. There is a 
growing field for the illuminating engineer. Slippery floors 
are another source of danger, but is one which is minimized 
in the shop which is kept in a clean and orderly condition. 
Those responsible should insist on cleanliness and careful- 
ness in their shops just as much as they should insist that 
v/ork be done efficiently. 



LOCOMOTIVE BOILER TROUBLES. 

For the past few months it would seem that there has 
been more than the usual amount of agitation with regard 
to locomotive boilers and their diseases. Nothing of mate- 
rial value, however, has developed in the way of remedies. 
At least no radical improvements in construction or design 
have been generally recommended or adopted. It is true 
that the flexible boiler for Mallets has become an actuality, 
but this is a mere adaptation of the ordinary boiler to cer- 



tain requirements having to do with limitation of rigid 
length. The diseases referred to, and the ones which are 
costing so much money are located in the sheets of the fire- 
box. It would appear that the money which is being spent 
in attempted cures should be sufficient, if directed into the 
proper channels, to show some effect in prevention. The 
physician must direct his efforts toward prevention of dis- 
eases in the human body in the original design of which he 
had no word. Those concerned in the proper operation of 
locomotive boilers have the advantage of being able to do 
their own designing or of encouraging the work of improve- 
ment in design as attempted by other members of the same 
profession. It should not be necessary or important that 
they spend great effort in the cure of diseases in a boiler, the 
design and construction of which is, broadly speaking, faulty. 

Admittedly little is known of the strains set up in the 
sheets of a firebox of present day design by the effects of 
expansion and contraction. No one denies that these strains 
are not properly taken care of, as that person would also 
have to deny that side sheets crack. Radical improvement 
is not to be expected by change in materials; it must come 
from change in shape or form of the sheets. Something in 
this line has been done by deep thinkers in the field, but 
their efforts have not met with proper encouragement on 
the part of motive power officials. It is to be expected that 
first costs of new designs will be substantially greater, but 
it needs only to be shown that these new designs will elim- 
inate the costly troubles incident ot the old contruction, 
when the increased cost, if within reason, will be more than 

justified. 

CARE OF THE INJURED, PENNSYLVANIA R. R. 

That any employe or passenger on the Pennsylvania R. R. 
may receive immediate attention in case of sickness or acci- 
dent, the company is extending its methods of giving in- 
struction on first aid to the injured. To this end demon- 
strations are to be given to employes and a circular card 
has been prepared for distribution to employes at the lec- 
tures delivered by medical examiners of the company. The 
printed instructions that will be distributed to all employes 
of the Pennsylvania R. R. are entitled "Hints on First Aid 
to the Injured." "Keep Cool" is the first admonition. Em- 
ployes are then advised to send for the nearest physician 
after which the injured or ill person should be placed on a 
standard stretcher, a number of which are provided on cars, 
in stations, shops, and other places. "Keep the Crowd Away" 
is the next heading on the circular, which also warns em- 
ployes against touching open wounds with their hands. 

The "First Aid" packet is described in the circular. It 
contains two aseptic compresses in oil paper, one cambric 
bandage, one triangular bandage and two safety pins. The 
details of dressing a wound are then gone into. Following 
the generai instructions the circular deals with accidents 
and ills which are most frequent, giving specific and detailed 
instructions for first aid. An important part of the first aid 
work of the Pennsylvania R. R. is in instructing employes 
in methods for resuscitation from electric shock. The use 
of electricity on the New York Improvement and the West 
Jersey & Seashore R. R. has made it necessary to lay stress 
on this. Since the Pennsylvania R. R. undertook to instruct 
train, station and shop employes in methods of giving first 
aid to the injured, practically every such employe on the 
system has attended lectures by the company's medical ex- 
aminers. Last year 228 lectures were given to no less than 
6,854 employes. THs year it is the management's intention 
to prosecute this work even more vigorously 



[March, 1911 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



83 



Shop Improvements at Huntington, C. & O. Ry. 



For some time past the requirements of the Huntington 
shops have reached a point where it was impossible for them 
to meet the increased amount of work without additional 
shop space and improved facilities for the handling of the 
work. The shops and buildings then in use having been 
constructed 30 years before, were of an old style, well built 
but arranged without regard to necessity for extension. 
There were a number of engine rooms placed about the shops 
and everything was belt driven. A separate engine was in- 
stalled for each line shaft. Facilities for lifting locomotives 
were lacking. The several widely separated steam engines 
were, moreover, served by several distinct boiler plants. 

Aftr a careful preliminary study as to the best utilization 
of the old buildings and the least expense for the improve- 
ments, it was decided to construct a central power plant, 
a stripping shop, additions to the machine, boiler, locomo- 
tive and freight car blacksmith shops, and to the brass foun- 
dry, together with a new planing mill and a storehouse. 

Planing Mill. 

The planing mill requirements had entirely outgrown the 
building in which that machinery was located, and it was 



After the installation of a few additional machines the out- 
put of this mill was increased about 50 per cent over that of 
the old mil!, with approximately the same labor cost. 

Instead of being located at right angles to the yard tracks, 
as was the old planing mill, the new one has been placed 
parallel to the yard tracks, making it more convenient for 
the handling of material in and out of the building and to 
the repair tracks and passenger car shop. The new mill is 
located approximately midway between the lumber yard and 
the freight car repair tracks. 

Storehouse. 
The old storehouse had not been enlarged with the ex- 
pansion of the shops. It was in a badly congested condition 
and located on a space needed for other shop purposes. For 
this reason a new and thoroughly modern storehouse and 
office building was constructed. This is a brick building 200 
ft. x 50 ft., two stories high, except 50 ft. at one end. This 
end is three stories high and is used for offices. On three 
sides of the building is a platform 8 ft. wide and at one end 
the platform is extended to dimensions of 96 ft. long and 66 




First Floor of Planing Mills, Huntington Shops. 



decided to erect a new building 268 ft. long x 90 ft. wide. 
. This is a substantial fireproof structure, having brick walls, 
steel roof trusses and concrete slab roof. There are two 
floors in the mill. The first floor is a concrete slab, in which 
there are two railroad tracks running the entire length of the 
mill, with a transverse track in the middle, in order to facili- 
tate the handling of material. The second floor, which is 
made of hollow tile and reinforced concrete, rests on steel 
columns along the center line of the mill. This floor is used 
for a cabinet and pattern shop and for the repair of cabs, 
hand cars, etc. The mill is equipped with a full outfit of 
woodworking machinery arranged in groups, with the ex- 
ception of two large timber sizes which have individual 
motors. The machinery throughout is driven by electric- 
motors of the induction type. 



ft. wide and is used for the storage of castings, heavy forg- 
ings, etc. In the storehouse is an electrically operated ele- 
vator and both floors are equipped with bins and racks, as 
required by the various classes of material stored there. 

Power Plant. 
The equipment of this powerhouse is arranged in a unique 
manner. The boilers are at approximately ground level, as 
well as the air compressors, but slightly above the boiler 
room floor. The turbine floor, however, i- up about 6 ft 
above the compressor floor. Underneath the turbine floor, 
which occupies half of the space devoted to engines and tur- 
bines, is a basement (> ft. deep. Since the air compi 
were to run non-condcn>inu there was no object in having 
a basement under them, therefore it entailed less initial 
cost in having them placed on the ground level. The larpe 



S4 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[March', 1911] 




[March, 1911] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



85 




Stripping Shop Showing Locomotive Hoist. 

turbines were to run condensing and had to have room un- 
derneath for condensers. This space was also utilized for 
the placement of feed pumps, return pumps, exhaust header, 
etc. The dimensions of this building are 80x93 ft. It is 
fireproof throughout, having brick walls carried on concrete 
foundations, steel roof trusses and concrete slab roof. There 
is installed in the engine room a hand power crane, having 
a capacity of iy 2 tons. Alongside of the power house is 
located a coal bin which is beneath an elevated railroad 
track with a trestle approach. There is an overhead ash bin, 
with electric hoist and bucket for elevating ashes. This bin 
is fitted with a spout for loading ashes into cars by gravity. 

The equipment of the power house consists of one 750 
k. v. a. General Electric turbine set, operating condensing; 
one 125 k. v. a. General Electric turbine set, operating non- 
condensing; the current used is 3-phase, 60 cycle, 440 volts. 
One turbine and one motor-driven exciter are provided for 
the alternating current generators. Space for a future 750 
k. v. a. turbine is provided. The boiler equipment consists 
of five 271 h. p. Stirling water tube boilers operating at 150 
lbs. pressure. The boilers are designed and equipped to burn 
slack coal and are operated ordinarily at 50 per cent over- 
load. The chimney is 200 ft. high by 7 ft. 6 ins. diameter 
and is constructed of hollow tile and reinforced concrete. It 
is connected to the boilers by a brick smoke flue. The old 
stack, which was heavily constructed and too small for any 
possibility of salvage, was pulled down by the use of a loco- 
motive, a rather unusual but very inexpensive method. 

One 2,000 and one 1,000 ft. air compressors were removed 
from one of the dismantled powerhouses and re-erected in 
the new powerhouse. 

Enough water for condenser purposes is not available at 
Huntington except through the use of a cooling tower. This 
tower has a vertical steel shell 90 ft. high, 20 ft. diameter. 
The bottom 30 ft. of the shell contains a grillage of Cypress 
planking, the entire surface of the grillage amounting to 
30,000 sq. ft. The water, after being used to condense steam 
from the turbine, is pumped up from the condenser and is 
spread over the grillage by means of a system of perforated 
pipes. As the water falls in thin films over the surface of 
the grillage it is cooled by contact with the air and becomes 
cool enough to be used over again in the condenser. The 
movement of the air within the tower is accomplished by 



natural draft. The condenser is of the Westinghouse Le 
Blanc type, driven by an induction motor directly con- 
nected to a shaft on which are mounted both rotary circulat- 
ing and air pumps. It is an interesting fact to note that on 
one of the hottest days of last summer, with the thermom- 
eter 95 deg. in the shade, a vacuum of 26 in. was maintained 
with ease all clay long. 

The economical operation of the new powerhouse equip- 
ment resulted in a decrease of 50 per cent in the coal con- 
sumption with more than 100 per cent increase in power sup- 
plied. 

Stripping Shop. 

This is a structure 135 ft. long x 45 ft. wide, of which 50 ft. 
is elevated and contains a locomotive hoist spanning two 
tracks which run longitudinally through the structure. The 
locomotive hoist is made up with a primary view to economy 
and low first cost. It is used for lifting engines off their 
wheels and setting them down on trucks so that they can 
be pulled out on the transfer table and moved into the old 
erecting shop, at one end of which the stripping shop is 
located. When repairs to the locomotive have been com- 
pleted in the erecting shop, it is transferred back to the strip- 
ping shop, lifted by the locomotive hoist and set down upon 
the driving and truck wheels. 

The stripping shop obviates the jacking up of engines to 
remove and replace wheels, and its construction was neces- 
sitated by the extremely heavy power now in use on the 
C. & O. Ry. In the section of the stripping shop not served 
by the hoist are pits so that the engines, after having been 
put on their wheels by the locomotive hoist, can be completed 
without retransferring back to the erecting shop. This strip- 
ping shop has doubled the output of the erecting shop and 
materially reduced the cost of locomotive repairs in the 
shop. The increased output from the shops and the intro- 
duction of the stripping shop required quick and reliable 
operation of the transfer table, and as the old transfer table 
was operated by a pair of air engines, an electric drive has 
been substituted. Current for the motor on the table is sup- 
plied from three overhead trolley wires. Two mechanical 
speed changes are provided to prevent overloading the motor 
when starting, or when moving unusually heavy loads. 

Machine Shop Extension. 
This extension is 300 ft. long by 60 ft. wide. It has brick 
walls, skylights in the roof, steel roof trusses and is built 
along the wall of the old machine shop. The object of this 




Power House and Cooling Tower, Huntington Shops. 



86 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[March, 1911] 



addition was to give space for the additional machine tools 
necessary to increase the output of the shops. Owing to 
the fact that only one longitudinal wall had to be built, the 
cost of the increased floor space was low. 

Boiler Shop. 

This shop was formerly in a building one-half of which 
was devoted to the boiler shop and one-half to the planing 
mill. By removing the planing mill to a new building op- 
portunity was afforded to use the whole of this building for 
boiler repairs. 

It was necessary to rearrange the old equipment and pro- 
vide new tools as required for the desired increase in out- 
put. Most important in the list of new equipment provided 
is a sectional flanging press with an extra large flanging and 
annealing furnace for fire box work. An accumulator and 
hydraulic pump operating at 1,500 lbs. per sq. in. supply 
power for this press and have capacity to supply high pres- 
sure water for a future hydraulic riveter. A full outfit of 
stay bolt machinery for the manufacture of stay bolts 
is installed, together with a horizontal flange punch, 
bevel shear, flue sheet and mudring drill, extra heavy 



work required with the increased output of locomotives. The 
shop is now arranged with steam hammers .'along its center. 
On one side is a row of double forges while on the other 
the bolt and forging machinery is located with the necessary 
furnaces. A 5,000-lb. hammer is installed for heavy work 
and slabbing, and adjacent to this is a large scrap furnace for 
working up scrap and extra heavy forgings. In one corner 
of the shop is an open frame hammer for locomotive frame 
repairs, together with the necessary frame fires. Ample jib 
crane service for the hammers, the furnaces and a number 
of the forges is also provided. 

Freight Car Blacksmith Shop. 

This addition is a brick structure with wooden roof trusses, 
100 x 64 ft., and is located on one end of the old freight cat- 
blacksmith shop. On the other end is the new tin and pipe 
shop of like construction, 100x64 ft. 

The freight car blacksmith shop was re-arranged and 
equipment added. Among some of the tools installed were a 
No. 9 Pullman type bulldozer, an extra large furnace for 
straightening steel car material, small bulldozers, power 
hammers, eyebolt machine and rivet machines. The old 




Second Floor of Planing Mill, Huntington Shops. 



punching and shearing machines, with 60-in. throats, stake 
riveter, stay bolt breaker, etc. Running longitudinally down 
the shop and serving all of the tools is a walking jib crane, 
electrically operated, having 5 tons capacity and a 25-ft. 
radius. This crane carries material between the machines 
and the boilers under repair, which stand on transverse tracks 
on opposite side of shop to the machines. The new equip- 
ment makes this a very efficient boiler shop for all classes 
of the heaviest work. 

The extension to this building, which was originally used 
as a power plant, has been converted into a flue shop, and a 
small addition has been .built alongside of this extension, to 
house the flue rattlers. The machinery in this flue shop was 
so arranged as to minimize the labor cost of handling the 
flues. The results of actual operation show a reduced cost of 
repairing flues and that this shop is amply able to take care 
of the increased output of the boiler shop. 

Locomotive Blacksmith Shop. 

The addition to the blacksmith shop of 100 ft. x 80 ft. 
afforded an additional area in this building of about 50 per 
cent, providing ample space to take care of the additional 



machines were relocated and blast lines laid in the floor for 
supplying air to the forges and oil furnaces. 

Brass Foundry. 

To provide room for taking care of the desired increase 
in the brass foundry output an addition of 80 ft. x 40 ft. was 
erected. This is of wood construction corresponding with 
that of the old brass foundry. The output of the brass foun- 
dry is unusually heavy for a railway shop of this size, as 
considerable material is shipped to other line points. In 
order to increase the old output and to take advantage of 
the possible economies due to the large amounts of material 
handled, an automatic moulding machine and an oil burning 
brass furnace were installed, together with such smaller tools 
as a sprue cutter, a wire cutter, a new tumbling barrel, mag- 
netic separator, and ladle heater. 

Yard. 

The water supply and compressed air lines between the 
various buildings were found in general to be satisfactory 
and with a few changes were permitted to remain in place. 
Steam lines, however, between the powerhouse and the vari- 
ous buildings had to be installed new in most cases owing 



J March, 1911] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



87 




Storehouse, Huntington Shops, C. & O. Ry. 



to the fact that under the old arrangement practically every 
"building had its own boiler plant. The heating systems of 
•the various buildings were overhauled, and where possible 
were converted from the use of live steam to the use of ex- 
haust steam. 

A pipe tunnel of concrete construction has been installed 
■and extends from the powerhouse to such positions as per- 
mit straight runs of pipe in underground boxes to be made 
to all of the buildings. This has been installed for the pur- 
pose of permitting ready access to the portions of the steam 
and exhaust pipes most affected by the strains of expansion 
and contraction. 

The coach yard has been equipped with a new system of 
steam lines for heating passenger coaches and has also been 
•equipped with a storage battery charging on tint for the light- 



ing systems of passenger coaches, which run into Hunting- 
ton. 

General. 
In general the extension of these shops has resulted in an 
increased locomotive output of approximately 100 per cent, 
with a material decrease of cost per locomotive, and an in- 
crease of about 50 per cent in the planing mill output with 
approximately the same labor cost as before the new plan- 
ing mill was built. The work of extending these shops was 
carried cm under the direction of J. F. Walsh, general su- 
perintendent of motive power; C. H. Terrill, superintendent 
of motive power; T. M. Ramsdell, master car builder: W. S. 
Butler, master mechanic, and was designed and executed in 
its entirety by Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co.. 10 Bridge 
street, New York City. 




locomotive Blacksmith Shops. C, & O. Ry. 



88 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[March, 1911} 



ECONOMY IN THE MANUFACTURE OF TOOLS* 

By W. M. Townsend. 

Supv. Tools, Montreal Loco. Co. 

Various kinds of milling machines are rapidly making their 
way prominent in removing surplus stock from machine and 
locomotive parts, hence the necessity of having durable mill- 
ing cutters. 

To obtain an efficient milling cutter there are two points 
which are essential, namely, high speed steel and a spiral 
or helical cutting edge. The latter quality may not appeal 
to some, due to the fact that an inserted tooth cutter made 
from a mild steel body with a high speed steel blade inserted 
at an angle of about 12 degrees, answers fairly well. This, 
however, is a great mistake. To obtain a clean cut it is 
necessary to have a certain and constant angle of rake or 
lip to the milling cutter. This can be obtained only by hav- 
ing a helical or spiral cutting edge. 

To construct the milling cutter that will give the best 
results and still adhere to the principle of strict economy 
(the point which I wish to emphasize mostly in this paper), 
we must first of all consider its diameter. We will first 
speak of cutters having a diameter of over 6 inches. Keep- 
ing close to our principle of economy, we apply to the scrap 
heap for material; there we will find crop ends of billet 
steel sawed from the ends of driving axles, which make an 
ideal body for an inserted tooth high speed steel milling 
cutter. The scrap value of these crop ends is very small, 
hence the low cost for the body of the cutter. Now, to pro- 
cure high speed steel for the blades in an economical man- 
ner (which if cut from the steel bar would cost 50 cents 
per pound), we collect all the broken and short high speed 
tools that cannot be further used on planers, shapers, lathes, 
etc. These are hammered into blades 5^x1^4x5 inches long. 
The cost of material for the blades is covered by the cost 
of labor in hammering out the steel plus its scrap value 
which is very small. So much for the economy in procuring 
material. 

We will now turn our attention to the design, upon which 
depends the efficiency. The bodies, after having been bored, 
turned, and faced, are milled with slots Y% inch wide, 34 inch 
deep, \y 2 inches apart, at an angle corresponding to a pre- 
determined helix or spiral. The blades are then fitted and 
slightly caulked. The cutter is then set up on a universal 
milling machine, and the front of the blades milled spiral. 
This gives a constant angle of rake or lip from one end to 
the other. This insures an equal strain along the whole 
length of the blade. On the other hand, if the blades are 
merely put in on an angle and not milled spiral, the lip or 
rake of the cutter is irregular. It can readily be seen that 
from one end of the cutter to the center there will be a de- 
creasing lip, while from the center to the other end of the 
cutter there will be an increasing drag. This causes an un- 
evenness in the cut and also a tendency to break and pull 
out the blades on the drag side. So much for cutters having 
a diameter over six inches. 

Inserted tooth cutters with a diameter much less than 
six inches are not practical, due to the fact that a slot cut 
at an angle across the top of the cutter body would be very 
irregular in depth, hence the impossibility of holding the 
blade. Take for example a blank cutter body 5 inches diam- 
eter, 10 inches long, cut a slot through the top at an angle 
of about 15 degrees, you would have a depth of about Y 
inch in the center, while at either end there would be no 
depth to speak of. This can be avoided, however, by dividing 
the cutter into short sections, thereby lessening the un- 
equal depth caused by cutting a slot at an angle to the axis 
of the cutter, but the high cost of this method does not war- 
rant its adoption. 

The general practice, in making cutters of smaller di- 



♦From a paper delivered before the Canadian Railway Club. 



mensions. is to use carbon steel costing about 14c per pound- 
This is altogether unnecessary and extravagant. Billet crop 
ends selected from high carbon billets — that is, mild steel 
with about .45 carbon and about the same percentage of 
manganese, and not more than .05 sulphur and .05 phos- 
phorus, such as are used for driving axles, piston, and side 
rods — carefully hammered, outclasses in every way the ordi- 
nary tool steel. In the first place,' its cost, hammered to 
size, is about l^,c per pound, as compared with 14c per 
pound for tool steel. Secondly, it is tougher, and the teeth 
will not break when a heavy cut is put on, such as is the 
case with tool steeh and the cutting edge stands up equally 
as well. The success of this method of course depends upon 
the treatment of hardening. This, however, is very simple, 
and consists of carefully packing the tools to be hardened 
in a mixture of salt and raw bone, placed in an air-tight 
box, which should be brought and kept to a heat of 1,500- 
deg. Fahr. from 24 to 48 hours according to size, then drawn 
from the box and quickly immersed in running clear wa- 
ter. There is no need whatever of drawing the temper, as 
the cutting 1 edge has the correct hardness, while the body 
of the cutter remains very tough. 

The question that you would naturally raise at this point 
would be: How deep can cutters be hardened in this man- 
ner? I may say that a depth of ^ inch can be reached, or 
in other words the cutter may be ground until the tooth is 
almost ground away, leaving no space for the chips to get 
away. When a cutter reaches this stage, it can be annealed,, 
recut, and rehardened, as often as the thickness of material 
will allow, without affecting the quality of the cutter. 

Some three years ago a test was made at our works to- 
determine the advantage of using high speed steel cutters 
for a certain class of work, namely — milling out jaws of 
side rods, transmission bars, radius bars, combination levers, 
etc. It was found that the high speed steel cutters broke 
from the vibration and pressure brought to bear upon them, 
while cutters of the same design made from billet steel case 
hardened did the work very satisfactorily without breaking, 
running at the same speed and feed. I wish to remind you 
that what I have said so far regarding milling cutters refers 
to cutters used for straight milling. Cutters used for mill- 
ing gears, taps, reamers, and irregular shapes should, in my 
opinion, be made from high speed steel. 

In studying the efficiency and economy of tools, we must 
not forg'et to consider the quality and quantity of work re- 
quired of them. I mean by this that we should not put a 
whole lot of work into a tool which is only to be used for 
one job, and then probably becomes obsolete after it has 
been used only once. We now come to tools such as are used 
on lathes, planers, shapers, and slotters. There are many 
brands of high speed steel on the market at ^the present 
time, and I have tried almost all of them, but will not ex- 
press my opinion regarding their merits, as it would make 
this paper appear as an advertisement. I believe, however, 
that if we wish to ascertain which is the most efficient steel, 
we should give every brand an extensive trial, making an- 
individual record of each, and determining which is the best, 
as compared to the price paid for it. Different shops have 
different materials to contend with, and the formulae used 
in the composition of steel differ, so that some brands are 
better for cutting one class of material, while other brands- 
are better for cutting other classes of material. This is 
why I contend that each shop should test out every brand 
and see which is best adapted for its requirements. 

High speed steel is an immense item in large machine 
shops, and great care should be exercised in order to avoid 
waste. A great saving may be made, by observing the fol- 
lowing practice. In making finishing tools, instead of using 
a piece of high speed steel, say l*4x2J4 x l 5 inches long, 
costing about six dollars, we go back to the old reliable. 



[March, 1911] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



89 



and use a piece of billet steel, leaving it as large as the tool 
post will admit, and weld a tip to it made of high speed steel. 
The finished cost of this tool is abont one-eighth of the solid 
high speed steel tool and is just as efficient, for these reas- 
ons: The billet steel is sufficiently strong to withstand the 
pressure brought upon it for a finishing cut. It does not 
require dressing any oftener than the solid tool, but it does 
require a little more care. 

I will now explain a little more clearly how this tool 
is made. As stated before, we take a piece of high carbon 
billet from the scrap heap, and draw it out to the required 
dimensions. One end is then scarffed ready to receive the 
high speed steel tip which is wedge shaped. The toolsmith 
fits the two parts fairly well together before welding to 
ensure a neat weld. The parts after having been prepared 
are then heated, the tip being allowed to heat longer than 
the body, owing to the necessity of the former being of a 
much higher temperature than the latter to allow for welding. 
When both are at a welding heat they are quickly with- 
drawn, a piece of Lafitte welding compound is placed be- 
tween them and hammered lightly together. The tool is then 
reheated, care being taken to place the nose of the tool 
in such a manner that it will be most exposed to the fire. 
When the required heat is reached the tool is quickly with- 
drawn and placed between a former under a steam hammer 
and given a light sharp blow. In case of the tip being dis- 
placed, it will not do to try and knock them into place again. 
The tip must be cut away and refitted, and a fresh piece of 
the compound used. The tool is then treated in the same 
manner as a high speed steel tool. These tools have been 
used until the tip has been ground right down to the weld. 

I would not advise making heavy roughing tools in this 
manner, as the billet steel body would not stand the pres- 
sure required by a roughing tool such as is used on a heavy 
planer. A tool of this description, however, answers well 
when used on a lathe where the point does not project far 
from the tool post, also where the cut is continuous and 
not intermittent, as is the case on a planer. You can readily 
see where the saving comes in, if this method is only applied 
to finishing and lathe tools. 

I will now draw your attention to twist drills. Twist drills 
made from carbon steel with the exception of jobbers' drills, 
that is, drills up to y 2 inch diameter, are almost a thing of 
the past, high speed steel drills having taken their place. 
The original design of the high speed drill was exactly the 
same as the ordinary carbon drill with the exception of the 
material used. This, however, has proven to be inefficient 
and expensive due to the following reasons: In the first 
place, to obtain proper results from a high speed steel drill, 
it is necessary to have adequate space to allow the chips to 
free themselves from the drill, as the flutes will soon choke 
up owing to the increased feed and speed of the drill. The 
fluted high speed drill has not this advantage. It is ex- 
pensive for this reason. To make a drill of this design, it 
is necessary to use a round bar of solid steel, cutting away 
50 per cent of it to form the flutes. Yet there are men who 
will tell you that this design of drill is the best and cheap- 
est on the market. 

I will now give my opinion as to which is the best high 
speed drill and the reason why. A high speed steel drill with 
a twisted section about half way between the flat twisted 
section and the standard milled drill is the most efficient and 
economical, economical from the fact that it takes just one- 
third of the steel to make it, and efficient because of the ade- 
quate space for the chips to clear, thus preventing clogging 
and choking. The feed can be doubled due to this advantage. 
I have found in my endeavor to reduce the cost of tools, 
that in the average shop where locomotives and heavy ma- 
chines are built, they have sufficient equipment to make effi- 
cient high speed drills with a saving of from 10 to 50 per 



cent. This percentage is not exaggerated. The same may 
be said of all kinds of taps, especially those used in boiler 
construction. These remarks may seem severe to the tool- 
supply men here with us to-night, but this is one point which 
I feel that I cannot leave out, seeing that our subject is 
along the lines of economy. 

A few words may be said regarding reamers. There are 
many styles of straight reamers, all of which have their ad- 
vantages, which leaves me with nothing to say regarding 
them. Taper reamers are different in their action, however, 
inasmuch as the whole part of the reamer that comes in 
contact with the work is cutting equally, whereas, in the 
straight reamer, the extreme end is the only part that cuts, 
the rest of the reamer only acting as a guide. It is this dif- 
ference of action that I now wish to discuss. In all railroad 
shops there is a great amount of taper reaming to be done; 
this calls for a different class of reamer. Having visited 
some of the large locomotive works and inquiring from 
others, I find that their practice is to use the straight fluted 
taper reamer — some of them have the teeth staggered, others 
equally spaced. I beg to state that this style of reamer is 
decidedly wrong. Reamers that are required to cut equally 
their full length of flute should be milled with a left hand 
spiral cutting edge, having an angle of about 20 deg. ; the 
pitch or distance between the teeth should be about $£ inch, 
leaving ample space for the chips to clear, thus preventing 
clogging and tearing of the hole. The advantages of this 
style of reamer are: It takes about 30 per cent less power to- 
drive it; it never chatters; it never digs in; the tang does 
not twist off; the teeth do not break off; they are easy on 
crank shafts and can be driven with an air motor, where 
straight fluted reamers would stick. Now this may appear 
that I am claiming a little more than what is true, but 
these are actual facts that have been tried and proven. 

There are two reasons for the success of this style of 
reamer, namely, the spiral cutting edge which gives the 
reamer a shearing action instead of a straight drag (which 
must necessarily follow with a straight flute), also to the 
fact that the line of cut parallel to the length of reamer is 
divided, due to the angular cutting edge which is not paral- 
lel to the line of cut. The even and regular curl of chip 
made by this reamer will also convince you of the correct- 
ness of design. The cost of these reamers is a trifle less 
than the straight fluted reamers, on account of the fewer 
number of teeth to be cut. This applies generally to ream- 
ers having a diameter of 1^2, inches and under, with a flute 
of from 14 inches to 16 inches, standard taper iV inch to 
12 inches. 

A word or two may be said regarding reamers of large 
diameter, such as crosshead reamers both for piston and 
wrist pin fit. For cheapness and durability these may be 
made in the same manner as solid milling cutters. a< men- 
tioned in the previous part of this paper. Select a piece of 
high carbon billet from the scrap heap, have the forging 
well hammered, machine and case harden, and you will have 
a tool that is equal to the finest tool steel made. You will 
find that the cost will be about one-tenth of that of good 
tool steel. 

There are many other items of interest whereby great 
savings can be made, but as our subject covers such a wide 
area. I must confine my remarks to one or two thoughts 
in general. Before concluding, I wish to state that an im- 
mense saving may be made by annealing all broken and 
worn-out tools, immediately they are out of service. This 
being done they should be arranged in open bins or racks, 
so that when the foreman of the tool room requires material, 
he looks over his stock of annealed scrap (I mention an- 
nealed for the reason that very often a piece of scrap mate- 
rial is available, but it is necessary to wait while it is being 
annealed"! and very often find? exactlv what he wants with- 
out drawing from the regular stock 



90 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[March, 1911] 



Another feature regarding economy, is the correct distri- 
bution. [ mean by this that every man should have all the 
tools he requires and no more. 1 say this because it is a 
well-known fact that workmen have a habit of collecting 
and storing up under lock and key, all the tools they can 
possibly lav their hands on, for their own individual use. 

You can readily see that with this practice, if not watched 
and kept in hand, in large plants many thousands of dollars 
may be invested and nothing accomplished. 

In summing up these remarks, I think you will agree 
with me, when I say that it is absolutely necessary in iarge 
plants, to have a man that is fully acquainted with every 
detail of tool design, tool purchasing, and tool distribu- 
tion, to properly effect a system which would result in em- 
be expected of the tool room foreman, as his duties confine 
him to the tool room. Under these circumstances the man 
appointed to perform the duties of economizing in cost, and 
designing efficient tools, should have the liberty, to watch all 
machine shop operations, and to have full supervision of 
tool room practices. This system is in vog'ue in some of the 
large locomotive works in the United States and one that I 
know of in Canada. This system, if adopted by some of the 
other large plants, would, 1 feel sure, bring about results 
worth noting. 

Discussion. 

This paper brought out considerable discussion and a 
number of questions were brought up, among which were: 
Would not the cost of annealing and shaping the billet steel 
make up for the difference in cost between it and high speed 
steel? Is it not very difficult to weld high speed to carbon 
steel? To which Mr. Townsend replied as follows: 

I am afraid that my ideas have not been clearly repre- 
sented to some of the members. Mr. Dalrymple referred to 
the fact that he did not consider it economy to draw out mill- 
ing cutter blades from scrap steel. You must not lose sight 
of the fact that high speed steel costs on an average 50c per 
lb. My idea is, when tools are worn to such an extent that 
they cannot be used further as lathe or planer tools, they 
should be drawn out into blades for milling cutters. Their 
ciency, and economy. I might add that these duties cannot 
cost is small, as the toolsmith could hammer out 150 lbs. per 
day, and the boy's wages for shaping is very slight. Add to 
this their scrape value, and you will find that their cost is 
about one-fifth of the bar steel. 

I think that the next point raised was, that we could not 
weld high speed steel to ordinary steel. It does not matter 
if we do only stick to it, if we can get a tool by sticking it to 
another piece of steel. Regarding the inserting of blades. 
I might say that I have just completed making a set of cut- 
ters. They form a cutter -33 inches long, 10 inches diameter, 
with 3 l / 2 inch hole. I would like you to figure the cost of 
these in high speed steel. I might say that these cutters 
have been made out of billet scrap ends, and their actual 
cost, including wear and tear, is just $24. Now, take the 
next best cutter, with high speed steel blades. We can 
manufacture them just about as cheap as they can be man- 
ufactured, and T think the same cutter made from high 
speed steel will cost $160. Now, taking it for granted that 




3O 00O 300OO 30000 3QQ 00 30500 
I200OO , 



2350O 



IZS500 



/89$ OQ 



-<x 



Coal II Tons 
Water 6000 Gal 



3'". 



■ 5'6" 




x?il-5'j|^t— 9'2"— ^^s'ir-X-s-ir^i-s's 

I — 2- Of/-.'" — »l , pa'?" ■* 



■500 00 30000 30000 30 000 
IZOOOO 



-63'tOl 



30500 



-F^-i- 



2-3500 



I35501T 



TOTAL 309S0O i«5. 

Diagram B — Prairie Type Simple — Class F-2. 

these billet steel cutters are only half as good, we will have 
a margin of 300 per cent. For actual test 1 have had these 
cutters on a machine, and I have had them in operation for 
two days without grinding. I have had the inserted tooth 
cutters on the same machine and class of work, and we 
have only been able to use them for four days, which is 
only twice as long as the billet steel cutters. 

There is another point about high speed steel drills. I 
would like to make it clear that these drills are made from 
worn-out planer tools which are too short, and they are 
forged into a section about half way between a flat section 
and the standard fluted drill. I find this section allows the 
chips to clear, which is necessary in a high speed steel drill, 
and it is more rigid than the flat-twisted drill. These drills 
are not welded — they are solid high speed steel drills. 

In connection with the question why I did not interrupt 
the teeth for straight milling. A milling cutter with spiral 
cutting edges does not require these grooves, for the reason 
it is not cutting the whole width of the work at the same 
time, and there are no two points which come into contact 
with the work in line. The same principle applies to spiral 
reamers. We have these cutters made from billet steel. I 
might say that I do not attempt to case-harden iron, but 
the steel which we use ranges from .45 to about .55 car- 
bon, and you cannot get the same results from steel with 
only about .20 per cent carbon. 



TOTAL 309500 183. 

Diagram A — Prairie Type Compound — Class F-2. 



LOCOMOTIVE STANDARDIZATION, CHICAGO 
GREAT WESTERN R. R. 

Before the re-organization of the Chicago Great Western 
Railroad Company, the locomotive equipment included loco- 
motives of various compound types. The plan outlined by the 
re-organizatiou and which has since been carried out, in- 
cluded the reconstruction of all compound locomotives and 
the conversion of the prairie type passenger engines into 
Pacific type, maintaining as far as it was practical to do so, 
certain standards which had been adopted on the standard 
consolidation locomotive, forty of which have been pur- 
chased. In carrying out this plan, 26 engines of the F-2 class, 
shown on diagram marked "A," were converted from cross 
compound to simple as shown on diagram marked "B." These 
engines were given 24-inch cylinders; the steam pressure 
reduced to 150 lbs. and a Vauclain superheater was applied. 

Ten cross-over consolidation engines, known as the G-2 
class, were converted into eight-wheel switch engines with 
simple cylinders 22x32 and the steam pressure reduced from 
200 to 165 pounds, which increased the tractive power from 
37,550 pounds to 39,495 pounds; this increase in tractive power 
being made possible by the increased weight on drivers due 
to removing the engine truck. In order to properly balance 
the engine with the engine truck removed, heavy solid cast 
iron cab brackets were applied and as much metal added to 
the foot plate as was needed to weight the back end. 

Previous to the reorganization of the Chicago Great West- 
ern Railroad, there were in existence twenty tandem com- 
pound locomotives, as shown in the diagram marked "C," 
known as Class F-4. Three of these engines have been 
changed to low pressure simple superheat engines. This 



[March, 1911] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



01 



Coal II Tons 
Water 600O Gal 




t/vi/>/\ ■vsisinA 7/1/in/i 7nr\r\n ■xm^** r 




30000 30000 3000Q SO OOO 
120000 



30IOO 



28400 



I33 2 QO 

IVI7 QO 



TOTAL 31/700 IBS. 

Diagram C — Prairie Type Compound — Class F-4. 

change was made by taking off the high pressure cylinders 
and steam chest, bushing the low pressure cylinder to 24 
inches and carrying the steam from the live steam port in 
the cylinder to the front of the old low pressure steam chest 
through a special designed steam pipe. 

Previous to the re-organization of the Chicago Great West- 
ern Railroad Company, there were twenty prairie type. pas- 
senger engines, known as the F-6 class, shown in diagram 
Marked "D." Twelve of these engines have already been con- 
verted into Pacific type engines, known as the Kl and K3 
class, shown on diagrams marked "E" and "F." Those shown 
on diagrams marked "E" were given 160 pounds steam, 24- 
inch cylinders with slide valves and a Vauclain superheater 
and are known as class Kl. 

Those shown on diagram "F" were left with the original 
piston valve, 200 pounds steam, and the boiler and flues 
lengthened. As the remaining eight of these engines go 
through the Oelwein Shops, they will be converted as shown 
in the diagram marked "F" into K13 class. 

In connection with this re-construction work on equip- 
ment, three of class F-3 prairie type engines were converted 
into H2 class Mallet type which have been previously illus- 
trated and described in the Railway Master Mechanic. 

Of the various types of small eight-wheel and mogul en- 
gines which the Great Western has in the past operated, all 
will either be sold or scrapped with the exception of one 
class of eight-wheel engines which will be used on light runs. 

After the reconstruction work is completed the road will 
have ten distinct classes of locomotives where heretofore it 
had 38 distinct classes. These ten classes will comprise the 
following: 

1 8-wheel, 

2 Switching. 
2 Ten-wheel, 
1 Prairie, 

1 Pacific, 

1 Consolidation, 

2 Mallet. 

CAR WHEELS REVOLVING INDEPENDENTLY OF 

THE AXLE.* 

By George L. Fowler. 
The first car wheels were undoubtedly loose upon their axles ; 
that is to say, the two wheels on the same axle could turn in- 
dependentlv of each other. This arrangement was evidently un- 



.^Z 



Coal 10 Tons 
Water Ci?5 Oal 
Water Bottom 



-is' 




30 640 30640 30640 3064-P 30ZOO 
I22S6Q 



i? : o~w\ ^'H 



39000 43700 38800 
IZl'SOO 



23600 



175300 



*From report of the Block Signal and Train Control Board. 



TOTAL Z97S60 lbs. 

Diagram D — Prairie Type Simple — Class F-6. 

satisfactory, for the custom was changed at an early date to 
the use of wheels rigidly attached to the axle and therefore 
revolving with it. This was the condition of affairs in 1870, 
which may be called the date of the advent of the present sys- 
tem of rolling-stock construction and operation. 

The loose wheel had been advocated from time to time up to 
this date, but the efforts to introduce it had been spasmodic, 
and was soon abandoned.; so that it was really not until the 
decade from 1870 to 1880 that a systematic and determined at- 
tempt was made to develop a loose wheel for railway car pur- 
poses. 

Attempts were made by several persons during this period 
to develop such a wheel. The underlying reason for these at- 
tempts was that, as the outside rail of a curve of a railroad 
track is longer than the inner rail, and as wheels of the same 
diameter are forced to roll around these curves in the same 
number of revolutions, it is evident that one or the other of 
these wheels must slip upon the rail. To cause this slipping a 
considerable amount of power must be expended, and if it can 
be avoided, just that much less power will be required of the 
locomotive. 

The basic idea of most of the early attempts had been that 
of putting the wheels rigidly upon an axle, cutting the latter in 
two in the middle, and then coupling the two parts together 
so that they could revolve independently of each other. And 
the reason for the failure lay, not so much in the weakness of 
the method of fastening, or the failure to act in service, but 
because of the inherent defect in the principle itself, is will be 
explained later in discussing the operation and failure of an 
axle of this sort in detail. Examples of this type of axle are 
shown in the patent office illustrations of the designs of Richard 
Vose (1856), J. K. Nelson (1868), D. B. Hunt (1869), S. S. 
Hickok (1872), W. W. Towson and B. T. Babbitt (1877), and 
Jones and G. W. Millington (1878). These few patents, which 
have been taken to illustrate the general trend of these inven- 
tions, may be divided into two classes: Those that attempted 
to hold the ends of the axles rigidly in line, while still permit- 
ting them to rotate independently, and those wherein an effort 
was made to allow the axle to bend under the load and thus 
accommodate itself to the conditions of service. Of the rigid 
type, the Vose, Nelson, Hunt, Babbitt, Jones and Millington 
are examples. These were, for the most part, the earlier pat- 
ents, and were followed by those of Hickok and Towson, in 
which an attempt was made to permit a bending movement of 

the axle under load. 

I have not considered myself warranted in looking up the 
records of the tests of those wheels and axles in detail, other 




TOTAL 309460 LBS 

Diagram E— Converted from Prairie Type Shown in Diagram D. 



Coal IO Tons 
Wal-er i/25 Oal 



i^-CUi!L_CuRD 



-K3- 



t 






J0640 30i40 3O640 30640 30200 



We\ 



'22S60 



•?> scc 



Diagram F — Converted from Prairie Type Shown in Diagram D. 



92 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[March, 1911] 



than to be able to state that the trials were not satisfactory nor 
the results commensurate with the extra expense involved in 
the construction. This having been settled, the next move was 
that of placing one wheel loose on a rigid axle. Examples of 
this class of design are shown in the patents of S. & S. L. Hall 
(1876), Watkeys (1878-79), Baker and Spaulding (1878), and 
Sproull (1879). This design is a recurrence to the primitive 
type of wagon wheel with modifications of detail, the object of 
which was to permit the bending of the axle and, at the same 
time, permit the wheel to accommodate itself to such a fixture. 
None of these axles had more than a sporadic trial and no sus- 
tained attempt was made to make them a success. The owners 
were evidently discouraged as the result of the first trials and 
withdrew. This can be definitely stated to have been the case 
with Vose, Watkeys, Baker, and Babbitt, all of whom made 
tests that were failures. 

A modification of the loose wheel is to be found in the use of 
a long sleeve. This first appears in the Vose patent (1856), and 
is also seen in that of Wells (1877), but finds its fullest exem- 
plification in the patents of George W. Miltimore covering the 
period from 1871 to 1879, and who can be credited with having 
made the most persistent and successful attempt to design a 
loose or independent wheel for railway car purposes of all 
who have tried it. He was backed by ample capital and his 
attempt will be followed in some detail. 

Miltimore's first patent was issued to him, in connection with 
Ellis Doty, in 1871, and was based upon a new idea in car-wheel 
construction. Instead of cutting his axle in two, he made it 
rigid from end to end and did not allow it to revolve, but keyed 
it to his axle boxes. On the outside of this he placed a rotating 
sleeve extending from one axle box to the other, and on the 
outside of this he placed loose wheels. In operation upon a 
straight track the wheels would remain stationary upon the 
sleeve and the latter would revolve on the axle. This because 
of the difference in the diameter of the bearings, the greater 
diamter of the outer causing it to hold while the turning was 
done on the inside or smaller one. 

The first work with this axle was done on the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy Railroad, and I believe his first wheels were 
built in the shops of that company. 

The sleeve upon which the wheels themselves were mounted 
was of cast iron and was exceedingly heavy, weighing about 400 
pounds for each pair, and it must be borne in mind that this 
was for cars of 10 tons capacity. A number of runs were made 
with a car so equipped, and the results were so seemingly sat- 
isfactory that a stock company was organized and a passenger 
car equipped for demonstrating purposes, though it was rec- 
ognized at the time that a great reduction in weight would be 
required in order that it might be made commercially success- 
ful. But in the short distances operated and the light loads 
carried the mechanical defects which afterwards appeared had 
not developed. 

This exhibition car was taken east to Boston, and it so hap- 
pened that on the run from Albany to Boston, over the Boston 
& Albany Railroad, a Mr. Dow Canfield was on the train and, 
noticing the peculiar appearance of the wheels, entered the car 
to inquire about it. Mr. Canfield was an officer of the Arling- 
ton Car Manufacturing Company, of Arlington, Vt, and as the 
axle company was looking for a place in the east at which the 
axles could be made and which would serve as headquarters, an 
arrangement was made with Mr. Canfield; and from that time 
on all of the work of the Miltimore Car Axle Company was 
done at Arlington. This was in 1872. From that time for the 
next seven years the work of development and experiment was 
energetically pushed. The first work was done on the Rutland 
& Bennington Railroad, where a freight car was equipped with 
a set of these wheels and axles and it was found to ride very 
evenly and smoothly, but nothing was done in the way of a 
service application to determine the wearing qualities of the 
device, nor were any experiments made in this country to as- 



certain as to just what saving in resistance was effected by the 
loose wheel. Then, in addition to the box car on the Benning- 
ton & Rutland, a four-wheeled caboose was equipped on the 
Boston & Albany, and this was run over various sections of ' 
the road in regular service. 

The construction according to the first patent (No. 119831). 
was too crude to form an operable mechanism, as the spring 
or bending of the axle and the failure of lubrication to reach 
the moving parts caused the bearings to cut and the wheels to- 
stick. This was quickly modified and the original simplicity 
done away with by the development of the construction shown 
in patent No. 133790, and this was the design that was placed 
upon the passenger car, already referred to, and brought east 
in 1873. In this there was a rigid axle of uniform diameter 
from end to end surrounded by a heavy cast-iron sleeve. This 
sleeve was fitted with brass bushings for bearings pressed in at 
each end which acted on the journal of the axle. This was a 
hardened pad fastened in the proper place and with a radius of 
curvature equal to that of the brass. The wheels were loose 
on the sleeve and were held in place by the journal box. 

Lubrication was effected by filling the pockets at the ends- 
of the sleeve with oil through the filling plugs just inside the 
wheel, and also by putting in oil through a hole drilled diag- 
onally from the end of the axle. This hole was plugged at the 
outer end, and the oil poured in as required. 

This construction worked efficiently and well on the first 
trials, the wheels running cool and apparently performing the 
functions for which they were designed. 

The criticism that was made of the design was that it was- 
complicated and the parts were inaccessible. 

But in spite of the fact that the early trials showed good re- 
sults, weaknesses and defects were soon developed, and these 
were for the most part of exactly the same character as those 
which had caused the failure and condemnation of designs based' 
on the divided-axle principle. This was the fact that when any 
car axle is supported by its wheels and is loaded upon the pro- 
jecting ends or journals outside the wheels, these ends will be- 
caused to drop or hang down, the central part of the axle will' 
be bowed up in the middle, and the wheels will be spread farther 
apart at the top than at the bottom. This and lubrication 
troubles were the things with which Miltimore had to contend, 
though the springing of the axle was the more serious of 
the two. 

Occasional and repeated failures to lubricate with the design* 
shown in patent No. 133790 simply caused the wheels to stick 
on the sleeve, for the most part, under which circumstances- 
they acted merely as rigid wheels on an axle. But the spring- 
ing up of the interior axle caused an excessive pressure to be 
put on the outer end of brass bushing in the sleeve and thus 
quickly wore it away into a bell shape. These were the troubles- 
that developed on the Boston & Albany and Bennington & 
Rutland. 

Incidentally Miltimore took out two patents (144347, of 1873,. 
and 151543, of 1874), at this period relating to devices for vary- 
ing the gauge of the wheels and for cushioning the side blow 
or lateral thrust, neither of which was ever tried. 

The serious matter was the spring of the axle. 

Miltimore was not a mechanic, nor even an educated man, 
but was merely fertile in resources. He therefroe failed to ap- 
preciate for several years the actual conditions. He did not 
have the reasoning or analytic faculty sufficiently developed to 
discover what was happening, and so jumped to the conclusion 
that the reason why the brass bushings wore out was that they 
were insufficiently lubricated; and so he turned his attention to 
the solving of the problem of lubrication and ignored the me- 
chanical feature that lay at the root of his trouble. Hence we 
see that in 1874 he took out a patent that dealt solely with the 
problem of lubrication, and its application was as complete a 
failure as that which had gone before. 

But soon after this date, in applying this design he learned! 



[March, 1911] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



93 



of the spring of the axle, and attempted to overcome it by mak- 
ing it abnormally thick in the center. This merely aggravated 
the difficulty, as the sudden change in axle diameter just back 
of the wheel seat caused the whole deflection to be concentrated 
at that point, and the wear on the bushings was worse than ever. 

He then took the first step to strike at the real trouble, and 
that after five years of constant and unremitting work. In his 
patent No. 171835, of 1876, he shows a brass bushing in the 
sleeve held by a wooden collar or wedge. The object of this 
was to permit the brass to yield and accommodate itself to the 
bend in the axle. This might have proven efficient had the 
axle been revolving and the bushing stationary, but when the 
reverse obtained the wood lost its elasticity at once, the bush- 
ing became loose and conditions were worse than ever. 

However, matters had progressed so far that in 1875 Mr. 
Canfield was sent to England and Denmark to attempt the ex- 
ploitation. Nothing . was done in Denmark, but in England a 
four-wheeled car was equipped, and the only running or resist- 
ance tests in the history of the work were made. As no dyna- 
mometer car was available, these tests consisted in merely let- 
ting this car run down a grade at known speeds over curves of 
different lengths and noting the distance required to stop, as 
compared with that of a similar car fitted with rigid wheels and 
axles. In every case the car with the loose wheels showed its 
resistance to be the less, because of the greater distance it 
would run before coming to rest. As to just what the actual 
difference was in this resistance there is no means of knowing, 
as the records are not available. 

The next year, 1876, the company equipped its first trains for 
regular commercial service. These trains were operated on the 
narrow-gauge intramural railway at the Centennial Exposition 
in Philadelphia. Here there was a chance to develop the real 
weakness of the design, and it was done. There was constant 
and unending trouble with the lubrication, and the wear on the 
bushings referred to were very rapid. But- the experience 
gained was utilized as a means to the later success. Mean- 
while, in anticipation of this, and at the same time utilizing the 
experience obtained at Philadelphia, another improvement was 
made, and this is shown in the patent No. 179938, of 1876. In 
this there was a radical modification and simplification of the 
whole design, which was thus put on a working basis. In it 
the brass bearing in the sleeve was made with a ball upon the 
outside, so that, as it rested in the sleeve, it could assume any 
angulai position relatively to the same, within limits, to accom- 
modate itself to the springing of the axle. It was held in place 
by a ring driven in from the outside and itself held by a nut. 
It was prevented from turning iii the sleeve by a pin fastened to 
the latter and projecting down, %ke a key, into a groove cut 
in the ball. 

The rigid axle was turned off on the bottom to an eccentric 
bearing of the same radius as that of the box, which was one- 
thirty-second inch larger than the axle. These axles were of 
cold-rolled shafting 3J4 ins. in diameter. This gave a large 
bearing surface on the axle, without the necessity of waiting for 
wear, and a universally adjustable bearing. The sleeve was 
formed of two heavy cast-iron ends, into which a connecting 
piece of heavy wrought-iron pipe was pressed. This to reduce 
the weight. 

Lubrication was obtained by drilling a hole in the end of the 
axle about Yt, in. in diameter and 13 ins. or 14 ins. deep, from 
which cross holes were drilled to the bearings beneath the brass. 
A cork washer at the end packed the joint between the oil box 
and the axle so as to prevent a leakage of the oil or grease. 
Then, in order to preserve the cleanliness of the wheels and 
truck, a projecting collar was screwed on the outside of the 
hub of the wheel; this led the waste grease back to a receptacle 
in the bottom of the oil box. The lubrication of the wheel on 
die sleeve was effected by leakage at the joints through the 
centrifugal action. It will be borne in mind that the movement 
between the wheel and the sleeve was very slight, bei"ar only 
that necessary to compensate for the difference in the rotation 



of the two wheels due to the difference in the length of the 
rails upon which they were running. 

This design was applied to twenty passenger cars on the Gil- 
bert Elevated Railway, now a part of the Manhattan Elevated 
system, in New York. At that time (1878) the road extended 
from Rector street to Fifty-ninth street. 

These cars were built in Detroit and were run to New York 
on their own wheels. The lubricant used on this run, as well 
as thereafter, was the well-known Albany grease. In running 
from Detroit to New York at speeds of from 30 to 40 miles an 
hour there was no heating of the journals, and on reaching des- 
tination the paint on the wheels was as fresh as when first put 
on and there was no evidence that a single drop of grease had 
escaped. The cars were then put into immediate service, and 
made the run of about 4^4 miles in 20 minutes. The road was 
then operated from 5 in the morning until midnight, so that 
these cars probably averaged from 150 to 170 miles a day. 

Here again no dynamometer tests were made. As far as per- 
sonal observation is concerned, there was no detectable differ- 
ence in the ease of motion of the cars with loose or rigid 
wheels, either on curves or tangents, and so, the actual saving 
in motive power is unascertainable. 

However, it was quite noticeable that the cars drifted around 
the sharp curves on this line very much more easily than did 
the trains equipped with rigid axles. Further than this, there 
was a noticeable reduction in the wear of the treads of the loose 
wheels as compared with those that were rigid, although both 
were subjected to the same brake-shoe action. The rigid 
wheels began to be removed for re-turning after the road had 
been in operation for a month, while in three months none of 
the loose wheels needed re-turning. 

At one time during the summer of 1878 a test was made in 
order to ascertain the grease consumption of these cars. The 
boxes on one were filled, closed and. sealed. At the end of six 
weeks the grease consumption had been about 7 ounces for 
each journal, and in that time all had run perfectly cool, and 
nearly all of the grease used had been deposited in the drip 
beneath the oil box. In short, from a mechanical standpoint 
the operation was all that could be desired, namely, ease of mo- 
tion about curves, no grinding of the wheels on curves, reduc- 
tion of wear of wheel treads, and economy of lubrication. 

Owing to personal friction between Mr. Miltimore and the 
mechanical officers of the road, which need not be detailed here, 
but which culminated in the removal of all of the wheels from 
the road, the work was stopped and nothing more on an ex- 
tended scale was done. 

In 1878 Miltimore took out a patent (No. 200746) in which 
he divided his sleeve and coupled it together after the manner 
of the old divided axles, but he never built wheels and axles 
in accordance with this design. It was regarded merely as a 
protective patent to guard against infringement. 

Miltimore's final design is shown in his patent No. 222833 of 
1879. In this he abandoned his heavy cast-iron ends for sleeves, 
and substituted therefor an extension to the inside of the hub 
of his wheel. The oscillating box was put in the front end of 
the hub, and so the wheel was now made loose on the axle upon 
which it turned, and was merely held to gauge by the sleeve. 

A collar on the sleeve held the wheels to gauge on the in- 
side, and a nut on the ends of the pipe prevented them from 
spreading. 

A passenger car was equipped with this design and run for 
a number of weeks on the Harlem Extension Railroad between 
Chatham, N. Y., and Bennington, Yt. This road is very 
crooked and has some steep grades. 

In building the wheels and axles for this service, the shoulder 
on the pipe at the back of the wheel hub was first put on by 
upsetting the pipe in a die. This injured the metal to such an 
extent that the pipes soon broke and the car was run for several 
weeks with the sleeves in this condition, illustrating the safety 
of the device. These shoulders were afterwards formed by 
shrinking a collar in place; after which no further difficulty 
was experienced. 



91 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[March," 19111 



The Miltimore axle, as thus designed, was also applied to a 
horse car on the line between Troy and Lansingburg, N. Y. 
This was in 1879 and the service was light, but an unexpected 
difficulty was encountered. The car was put in service early 
in September and soon earned for itself the reputation of being 
an exceedingly easy car to haul, as it would pass curves almost 
as readily as it could be hauled on a straight track; so that it 
at once became a great favorite with the men. But when cold 
weather came and stones or frozen dirt were apt to be dropped 
and left on the rails, it was found that a quick and complete 
derailment immediately followed the striking of such an ob- 
struction. The car turned so easily that the moment one wheel 
was stopped or checked in this way those on the other side of 
the car would run ahead of it, and it was not unusual to have 
the car run off into the road and not stop until it was at right 
angles to the track. After a few experiences of this sort the 
car was withdrawn from service. 

The Miltimore wheel can therefore be considered to have 
been developed into a mechanical success, so far as operation 
was concerned. Its fate, then, may be regarded as an exempli- 
fication of the difference between a mechanical and a commer- 
cial success. It. failed because of the excessive first cost, the 
complication of the details of its construction, the inaccessibility 
of its parts, and the impossibility of utilizing the ordinary car 
inspector to watch it and maintain it, as well as because of the 
fact that, as a general proposition, a loose wheel is not worth 
while. 

The only other loose wheel which, so far as I know, a serious 
attempt was made to develop was that of Baker. This was 
put on ten cars on the Gilbert Elevated Railroad in 1878 at the 
same time as the Miltimore wheel. This was a divided axle, 
and was the subject of constant and repeated failures for about 
a month or six weeks, when it was removed. The whole trouble 
arose from the springing of the axle. There was a cramping 
of the wearing parts, rapid wear, and heating, with the re- 
sultant effect of excessive play and wabbly wheels. 

My experience in these matters has led me to the conclu- 
sion that a divided axle can not be fastened together with suffi- 
cient rigidity to prevent this excessive cramping and, at the 
same time, permit of the required independence of motion of 
the two parts. The axle must be allowed to spring and flexible 
bearings must be provided; and when this is done the first cost 
and complication of parts prohibit its use. 

In considering the value of a loose wheel to a railroad it 
must be remembered that its only value lies in its ability to 
compensate for the difference in the length of the two rails 
without requiring that one of the wheels on the axle should 
slip on its tread on the rail. Theoretically, there would be no 
saving on a straight track with wheels of the same diameter. 
But the two wheels never are of the same diameter, so there 
is always some slipping in the case of rigid wheels. On curves 
there is always a slip, but this is the same for the same angular 
length of curve regardless of the length of its radius, and is 
equal to a curve of the same angular length, having the dis- 
tance between the centers of the wheels as a radius, and this 
may be taken at about 4 ft. 10 ins. Therefore, on any track 
making a complete circle, whether it be as a circle or with in- 
numerable tangents between successive arcs, as in a belt line 
whose curves are all in one direction the total slipping will 
amount to the circumference of a circle whose radius is 4 ft. 
10 ins. or 30 ft. 4.43 ins. The expenditure of power to accom- 
plish this will depend upon the coefficient of friction between 
the wheel and the rail and the load on the wheel. My own 
investigations lead me to put the coefficient of friction between 
a cast-iron wheel and the rail at about 0.20 for loads of approx- 
imately 20,000 pounds. The extra effort then to move a loaded 
car of 100,000 pounds capacity, having about 19,500 pounds on 
each wheel, around a curve that formed a complete circle or 
one closed on itself would be about 118,443 foot-pounds per 
axle, or 473,772 foot-pounds for the car, or the development of 
1 h. p. for less than 15 minutes. 






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[March, 1911] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



95 



ARTICULATED LOCOMOTIVES WITH FLEXIBLE 

BOILERS. 

That the Santa Fe is satisfied with the performance of its 
Mallet locomotives is evidenced by the fact that the Bald- 
win Locomotive Works has recently completed forty more 
Mallets for this road. These are in freight service on the 
Belen cut-off, where the maximum grade is six-tenths of a 
per cent, and though they are rated at 2,200 tons of cars and 
lading, they have actually handled 2,700 tons at a speed of 
15 miles an hour on the above grade. All of the engines are 
coal burners, are fitted with Jacobs-Shupert fireboxes and 
Buck-Jacobs superheaters and reheaters and have a trac- 
tive force of 61,500 lbs. working compound. A very novel 
departure has been made with two of these engines, which 
is somewhat in the nature of an experiment. Instead of the 
usual rigid separable boiler, these two have boilers fitted 
with a flexible connection between the front and rear sec- 
tions. 

The locomotives with rigid boilers do not differ essentially 
from the usual Mallet type. Twenty-eight have straight- 
topped shells, while the remaining ten have a gusset placed 



of finger-bars, and are arranged to shake mechanically in 
two sections, placed right and left. The drop plates are at 
the rear. The ash pan bottom slides are of cast iron, and 
are operated by compressed air. The front end is of the self- 
cleaning type, with an adjustable diaphragm placed in front 
of the nozzle. 

The steam distribution is controlled by inside admission 
piston valves, thirteen inches in diameter. The valves have 
cast iron bodies, with L-shaped packing rings sprung in. The 
by-pass valves are placed above the steam chests, and the 
live steam ports are extended upward to a horizontal face, 
the port openings being covered by a flat plate, which, when 
the throttle is open, is held to its seat by steam pressure act- 
ing on its upper surface. Excessive pressure within the 
ports will lift the plate from its seat, and open communica- 
tion between the two ends of the cylinder. 

The cylinders are placed 88 ins. between centers, while 
the distance between the steam chests is 100 ins. Walschaerts 
motion is used, and the location of the steam chests enables 
practically all parts of the gear to be placed in the same 
vertical plane. As the main rods are connected to the second 




Articulated Locomotive with Flexible Bellows-Jointed Boiler. 



immediately in front of the firebox for the purpose of in- 
creasing the steam space. The front boiler section contains 
a smoke-box, feed-water heater, combustion chamber, re- 
heater and superheater. The main boiler section has a com- 
bustion chamber in its forward end which is surrounded by 
the separable joint. This joint is formed by two rings, 
riveted to the front and rear boiler sections, butted together 
with a V-shaped fit and held by thirty-six bolts. 

The boiler is fed by two non-lifting injectors, which are 
placed right and left under the cab, and discharge directly 
into the water-heater, which is kept constantly filled. When 
the injectors are in operation, the overflow leaves the heater 
through two outlets placed in the manhole cover, and enters 
the boiler proper through check valves located a short dis- 
tance back of the front tube sheet. 

The barrel of the rear boiler section is composed of five 
rings. The first encloses a combustion chamber; the forward 
dome is mounted on the third ring, and the rear dome on 
the fifth, immediately in front of the firebox. 

The steam piping is arranged with the usual slip joints used 
on the articulated type of engine. The grates are composed 



pair of wheels, the space available for the valve gear is lim- 
ited, and a compact arrangement of motion has been designed, 
with the link and reverse shaft bearings bolted to the guide 
yoke. Each combining lever is pinned to a crosshead, which 
slides in a bracket bolted to the upper guide bar. 

The high and low-pressure gears are controlled simultane- 
ously by a power reverse mechanism, which is operated by 
compressed air. The air cylinder is bolted to the boiler shell 
on the right hand side, immediately in front of the firebox. 
Admission of air is controlled by a small hand lever, con- 
veniently located in the cab; and the usual reverse lever is 
entirely dispensed with. 

The frames are of cast steel, four and one-half inches in 
width, and placed 44 ins. between centers. The rear frames 
have separate back sections of slab form; these are arranged 
to accommodate the trailing truck, which is of the Rushton 
type, with outside journals. The equalization of the rear 
group of wheels is continuous on each side of the locomo- 
tive. 

The articulated connection between the frames is effected 
by a single cast steel radius bar, which is bolted to both the 




Articulated Locomotive with Flexible Ball-Jointed Boiler. 



96 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[March, 1911] 







Device for Keeping Boiler in Alignment. 

upper and lower rails of the frames, and extended forward 
over the rear driving pedestals. The center of the hinge 
pin is placed eight inches in front of the center of the high- 
pressure cylinders. The pin is inserted from below, and is 
seated at the bottom in a cast steel frame brace, and at the 
top in the high-pressure cylinder saddle. 

The locomotives are supplied with Westinghouse combined 
automatic and straight air brake equipment. Air is supplied 
by two eight and one-half inch cross compound pumps, and 
the reservoir capacity provided is 100,000 cu. ins. The en- 
gines are provided with the usual number of sand boxes and 
lubrication and are also equipped with tire flange lubricators 
on the leading driving wheels of the front group. 

The most interesting locomotives among this delivery of 
Mallets are the two with flexible boilers. The general di- 
mensions are the same as the rest of the set, but the important 
difference is that the front section is rigidly mounted on the 
forward frames, which avoids the use of the sliding bearing. 
This gives a locomotive which will curve with a minimum 
amount of resistance and clearance. 

The flexible boiler connections used on these two engines 
are entirely, different in construction, engine 1170 having 
a double ball-jointed connection, while engine 1171 has a 
pleated or bellows form of connection. On engine 1170, the 
connection consists of two cast iron sleeves, fitted one 
within the other and provided with snap rings to keep the 
joint tight. Each sleeve forms a ball joint with, a cast iron 
ring, which is bolted to the shell of the corresponding boiler 
section. These rings are made in halves, to facilitate as- 
sembling. The ball joints are kept tight by rings of soft 
metallic packing, which can be adjusted by set screws. The 
two boiler sections can thus move in any direction relative 
to one another, and full provision is made for expansion and 
contraction. 

On engine 1171, the joint is composed of sixty rings of 
high carbon steel, having a thickness of No. 14 wire gauge. 
These rings are ten inches wide and have an outside diam- 
eter of seventy-five and one-half inches. They are made with 
a set, so that, when placed adjacent to each other, they form 
a series of V-shaped joints. The adjacent rings are riveted 
together at the inside and bolted at the outside, and the con- 
nection is bolted in place between the front and rear boiler 
sections. The products of combustion traverse the flexible 
connection through a cylindrical flue forty-four inches in 
diameter. This flue is riveted to the rear boiler section, and 
prevents cinders from lodging in the crevices between the 
connecting rings. These connections are shown in the illus- 
tration. 

The high-pressure exhaust on these two locomotives is 
conveyed forward through a pair of horizontal pipes fitted 
will ball and slip joints. These pipes terminate in a cast- 
steel waist bearer, which spans the front frames and supports 
the rear end of the forward boiler section. The reheater 
is located immediately above the waist bearer, and is seated 
on a steel casting similar to that which supports the super- 
heater. The two currents of steam, after being reheated, 
unite in the center of the drum and enter a single nine con- 
nection in the front of the latter near the top. This pipe 



connection is carried forward through a large flue which 
traverses the water-heater. On reaching the smoke-box 
the steam enters an elbow pipe, and is conveyed to a passage 
cored in the low-pressure saddle. It then flows through short 
pipe connections to the low-pressure steam chests. The dis- 
tribution is here controlled as in the locomotives with rigid 
boilers. • 

To assist in holding the boiler sections in alinement, a 
centering device is placed on each side, on the horizontal 
center line of the boiier. This arrangement consists of a 
pair of helical springs, which are seated in cast steel brackets 
riveted to the shells of the front and rear boiler sections. 
The springs are held in place between washers, carried by a 
horizontal thrust bar. When the engine enters a curve, the 
two boiler sections assume an angular position with reference 
to each other, and by reason of the compression of the 
springs on the outer side, the corresponding thrust bar is 
thrown into tension, thereby tending to bring the boiler sec- 
tions back into alinement. The device is shown in the illus- 
tration. 

The Santa Fe has also converted two Prairie type loco- 
motives into flexible boiler Mallets at its own shops by the 
addition of a front section. These locomotives are equipped 
with a ball joint similar to the one discribed above. 

It is of course necessary, in these locomotives, to place 
flexible joints in all pipes which pass the articulated con- 
nections in the frames and boiler. This, however, introduces 
no objectionable complication. The steam piping is sim- 
plified, as no flexible joints are required in the exhaust con- 
nection between the low-pressure cylinders and smoke-box 
There is also a distinct advantage in the avoidance of sliding 
supports under the forward boiler section, and the stability 
of the locomotive, when on curves, is not impaired by the 
lateral displacement of the boiler on the front frames, which 
necessarily occurs in the Mallet locomotive as usually built. 
The general dimension of these locomotives are as follows: 

Gauge 4 ft 8y 2 in. 

Cylinders 24 in. and 38 in. x 28 in. 

Valves Balanced Piston 

Boiler — Type Straight 

Material Steel 

Diameter 70 in. 

Thickness of Sheets M in. and ii in. 

Working Pressure - 220 lbs. 

Fuel Soft Coal 

Staying Jacobs-Shupert 

Firebox — Material Steel 

Length 119^$ in. 

Width 63i4 in. 

Depth 74^6 in. 

Thickness of Sheets sides, & in. 

back, Y% in.; crown, 1% in.; tube, is in. 

Water Space, front, 5 in.; sides, 5^2 in.; back, 5 in. 




Bellows Type of Boiler Connection. 



JMarch, 1911] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



97 



Fire Tubes — Material Iron 

Thickness No. 11 W. G. 

Number 294 

Diameter : 2% in. 

Length 19 ft. 7 in. 

Feed-Water Heater Tubes — 

Number 322 

Diameter 2% in. 

Length 9 ft. 10 in. 

Heating Surface — Firebox 200 sq. ft. 

Fire Tubes 3,376 sq. ft. 

Feed-water Heater Tubes 1,893 sq. ft. 

Firebrick Tubes 34 sq. ft. 

Total - 5,503 sq. ft. 

Superheating Surface 390 sq. ft. 

Reheating Surface 719 sq. ft. 

Grate Area 52.5 sq. ft. 

Driving Wheels — Diameter Outside 69 in. 

Diameter of Center 62 in. 

Journals, main 10 in. x 12 in. 

Journals, others 9 in. x 12 in. 

Engine Truck Wheels — 

Diameter, front 31*4 i n - 

Journals Q l / 2 in x 12 in. 

Diameter, back 40 in. 

Journals 8 in. x 14 in. 

Wheel Base — Driving 37 ft. 10 in. 

Rigid 13 ft. 8 in. 

Total Engine 56 ft. 5 in. 

Total Engine and Tender 89 ft. 3 in. 

Weight — On driving wheels, 317,300 lbs. 

On Truck, front 29,000 lbs. 

On Truck, back 46,000 lbs. 

Total Engine 392,300 lbs. 

Total Engine and Tender, about 562,000 lbs. 

Tender — Number of wheels 8 

Diameter of Wheels 34^4 in. 

Journals h l / 2 in. x 10 in. 

Tank capacity 9,000 gals. 

Fuel capacity 12 tons 



THE FATHER OF EFFICIENCY. 

''Give an American a few tons of dynamite and a moun- 
tain to bore through in a month and he is happy," said an 
efficiency engineer to me the other day. "Americans love 
to do big things in a great hurry. They despise small things. 
A structural shop orders the supplies from a rolling mill. 
The big beams are promptly shipped. The angles and smaller 
pieces do not come for weeks or months. The superintend- 
ent of the structural shop pleads for permission to begin 
work immediately on material not deliverable for three 
months. If permitted to do the work ahead of time he clam- 
ors for permission to ship it. He is always ahead on big 
work, always behind on small work, and this means a great 
waste of time and energy." 

But we are coming to the day when the smaller things 
.will be recognized as of as much importance in the problem 
of production as the larger, the day when the man beside 
the machine and his capacity for work and wage will be 




1 


f 

mil 


| 


* 











Mallet with Flexible Boiler. 

more closely considered. In fact, in certain centers where 
the big activities hold sway there is already a mighty and 
successful effort toward right planning, right execution and 
right reward for the toiler. In these places such marvels of 
economy are being wrought by bright master minds as to 
stagger the imagination of the men of the old school of wast- 
ers whose motto was "Get there," and who recked not of the 
cost. 

Yes, the science of business and industrial efficiency, scoffed 
at by the headlong egoists who thought they were doing big 
things in the best way, but often were only misdoing and 
wasting, has been tried out and may be definitely and demon- 
strably declared to have won. 

Who conceived this principle of efficiency, the thing that 
is now so intensively engaging the master minds of industry? 
Well, of course the idea of economy in production has al- 
ways been insisted upon by the heads of great plants, but 
time has shown that it has not always been intelligent and 
successful economy, and as for humane dealings with em- 
ployes, they rarely have been considered in the scale. But 
think of the economy both intelligent and successful and in 
which the idea of the fair deal is always uppermost; lor with- 
out the fair deal there can be no economy and no efficiency. 
Let us give credit where credit is due. After a careful study 
of the genesis of this threat movement 1 find that to Fred- 
erick W. Taylor, formerly chief engineer of the Midvale 
Steel Works, belongs the honor of introducing scientific 
efficiency in this country. Some of the men who are doing 
things in his line call him "the Father of Efficiency." and 
he deserves the title. — From "Raise Wane- and Cut Costs," 
in March Technical World Magazine. 



Detail of Ball-Jointed Boiler. 



TIME REQUIRED FOR CHANGE OF POWER. 
Records kept by the Pennsylvania Railroad Co. of the 
time consumed in changing from electric to -team motive 
power, and vice versa, at Manhattan Transfer Station, near 
Harrison. New Jersey, show that OS per cent of the trains 
now go through the transfer in the time allotted for the 
change of power. From 106 to 109 train- pass through the 
transfer on weekday*. Nowhere else i- a rapid change from 



98 RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC [March, 1911] 

steam to electric engines made on so large a volume of traffic. through the first day, of which 99, or 92 per cent made the 

The time allowed for uncoupling, switching, and coupling change in four minutes or less. On the second day there 

is four minutes. Owing to the difficulty of detaching the were 109 trains, with 101, or 92 per cent making the scheduled 

steam hose from the engine during cold weather, it has not change. One hundred and six went through the third day 

been thought advisable to make a shorter time allowance with a perfect record. Ninety-eight per cent was scored on 

during the winter months, but with the warm weather it may the fourth day. Sunday, when 86 out of 88 made the schedule 

be cut down. Thus far the record for the change is one of four minutes. On the next day 105 out of 106 made a 

minute and thirty seconds. score 99 per cent perfect; and for the last two days the per- 

Taking the trains passing through the transfer during the centages were 94 and 98, with 101 out of 108, and 107 out of 

last week in which detailed charts were made, 108 went 108 trains passing through the transfer in the allotted time. 

Railway Electrification at Boston. 

Considerable interest has been centered in the report of probably bring much less than its value; and, according to 

a commission appointed by the Massachusetts Legislature the rules prescribed by the Interstate Commerce Commis- 

on the feasibility of the electrification of all steam railways sion, the difference between its cost on the books, as of July 

entering Boston. This report was recently made public and 1, 1907, allowing for any reserve for depreciation, and the 

is abstracted as follows: amount it could be sold for would have to be charged to 

Cost of Electrification. operating expenses. This charge, even if distributed over 

From the report of the New York, New Haven & Hartford several years, would probably more than offset the interest 

Railroad Company it appears that if it should electrify its on the credit, so that it would seem more proper to ignore 

line or those of the Boston & Maine, its subsidiary, it would such credit in considering the cost of electrification, as has 

contemplate using the same system, with certain modifica- been done in the New Haven estimate. 

tions and improvements, which it has adopted for the portion The expense estimated by the Boston & Albany includes 

of its line between Woodlawn and Stamford, using the over- not only the cost of electrification itself — that is, the cost 

head system and the alternating current. The New York of power houses, shops, machinery, transmission lines, sig- 

Central would also contemplate a modification of the system nals and equipment — but it also includes about $1,000,000 

used upon its lines in New York. It would propose to use for track and station changes made necessary. The New 

the same system in Boston, except that there would be a Haven estimate, on the other hand, is for electrification 

voltage of 1,200 volts in the third rail, instead of 600, this alone, and there are other expenses, necessarily involved, 

being a later development of the art that is considered to be which have not been included. This electrification should 

an improvement. presuppose the elimination of at least the principal grade 

It further appears from these reports that the cost of elec- crossings, the expense of which has not been included in 

trifying for passenger service would be as follows: For the the above estimates and which is already authorized by 

Boston & Maine Railroad, $18,889,192; for the New York, statute. It would also involve considerable changes in 

New Haven & Hartford Railroad, $13,862,750; for the Boston tracks, structures and road-bed. The addition of the in- 

& Albany Railroad (including a credit for equipment re- cidental but necessary expenses would considerably increase 

leased), $6,413,300; total, $39,165,242. the figures given a'bove and would bring the total cost in- 

These estimates are based upon electrifying the following volved in the electrification, for passenger service only, not 

mileage: including grade crossing elimination, to above $40,000,000. 

New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad and the In studying the estimates of cost submitted by the railroad 

Boston & Maine Railroad. — 15.46 miles of four-track road, companies it must be borne in mind, the board states, that 

128.07 miles of double-track road. 32.42 miles of single-track they cannot be compared on a mileage basis, although the 

road 111.20 miles of yardtracks and sidings; total, 461.62 mistake is often made of doing this. The following are the 

miles of single track. facts: 

Boston & Albany Railroad. — 20.90 miles of four-track road, Estimate for Metropolitan District of Boston. 

9.89 miles of double-track road; 25.00 miles of yardtracks and Boston & Maine and New York, New Haven & 

sidings; total, 128.38 miles of single track. Hartford lines (including South Terminal, but 

This makes a grand total of 590 miles of single track. not including incidental charges) — 

The New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad estimate Total estimated cost $32,751,942 

is based on electrifying the passenger service only. The Bos- Single-track mileage 461.62 

ton & Albany Railroad estimate contemplates electrifying Cost per mile $71,000 

also "some of the sidings and local freight stations on the Boston & Albany lines (including incidental 

main line." charges) — 

It will be noticed that the Boston & Albany Railroad esti- Not including equipment released — 

mate involves a credit for equipment released, which it is Total estimated cost $7,520,300 

believed may be used alsewhere. The New York, New Haven Single-track mileage 128.38 

& Hartford Railroad, however, does not allow any such Cost per mile $58,000 

credit. Its remarks with reference to this matter are as Allowing for equipment released — • 

follows: "The electrification of the Boston suburban district .Total estimated cost $6,413,300 

would release a large number of steam engines and passenger Cost per mile $50,000 

coaches, which should properly be credited to the construe- Total number of passengers in and out an- 

tion estimate; but as there is no apparent opportunity for nually — 

the utilization of so large an amount of equipment of this At North Station 25,750,000 

special type, and as its value for resale would be so doubt- At South Station — 

ful, it is not practicable to assign values to this item." New York, New Haven & Hart- 

With reference to this credit for equipment released, if ford Railroad 24,750,000 

such equipment is needed on another portion of the line, Boston & Albany 7,950,000 

where it would obviate the necessity of purchasing new 32,700,000 

equipment, it would seem proper to allow the credit. If, 

however, the equipment would have to be sold, it would Total 58,450,000 



[March.. 1911] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



99 



All lines in Boston — 

Total estimated cost, not including equip- 
ment released nor incidental charges $39,272,242 

Total single-track mileage 590 

Average cost per mile $66,000 

Electrification in New York. 
New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad — 

Total estimated cost $6,124,778 

Single-track mileage 118.7 

New York Central & Hudson River Railroad — 
Total estimated cost, including extension to 

Croton not in operation $16,135,00 

Single-track mileage in operation 140.8 

Single-track mielage to be added 87.0 

Total mileage electrified when extension to 
Croton is completed, 227.8 miles. 
Grand Central Station, total number of passen- 
gers in and out annually — 

New York Central Railroad 10,261,273 

New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford Railroad 9,806,466 



20,067,739 



Total mileage electrified and in operation 259.5 

miles of single track. 
All lines in New York — 

Total cost $22,259,778 

Total single-track mileage 346.5 

Average cost per mile $64,200 

Comparison of Cost at Boston and New York. 
In comparing these figures, however, it should be remem- 
bered that the New Haven estimate for Boston included not 
only the North Station, but also the entire South Terminal, 
the Boston & Albany estimate including only up to the ter- 
minal. Tt should also be remembered, with reference to the 
figures for New York, that the amount expended by the 
New York Central & Hudson River Railroad covers the cost 
of the power and distribution system for moving not only 
its own traffic, but the entire traffic of the New Haven line 
between Woodlawn and the Grand Central Station, and that 
it also covers the cost of extending the electrification to 
Croton, this extension not beipg completed. For this reason 
no figures are given for the cost per mile of the separate 
roads in New York, but only the cost per mile of the total. 

The fact that the New Haven estimate per mile in Boston 
is greater than its cost per mile in New York is, therefore, 
of no significance, and does not indicate that the estimate 
for Boston has been too liberal. On the contrary the board 
was assured that, in making the estimates for Boston, ad- 
vantage has been taken by both companies, as it of course 
should have been, of the results of experience in New York 
and of any economies which have been practicable in future 
installations. 

Neither do these estimates for Boston indicate which of 
the two systems of electrical propulsion is the more eco- 
nomical, since the New Haven figures include the cost for 
both terminals, but leave out some incidental expenses. 

The discrepancies in the figures are largely due to the fact, 
which has been often forgotten, that the cost of electrifica- 
tion dependes not only upon distance, but also upon volume 
of traffic. The power required to propel two equal trains 
simultaneously is twice as great as that required to propel 
one. It may cost much more to electrify a certain distance 
on a line of dense traffic than to electrify a greater distance 
on a line of light traffic. Not only is the distance to be elec- 
trified in Boston, as estimated, much greater than the dis- 
tance now electrified in New York, but the total number of 
passengers to be handled in Boston is nearly three times 
that handled in New York: while the number handled by 
the New York, New Haven & Hartford and the Boston & 
Maine hues m Boston is over six times as ? reat as the num- 



ber handled by the Boston & Albany. These facts, together 
with the fact that different systems are used, account for the 
differences in the estimated costs per mile. 

A fairer unit of comparison than the distance is the train 
mileage. On a map accompanying the reports of the com- 
panies the number of daily trains in both directions was 
shown for the lines of the Boston & Maine and the New 
York, New Haven & Hartford, and they may be taken from 
the timetable for the Boston & Albany. Dividing the lines 
to be electrified into sections, and computing the total daily 
train mileage of each, the accompanying results will be ob- 
tained: 

Passenger Train Mileage in Boston. 
Boston & Maine Railroad — 

Total estimated cost $18,889,192 

Total daily train mileage 7,437 

Cost per daily train mile $2,540 

New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad — 

Total estimated cost $13,862,750 

Total daily train mileage 7,375 

Cost per daily train mile $1,880 

Total Boston & Maine and New York, New Haven 
& Hartford- 
Total estimated cost $32,751,942 

Total daily train mileage 14,812 

Cost per daily train mile $2,221 

Boston & Albany Railroad — 

Total estimated cost (not including credit for 
equipment, but deducting incidental ex- 
penses, in order to be on the same basis as 

the New Haven figures) $6,520,300 

Total daily train mileage 3,619 

Cost per daily train mile $1,800 

All lines in Boston — 

Total estimated cost, as above $39,272,242 

Total daily train mileage 18,432 

Cost per daily train mile $2,130 

Owing to the fact that the entire New Haven traffic be- 
tween Woodlawn and the Grand Central Terminal is handled 
by power furnished by the New York Central, only totals 
can be given for New York. These are: Total estimated 
cost, as above, $22,259,778; total daily train mileage, about 
7,760; cost per daily train mile, about $2,870. 

These figures are closer than the estimates per mile, in- 
dicating that the unit is more nearly a proper one. The 
figures are, of course, not accurate. The cost of terminal 
work seriously affects the estimate, as well as other factors. 
Trains are not all alike, and the train mile is not a perfectly 
correct unit of comparison. A multiple unit suburban train 
is not the same as a heavy through passenger train. A more 
accurate unit would be the car mile, or even the ton mile. 
It is not necessary, however, to pursue this analysis further, 
and the data are not available. It seems clear that the esti- 
mate for Boston agrees reasonably with what would be ex- 
pected from the experience in New York. It was made by 
studying each element separately — power house, machinery, 
transmission, equipment, etc. — which is. of course, more ac- 
curate than to adopt any single unit of comparison. 
Systems of Electrification. 
The fact that the best method of electrification is still un- 
determined is shown by the fact that each company pro- 
poses for Boston a modification of the system it uses at New 
York. The disadvantage involved in the use ot different 
systems by the two railroads is in some respect- not as 
great in Boston a- it is in New York. There, the New Haven 
trains run over the New York Central tracks between Wood- 
lawn and the Grand Central Terminal, and it was imprac- 
ticable to equip that portion of the line, including the tun- 
nel, with the overhead system. The New Haven locomo- 
tives, therefore, had to be designed so that when thev en- 



100 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[March, 1911] 



tered upon the New York Central tracks they could take 
the direct current from the third rail, and the electric ma- 
chinery in the locomotives had to be adapted for such change 
in current. At Boston the trains of each railroad would 
run almost entirely upon its own tracks; to be used by the 
trains of both companies, these tracks could be equipped 
both with a third rail and with overhead conductors. The 
electric locomotives could be equipped on each line simply 
for the system adopted by that line. In case the third-rail 
system should require overhead construction at certain points 
in the yard, complications might arise which cannot now be 
formulated. 

However, it would be distinctly unfortunate if the two 
great railroad systems entering into and operating in Boston 
should adopt different systems of electrification. It would 
be somewhat similar to a break of gauge. The ultimate re- 
lations between these railroads and the future connections 
between them cannot now be foretold. The next 20 or 25 
years, or even a less period, may bring about changes which 
would not be believed if they were predicited now, and the 
expenditure of large sums of money by thse corporations to 
install different local systems might in the future be the 
cause of great waste and the infliction of unnecessary finan- 
cial burdens upon them and upon the public. It would seem 
unwise to unduly hasten electrification in advance of stand- 
ardization. 

Advantages of Electrification. 
Among the advantages of electrification the board men- 
tions the possibility of utilizing the space over the tracks, 
the saving in fuel, the diminution of corrosion of overhead 
structures, the saving of switching in terminals if the mul- 
tiple unit system is used, and the added'convenience to pas- 
sengers due to the absence of smoke and cinders. 

Some of these advantages are considered real and would 
result in economy of operation. The saving in fuel is con- 
siderable and undoubted. The corrosion of overhead struc- 
tures, due to the smoke and steam from locomotives, is 
diminished in proportion to the amount of steam service 
eliminated. If the multiple-unit suburban service is used 
there are certain savings in train movements, especially if 
the trains can be run continuously around loops at the termi- 
nals and do not have to reverse their direction. 

It is unquestioned that there are elements of economy in 
electrification which would be immediately felt. There are 
also some possible elements of economy which may be found 
to result but which are more or less hypothetical. For in- 
stance, with electrical operation high train sheds become un- 
necessary. The trains can be run into a terminal station 
occupying simply one story, and the space over the tracks 
is theoretically available for other uses. Whether it is prac- 
tically so available will depend upon circumstances and is a 
real estate problem. If the operation of trains in a terminal 
station is by electricity instead of steam, without altering 
the location of the tracks, it is then a question whether it 
would pay to put up a building for commercial uses in which 
the first floor and basement would not be available. If the 
tracks are depressed, and the electrically operated trains 
occupy the basement floor, it would then be a question 
whether the rental which could be obtained from a com- 
mercial building on that site, of which no space would be 
available below the ground floor, would be sufficient to jus- 
tify the expense of lowering the tracks and constructing 
the building. In some cases there may be a considerable 
profit here; in other cases, not. There would be more 
apt to be a profit if the site is in a large city, where the land 
is valuable; and in some cases the profit from the real estate 
investment might be such as to offset to a considerable 
degree, not only the expense directly connected with the 
building operations, but the expense of electrification. Such 
profit, however, is problematical and hypothetical, and can- 



not be depended upon as an element of economy, like the 
saving in coal. 

The New York Central & Hudson River Railroad Com- 
pany, in its reconstruction of the terminal in New York, is 
erecting over the tracks a high building, from which it ex- 
pects to secure a considerable revenue. The Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company, on the other hand, whose station is far- 
ther down town and occupies the space under two city 
blocks, has not planned any such real estate investment on 
the block occupied by the main portion of the station. This 
block is covered by a building devoted solely to the purposes 
of the railroad and its New York offices, and is a compara- 
tively low building. The other block, where the surface of 
the ground was not needed at all by the railroad company, 
has been taken by the United States Post Office. 

Whether the electrification of a steam road will result in 
any final economy, independent of the interest on the capi- 
tal expended, is a matter which cannot be determined by 
theoretical reasoning and must be learned by experience. 
The experience in New York indicates that, while there 
are undoubted elements of saving, electric operation under 
present conditions is more expensive than steam operation, 
independent of the interest on the capital expended. 

Special Nature of Terminal Electrification. 

There is much misapprehension with reference to this mat- 
ter. The mistake is often made of comparing a case like 
the one under consideration with a case in which an entire 
line is operated by electricity. To electrify a few miles on 
one end of a railroad line, the rest of which is operated by 
steam, is a very different thing from electrifying an entire 
line. If the terminals only of a steam railroad are electrified, 
and the steam locomotives are run to the limit of electrifica- 
tion, the only change is that, kistead of running into the 
terminal station, the steam locomotives are disconnected a 
few miles outside. The electrification of the terminal, there- 
fore, does not very much decrease the expense of steam 
operation, but adds the expense of electrical operation. In 
such a case it is not so much a question of steam vs. 
electricity, but rather a case of steam vs. steam plus 
electricity; and it may be a measure of economy to ex- 
tend electrification to a still greater distance from the ter- 
minal, because by such extension a saving can be effected 
in the operation by steam. This point of view affords one 
explanation of the fact that both the New York Central and 
the New Haven roads contemplate extending the limits of 
electrification at the New York end of their lines. These 
extensions are not made, the board was informed, because 
electrical operation is cheaper than steam, but because, under 
the circumstances, the extension of the electrical operation 
already installed will allow of economy in steam operation 
to be made. The extension of the electrification will also 
not involve a corresponding increase in the expense of elec- 
trical operation. So far as present experience shows it is 
definitely stated that it is not possible to electrify one end 
of a steam railroad for short suburban runs and make it 
pay. 

The case is somewhat different, and more favorable, as re- 
gards strictly suburban traffic, which begins and ends within 
the limits of electrification. In such a case electrification 
would probably result in economy if the entire traffic could 
be handled by multiple-unit trains running continuously in 
and out. But the fact that there is a through traffic which 
is handled by steam to the limit of electrification, and that 
alongside of the electrified passenger service there is a steam 
freight service, complicates the case, reduces the possible 
saving and appeares to leave a resultant loss. Both the New 
York Central and, to a smaller extent, the New Haven lines 
run a multiple-unit suburban service in and out of New York 
in addition to their through passenger service and their steam 



[March, 1911] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



101 



freight service, and thus far they find the expense greater 

than before. 

Capital Investment for Electrification. 

The greatest obstacle, however, to speedy electrification is 
the large capital required and the fact that the railroad com- 
panies would be obliged to pay interest upon the double in- 
vestment, that for steam and that for electricity. Further- 
more, in order to make electric operation in itself as eco- 
nomical as possible, a considerable portion of the plant for 
steam operation would have to be abandoned. Passenger 
coaches which are suitable for steam operation would have 
to be replaced by multiple-unit electric cars. Round houses, 
coaling plants, etc., now 'located at the termini would have 
to be provided at the suburban points where the steam serv- 
ice would change to electrical service. 

According to the regulations of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, a railroad company is obliged to replace in 
kind any of its structures or equipment out of earnings. 
If it abandons a round house and replaces it by another one 
of the same materials and capacity it must pay for the new 
one entirely out of earnings. The same is true with refer- 
ence to equipment; it must pay out of earnings the book 
value of the locomotives or cars, less the salvage from them. 
Independent, therefore, of interest on new capital and of a 
possible loss from electric operation, which experience thus 
far indicates to be an actual loss, there is likely to be a fur- 
ther charge upon earnings, due to property replaced. 

The capital required for electrification, as the estimates of 
the companies show, is exceedingly large. Not only is the 
apparatus expensive, but large spare units must be provided. 
If a locomotive breaks down it delays in general only the 
particular train which it hauls; but if an entire power station 
should fail all the traffic on the line would be stopped. It is, 
of course, quite improbable that an entire power station 
would break down, but it is not beyond the limits of possi- 
bility. A boiler explosion or a fire might produce such a re- 
sult. The New York Central & Hudson River Railroad 
Company, in its New York installation, provided two cross- 
connected power stations, each with a sufficient capacity, 
utilizing its spare unit and working overload, to carry the 
entire demand of the service at the rush hours in case the 
other power station shouid fail. Moreover, duplicate trans- 
mission lines were adopted in the more important portions 
of the territory so that the failure of one of tlie lines would 
still leave the other effective. As a still further protection, 
storage batteries were provided with sufficient capacity to 
tide over the usual maximum periods of interruption of cur- 
rent supply that experience elsewhere had shown might be 
expected. These precautions were intended not alone to 
provide against accident, but also to provide for some future 
extension of the lines, so that they cannot be said to have 
been considered necessary entirely on account of the danger 
of accident. However, it has since been found that the use 
of storage batteries was unnecessary, and they are not con- 
templated in the estimate which has been made for the elec- 
trification of the lines in Boston. In the New Haven in- 
stallation at New York the power station is stated to have 
an excess capacity of approximately 33 per cent. 

The problem of electrification is, therefore, not only an 
engineering one but equally a financial one, involving provid- 
ing the necessary capital to make an improvement winch will 
result, so far as experience has yet shown, in increased ex- 
penditure for operation with an uncertain increase of traffic 
to offset it. 

The railroad companies in this country need to spend very 
large sums of money each year to provide increased facilities 
which arc demanded in order that they may he able to carry 
the increased traffic which results from increasing 'popula- 
tion and business. Additional tracks, sidings, yards, struc- 
tures, heavier bridges and equipment, and many otr.er things 
must be provided. These things are demanded by considera- 



tions of necessity. Safety appliances are also demanded for 
the protection of life, such as block signals, the elimination 
of grade crossings and many other expensive additions to 
railroad property. 

Electrification, however, stands in a different position. It 
is, it is true, very desirable, but its desirability arises not 
from considerations of safety or of necessity, but mainly, if 
not entirely, from those of convenience. It is a luxury. The 
railroads can operate by steam as safely as they can by 
electricity. How far, then, is it wise to hasten by legislative 
enactment an improvement which is undoubted and which 
is desired by every one, but from considerations of con- 
venience alone? 

In the second place railroads are subject to legislative re- 
strictions of many kinds. They have been required to spend 
large sums for safety appliances and their rates are subject 
to regulation by the state. To raise the large sums of money 
which they must spend for improvements they must offer 
inducements to private capital. Capital, however, is deterred 
from making investments subject to public regulation which 
cannot be foreseen and which may be unw-ise. It is likely, 
therefore, to be seriously deterred, and the business of the 
entire country to suffer correspondingly, if it has reason to 
believe that the state will compel the expenditure of large 
sums of money which it is not necessary to spend, except 
from considerations of convenience. 

A wise and just regulation of the railroads by the state is 
undoubtedly proper. Railroad operation must be reasonably 
safe and rates must be reasonable. Capital, if it is assured 
that such regulation will be wise and just, will not be de- 
terred. The board is of the opinion, however, that legisla- 
tion compelling the railroads to adopt electricity as a motive 
power is unwise and not for the best interests of the public; 
and that it will make it more difficult, if not impossible, for 
the railroads to secure the capital which they need for nec- 
essary improvements which the country demands. 

Difference in New York and Boston Condition-. 

It should also be remembered, in connection with the elec- 
trifying of the lines within the Metropolitan District of Bos- 
ton, that there are certain elements which make the prob- 
lem there more difficult, more expensive and less necessary 
than in New York. These may be enumerated: 

1. In New York the electrified lines consist of the main 
line of the Harlem River Railroad from the terminal station 
to North White Plains, a distance of 24 miles; and of the 
New York Central main line, which joins the Harlem line 
at Mott Haven Junction. 5.3 miles from the terminal, to 
Yonkers, a distance of 14.5 miles from the terminal. The 
New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad joins the Har- 
lem line at Woodlawn, 6.6 miles from Mott Haven Junc- 
tion, or about 12 miles from the terminal, and is electri- 
fied to Stamford, a distance of 33.3 miles from the terminal, 
with an extension of the New Canaan branch 6.13 miles 
beyond Stamford. The main line from New York, therefore, 
divides into two at Mott Haven Junction, and one of the 
latter divides at Woodlawn into two, so that three electrified 
lines extend out into the suburbs. 

In Boston the situation is more complicated than in New 
york, because not only is the mileage greater there, but there 
are some 20 main and branch lines leading into the suburbs. 
Even this number does not comprise all the branches. Mrictly 
included within the limits of the Metropolitan Park-. District. 
There are other branches diverging within these limit-, as for 
instance, the Plymouth branch of the Old Colony system, which 
diverges from the main line to Fall River at South Brain tree; 
the Stoughton branch of the Boston & Providence, which di- 
verges at Canton Junction: the short branch connecting 
Dedham and Islington- the South Reading and Xcwburyport 
branches of the Boston & Maine, both of which diverge from 
the main line of the western division at Wakefield Junction, 
and the Swampscott branch, which diverges from the main 



102 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[March, 1911] 



line of the Eastern division at Swampscott. A strict com- 
pliance with the terms of the legislative resolution would 
apparently require that the bill should provide that short por- 
tions of all of those branches should be electrified. As far 
as railroad systems are concerned, however, the Metropolitan 
District has never been legally defined. 

The status of the terminals in Boston is very far from per- 
manent, and, indeed, radical changes will be brought about, 
involving both freight and passenger tracks^ if the project 
for a tunnel between the two stations is carried out. The 
building of this tunnel would involve a complete rearrange- 
ment of the freight and passenger tracks of the Boston & 
Maine Railroad. It would also involve, to a lesser extent, 
some rearrangement at the South Terminal. The proposed 
tunnel under the harbor, connecting the Boston, Revere 
Beach & Lynn Railroad with the South Terminal, would also 
involve changes in the tracks, both freight and passenger, at 
the latter point. v 

In New York, on the other hand, before electrification was 
seriously planned — indeed, in the same year in which the 
legislature passed the act requiring electrification — the city 
and the railroad companies agreed on changes which were 
to be made at the terminal, so that plans for electrification 
could be made with a definite knowledge of what would 
be the future development of the terminal. 

The public grade crossings are not yet entirely eliminated 
in the so-called Metropolitan District. There are 239 still re- 
maining on the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad 
and the Boston & Maine lines. 

In New York and vicinity there are no grade crossings on 
the main electrified line of the New York, New Haven & 
Hartford Railroad. On the New York Central & Hudson 
River T.ailroad there still remain 14 grade crossings on the 
electrified line, but the more important are under process 
of being abolished. 

It is exceedingly desirable that the principal grade cross- 
ings should be eliminated before electrification is carried 
out If they are not eliminated additional expense and waste 
will be incurred if the large expense of electrification pre- 
cedes the elimination of these grade crossings, which is sure 
to follow in the not distant future. 

To make the necessary track changes often required in 
eliminating grade crossings, and at the same time maintain 
traffic, which is dependent upon bonded rails and a third rail 
or overhead conductor, adds much to the cost of elimination 
and the difficulty of the work. 

The cost of electrification, as contemplated in the so-called 
Metropolitan District, is more than twice as great as the cost 
in New York. Nevertheless, this sum, over $40,000,000, en- 
ables the companies to electrify to an average of much less 
than 20 miles from the terminals. In New York, on the con- 
trary, an expenditure of about $22,000,000 enables the com- 
panies to electrify to distances of 24, 33 and 34 miles from 
the terminal on the three branches respectively. 

Another circumstances which renders the problem of elec- 
trification in Boston, in compliance with the apparent desire 
of the legislature, difficult, if not impossible, is the situation 
with reference to the lease by which the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad Company operates the Boston & 
Providence Railroad. The lease provides that all improve- 
ments made upon the property must be made at the expense 
of the lessee, and must revert to the lessor at the expiration 
of the lease without adjustment or compensation. The sug- 
gested improvements would make the Boston & Providence 
Railroad line more valuable than before, and in executing a 
new lease that road could demand a higher rental from the 
New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad on account of 
them, although the New York, New Haven & Hartford Rail- 
road had made and paid for them. Before all the steam lines 
of the Metropolitan District can be electrified, therefore, 



some means should be found to place the ownership of the 
Boston & Providence Railroad with the New York. New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad. 

It must further be observed that the situation in Boston 
is not one which affords such necessity for requiring electrifi- 
cation as the situation in New York. Electrification in New 
York was precipitated by the collision which occured in the 
Park Avenue tunnel Jan. 8, 1902, which resulted in the death 
of a large number of persons. The atmospheric conditions 
had so obscured the signals in the tunnel that they were 
almost invisible at any considerable distance. The operation 
of steam locomotives in a tunnel of any considerable length 
is undoubtedly not merely inconvenient, but the source of 
serious danger. The requirement which led to electrification 
in New York was, therefore, a reasonable one. Following 
the accident referred to, the legislature of New York, in 
1903, directed the abandonment of steam locomotives in Park 
Avenue south of the Harlem River within five years. In the 
same year, as already stated, the city and the railroad com- 
panies agreed on changes at the terminal. 

It will be observed that the New York legislature required 
the abandonment of steam locomotives only south of the 
Harlem River; that is to say, a distance of less than five 
miles. This is a very different matter from requiring the 
electrification of all steam lines in the Metropolitan District 
of Boston. As a matter of fact, it was impracticable to ter- 
minate electrification m New York at the Harlem River. 
Just beyond this point was Mott Haven Junction, and the 
traffic at this point was very congested. It would have been 
practically impossible to stop all trains at the Harlem River 
and make the change of power at that point; to do so would 
have involved greater delay and congestion. It was, there- 
fore, necessary to carry electrification farther out, to points 
where ample space was available for loops, yards and build- 
ings, and where there was not such a heavy traffic. 

These illustrations show that no arbitrary line can be fixed 
within which electrification should be introduced. It would 
be impracticable to require electrification within the artificial 
limits of the Metropolitan Dstrict of Boston. A reasonable 
plan would probably involve making the terminals on some 
lines at points within the Metropolitan District, and on other 
lines at points without. The location should be determined 
by traffic, and not by geographical conditions. 

In Boston what public desire there is for electrification is 
mainly, if not entirely, on account of the increased con- 
venience which would result to pasengers and abutters by 
getting rid of the smoke. To do so in this case would log- 
ically require electrification not simply for passenger traffic, 
bur also for freight traffic. In other words, aside from the 
construction of a tunnel between the North and South sta- 
tions, which would necessarily require all trains through it 
to be operated electrically, there is no logical reason for re- 
quiring in Boston any electrification of steam roads, unless 
that electrification be for both passenger and freight traffic. 
If the freight traffic is electrified, the cost of the undertaking 
will be, of course, in excess of the estimates given above. 

It is true that in New York the New York, New Haven 
& Hartford Railroad is about to electrify its Harlem River 
& Port Chester tracks, over which its freight trains run into 
New York City, and its through trains to Washington, the 
work to include electrification of the freight yard at Harlem 
River. This fact is sometimes referred to as another appar- 
ent indication that electrification is really profitable to the 
railroad companies and not difficult to carry out. As a mat- 
ter of fact, there are exceptional reasons for electrification 
in this particular case. Since the electrification of the main 
line had been carried to a point east of the junction of the 
Harlem River branch at New Rochelle, this branch, if oper- 
ated by steam, would have been in the nature of an island, 
with electrical operation on both sides of it. The freight 



[March, 1911] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



103 



trains and the through express trains which use this branch 
and are ferried around New York City would, if this branch 
were not electrified, have to use steam entirely, even over the 
electrified main line between Stamford and New Rochelle, 
or would have to change to electric power at Stamford and 
back again to steam at New Rochelle. The use of steam 
locomotives under the overhead system is found to be quite 
objectionable. It will be seen, therefore, how local conditions 
rendered desirable the electrification of this branch. 
The Smoke Nuisance. 
With reference to the smoke nuisance, attention should be 
called to the fact that not only has this nuisance been very 
much dimished during the last year or two, but that the 
legislature of last year took still further measures to abate 
it. This act gave to the Board of Gas and Electric Light 
Commissioners authority to regulate the emission of smoke 
from all chimneys, including the stacks of locomotives, and 
provided for a gradual decrease in the density allowed, or 
in the time during which smoke of a given density shall be 
permitted. The board is required to enforce the provisions 
of the act; to appoint a smoke inspector, who shall engage 
in no other business, and such deputy inspectors as it may 
think proper; and any person or any corporation violating 
any order of the board is subject to a fine or not less than 
$10 nor more than $50 for the first offense, and not less than 
$20 nor more than $100 for every succeeding offense. Under 
the operation of this act, and with further efforts on the part 
of the railroad companies and the Railroad Commission, by 
the proper instruction of firemen and by other means, there 
seems litle doubt that the inconvenience due to smoke will 
be still further diminished. 

Fares and Electrification. 
Since experience thus far indicates that electrification is 
not a source of economy, but rather the reverse, and since 
a return has to be earned on the additional capital necessary, 
and a further charge to operating expenses made for prop- 
erty abandoned or replaced, there sems to be no escape from 
the conclusion that the railroads should be allowed to in- 
crease their revenues sufficiently to provide a return on the 
investment large enough to atract investors. It would not 
be fair, even if it were possible, to require the railroad com- 
panies to expend $40,000,000 or $50,000,000 for electrification 
in Boston unless they were also assured of an adequate re- 
turn on that expenditure. 

An increase in the rates of fare, however, might not in- 
crease the net revenue. In order to provide for interest on 
the cost of electrification, what the railroads must have is rev- 
enue, rather than an increase of rates. 

A reduction of rates frequently increases the total net 
profits, and an incerase of rates may diminish the net profits. 
If interest on the cost of electrification on certain lines were 
provided solely by an increase of fares for the passenger 
traffic affected, it might, therefore, not increase the net rev- 
nue. The benefit of electrification in the Metropolitan Dis- 
trict would be mostly felt by the short-distance suburban 
passengers, and the abutters who would be relieved from the 
annoyance of smoke and cinders. The long-distance traveler 
would not be especially affected, since the greater part of 
his trip would still be made with steam locomotives. In 
strict justice, therefore, if fares were to be increased, the 
burden should be laid principally on the short-distance subur- 
ban traffic. This traffic, however, is likely to be just the 
kind which is least able and willing to stand such an increase. 
Moreover, the traffic is precisely the traffic which is least 
stable, and most likely to desert the steam railroad entirely 
and patronize the street railway lines, if the latter arc con- 
veniently located. 

It should be thoroughly understood by commuters and 
others who form the short-distance passengers that electrifi- 
cation of the steam roads in the Metropolitan District in all 
probability would, and in all fairness should, lead to an in- 



crease in the rates wihch they would have to pay. The 
Pennsylvania Railroad has increased all rates for tickets to 
and from the new terminal in New York. Thus to Newark, 
a distance of 10 miles, the price of single tickets has been in- 
creased $6 per month and 50-ride tickets $5 a month. For 
the railroads to gain the additional revenue needed by in- 
creasing the freight rates would be putting the burden where 
it does not belong, even in a greater degree than in corre- 
spondingly increasing the long-distance passenger rates. 

It should further be said that low suburban rates tend to 
build up the suburban territory and to encourage and enable 
those who receive low wages to live away from the con- 
gested center of the city in districts which are more healthful. 
From this point of view an increase in the short-distance 
rates is a distinct disadvantage and would retard in many 
cases the building up of suburban territory. Such increase 
in rates might also lead to the diverson of much traffic from 
the steam lines to the street railways, and, as has been sug- 
gested, result in a net loss to the steam railroads. In such 
cases, the additional revenue required would necessarily have 
to be gained from the long-distance passenger traffic or even 
from the freight traffic, neither of which is benefited at all by 
electrification. 

It appears, therefore, that the class of traffic which would 
most benefit by electrification is the class which is most likely 
to change and patronize some other form of transportation; 
that it is the least profitable part of the passenger traffic, and 
the part which is least able to afford the additional revenues 
which the cost of electrification would render necessary. In 
this respect the situation in Boston is distinctly more unfavor- 
able than that in New York. The electrification proposed 
by the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Com- 
pany is essentially confined to a distance of 10 or 11 miles 
from the center of the city, with the exception of one or two 
lines which are carried somewhat farther. All of this terri- 
tory, however, is served by the electric street-car lines con- 
necting with the Boston Elevated system. It would be par- 
ticularly easy, therefore, in the case of the Boston Metropoli- 
tan District, especially with the improvement of rapid transit 
facilities by street-car lines into the city and the construc- 
tion of additional subways, for the traffic to desert the steam 
railroad lines and patronize the surface systems. The ten- 
dency would be increased if any increase of rates should be 
found necessary on account of electrification of the steam 
roads. 

Conclusions. 

As a result of the considerations which 
cussed, the Joint Board has reached the 
elusions: 

1. The electrification of steam roads is a development 
much to be desired. It would add to the comfort and con- 
venience of the public and would have advantages for the 
railroads as well. 

2. The best method of electrification is still undetermined. 
The science is in a state of rapid change, and standardization 
is much to be desired before extensive electrification i< under- 
taken. 

3. So far as experience has yet shown, the electrification 
of the terminals of steam railroads under present condition> 
does not result in economy, but. on the contrary, in increased 
expense, aside from the interest on the first cost incurred. 

4. If a greatly increased traffic should result from electrifi- 
cation this expense would be reduced and might be changed 
to a profit. 

'■>. Electrification would probably result for some time in 
obliging the railroads to make charges to operating expenses, 
due to property abandoned or replaced, in addition to inter- 
est on new capital and increased expense of operation. 

8. Electrification would, therefore, in all probability re- 
quire an increase of pasenger fares and perhaps of freight 
rates to produce the revenue required to pay for it 



have been dis- 
following con- 



104 



RAILWAY MASTER MFXHANIC 



[March, 1911) 



7. Electrification, while desirable, is not necessary, nor is 
it required on grounds of public safety. It is desirable main- 
ly, if not entirely, on account of added convenience and com- 
fort. 

8. There are other expenditures which should be made 
by the railroads, which are demanded by considerations of 
necessity, to enable them to meet the demands of increasing 
traffic and which should have precedence of electrification. 
To compel electrification would postpone these more import- 
ant improvements. 

9. The railroads are already subject to much regulation 
by the state and the nation. To require them to expend large 
sums of money for electrification would make it difficult if 
not impossible for them to raise the capital required to move 
the increasing traffic of the country and would thus hamper 
industrial development. 

10. As a result of the foregoing conclusions the board 
believes that it is not wise nor in the public interest to enact 
legislation compelling any electrification of railroads. 

11. To pass a bill making compulsory the electrification of 
the passenger traffic on all the steam railroad lines in the 
Metropolitan District of Boston within a stated time, as con- 
templated by the resolve, would be particularly unwise, be- 
cause: 

(a) Before such electrification should be carried out the 
difficulty presented by the lease of the Boston & Providence 
Railroad should be removed. 

(b) Electrification is contingent upon other needs. Not 
only is it contingent upon the acquisition of the Boston & 
Providence Railroad by the New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford Railroad Company, but it is contingent upon a definite 
decision being reached and a definite plan adopted for the 
construction of a tunnel between the North and South sta- 
tions, and the rearrangement of the freight and passenger 
terminals on the north and on the south. It would be an in- 
excusable waste to electrify until the plans for these im- 
provements had been definitely decided upon. 

(c) The limit of electrification should not be definitely 
fixed as coinciding with the limits of the Metropolitan Dis- 
trict. It should be dependent upon traffic conditions. 

12. If a tunnel is constructed and used for passenger traffic 
in Boston this would necessitate electric operation through 
the tunnel and for a certain distance on either end, and this 
would naturally lead to an extension of the electrification 
to a reasonable distance beyond. If the tunnel is to be used 
both for passenger and freight traffic electrification must be 
adopted for both kinds of traffic. If the tunnel is not to be 
constructed at all the demand for electrification is based on 
the convenience which would result to the public from 
diminution of smoke and noise; and this demand, if logical, 
should require electrification for both passenger and freight 
traffic. 

13. The traffic to be handled in Boston is nearly three 
times that at the Grand Central Station in New York; and, 
on account of the radiating traffic in Boston (as compared 
with the north and south traffic in New York) and the large 
number of lines in Boston (as compared with the single line 
with three branches in New York), the expense in Boston 
is very much greater. There is not sufficient justification 
for requiring the railroads to spend this sum of money here. 

14. If electrification of steam roads, either for passenger 
or freight traffic, or both, is required by law, it should also 
be provided that the revenue may be increased so as to afford 
reasonable compensation to the roads for the expense in- 
volved, and in order to make it possible to raise the neces- 
sary capital. 

l.v If the expense of electrification is forced upon the 
railroads by legislative enactment, a fair increase of rates 
and fares will be inevitable, and it should fairly be laid 
upon Boston business. It may prove necessary to in- 
crease freight rates for this purpose. An increase of 



freight rates, such as the railroads are now applying 
for, is due to the general increase in cost of supplies- 
and material, and the great increases in wages of employes 
which have been granted in recent years. Such increase of 
rates would be distributed over all the traffic and would not 
affect the commercial situation of Boston, as compared with 
other ports. An increase in freight rates or passenger fares,, 
if made necessary by the legislative requirement of electrifica- 
tion in Boston, however, should fairly be laid upon the Bos- 
ton business exclusively, and might add to the disadvantages- 
under which Boston now labors. 

16. The benefits of electrification in Boston will accrue 
mainly to the commuters and short-distance traffic, and also- 
in a very large degree to owners of property along the lines 
electrified. To raise suburban fares simply would place the 
burden where it mainly belongs, but where it is least capable 
of being borne; and such action would in itself tend in some 
measure to discourage the development of suburban territory 
and to divert travel from the steam lines. 

17. Electrification is probably the coming form of trac- 
tion power; indeed, it is not improbable that at some time 
in the future all the trunk lines of the country over which 
there is heavy traffic will be electrified. The problem how- 
ever, is not like that of providing safety appliances, such as 
air-brakes, signals, standard couplers, or the abolition of the 
car stove and replacing it by steam heat from the locomo- 
tive. All of these matters were required from considerations 
of safety. The public demand for electrification, however, 
arises not from considerations of necessity or of safety 
but from those of convenience. Considering that there 
are other improvements which are necessary in order to meet 
the demands of increasing traffic, the Joint Board believes 
that an improvement resting on considerations of conven- 
ience should be allowed to work itself out without legisla- 
tive enactment. 

18. Permissive authority should be granted for the con- 
struction of a tunnel connecting the North and South sta- 
tions. If such authority is availed of, it will necessitate elec- 
trical operation and will lead gradually to the extension of 
such operation, as similar causes have led to such extensions, 
in the neighborhood of New York. 

19. It should be recognized that all improvements of this 
kind, whether they are the construction of tunnels or the 
electrification of lines, which afford greater facilities to the 
public and involve the expenditure of large sums on the 
part of the railroad companies, if not offset entirely by in- 
creased earnings or reduced expense, should be accom- 
panied by such increase of fares or rates as will enable the- 
roads to maintain a fair rate of return upon their total in- 
vestment. In all such improvements the public is a partner 
in the undertaking. The principal benefit accrues to it, with 
no risk. Its attitude should be such as to encourage the 
legitimate and economical expenditure of capital, and to com- 
pensate it fairly and even liberally for any risks involved. 
Under the laws of this state there is little danger of a misuse 
of capital expenditures. 



THE MAN WHO KNOWS. 

"The railroad man of tomorrow will be he who knows- 
and not he who supposes," says J. H. Waterman, president 
of the railway storekeeper's association, in an article in- 
The Railway Storekeeper, which is very much to the point- 
As an instance of the man who "supposes," he gives this: 
"I was at a storehouse some time ago, and 
the storekeeper said to me: "Waterman, I 
want to show you something," and he took 
me out in the yard and showed me a frog 
made by the mechanical department. He said: 
"I ordered a one to six frog. There is a frog 
branded one to six. You measure it." I 
measured it and it measured one to seven. I 



[March, 1911] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



105 



asked him to tell me about it. He said that 
when the frog was received he measured it 
and called the master mechanic's attention to 
it, who sent the blacksmith out to look at it, 
and the result was this. They received an 
order for a one to six frog; the blacksmith 
gave the order to one of the men; the man 
made a one to seven and branded it one to 
six. It was shipped for a one to six and was 
received by the storekeeper to whom I was 
talking as a one to six, but he refused to ac- 
cept even the branded figures on the frog. 
He measured it and found it was a one to 
seven. One man knew what he was doing. 
The other men supposed what they were 
doing." 
It is so easy to suppose but it is sometimes hard to know, 
and here is a chance for those in authority to impress upon 



machine of double cab design. Each half carries its own 
motor and complete equipment and the two halves are coupled 
together at their driving-wheel ends. The frames, driving 
wheels and trucks of the running gear are similar in general 
character to those of the "American Type" steam locomo- 
tive. 

The wheel and motor arrangement was decided upon only 
after careful experiments with several other forms, both of 
motor drive and wheel arrangement; the governing motive 
being to secure the greatest possible steadiness at speed. 

The coupled ends are fitted with permanent couplings of 
twin drawbars and Westinghouse friction draft gears, so 
arranged that the leading half serves as a leading truck and 
the other half as a trailer in whichever direction the locomo- 
tive may be moving. 

Each cab is complete with Westinghouse automatic and 
straight air brake equipment, apparatus for train lighting, 
electric headlights, pneumatically operated whistle and sand- 




Motors and Running Gear of New Electric Locomotive, Penna. R. R. 

young men especially the importance of being sure, of know- ers, as well as its motor, unit switches and master controller, 
ing. If impressed upon a young man early enough in life The machines are so arranged that, in event of one motor 
it becomes a habit which will pay him big interest. Our being cut out, the entire, machine can be operated from either 
superintendents of motive power and master mechanics are cab with the remaining motor. The halves are interchange- 
there because they know; not because they suppose. able and if one is out of service it may be replaced by an- 

other half while repairs are being made. 

NEW ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES, P. R. R. The unit switch field control permits two or more locomo- 

Nine more electric locomotives, aggregating about 40,000 tives to be coupled together and all to be operated from 

horsepower, have been ordered by the Pennsylvania R. R. either end of any one cab. and affords flexibility of speed 

from the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. The regulation. It gives two additional running notches and at 

new locomotives will be of the same type as those which are the same time economize- power consumption during ac- 

now being operated in the Manhattan terminal, New York celeration. 

City, and will supplement the twenty-four already in use. Tlie following arc- swme of the characteristic feature 

The new locomotives are to be completed by July 1, 1911. the Pennsylvania direct-curent. 600-volt electric locomotives: 

The cabs, frames, running gear and mechanical parts will Weight and Dimensions. 

be built by the Pennsylvania R. R. at their Juniata shops. Weight of locomoth e. complete 156 tons 

The air brakes will be supplied by the Westinghouse Air Weight on drivers 200,000 lbs. 

/ Brake Co. The electrical equipments will be built and the Weight on each driving axle 50,000 lbs. 

complete locomotives assembled at East Pittsburg. Weight on each bogie truck 57,000 lbs. 

The Pennsylvania locomotives are by far the most power- Total length overall, inside knuckles G4 ft. 11 ins. 

ful of the kind ever built. The locomotive is an articulated Rigid wheel base of each half 7 ft. 2 ins. 



106 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[March, 1911] 



Total wheel base of each half 23 ft. 1 in. 

Total wheel base of locomotive 55 ft. 11 ins. 

Diameter of drivers 72 ins. 

General Capacity. 

Contract tractive effort 60,000 lbs. 

Maximum draw bar pull (recorded on test) 79,200 lbs. 

Normal speed with full train 60 mi. per hr. 

Normal Service. 
(550-ton Train to be Started and Accelerated on 2 Per Cent 

Tunnel Grades.) 

Maximum Contract horsepower 4,000 

Motor Data. 

(Two Direct-Current Interpole Motors — Cast Steel Frames — 

Directly Connected Through Jack-Shafts and 

Side-Rods.) 

Weight of each motor complete with cranks 43,000 lbs. 

Height of motor frame above cab floor 5 ft. &y 2 ins. 

Height of center of shaft above cab floor 2 ft. iy 2 ins. 

Since the opening of the Manhattan terminal on Novem- 
ber 27, 1910, the entire through passenger traffice of the 
Pennsylvania Road in its Newark tunnels has been handled 
by the electric locomotives of this type without a hitch and 
to the entire satisfaction of the operating force. Very heavy 
trains far beyond the capacity of the usual passenger locomo- 
tive, have beer, handled over the tunnel grades with ease. 



in 1909 to the M. C. B. Committee, page 5, gives the follow- 
ing range in tensile strength, which is the proper standard 
to go by in estimating the strength of either a steel or a 
chilled car wheel. These figures give the present range in 
car wheel mixtures from foundrymen who know. Fixe mix- 
tures of each kind gave as the highest tensile strength the 
following: 

A — 29,300 lbs per square inch 

B — 26,800 lbs. per square inch 

C — 21,800 lbs. per square inch 

D — 17,420 lbs. per square inch 
It is hardly necessary to say that one-half of the above 
mixtures were too weak for a good chilled wheel, and if 
that proportion holds good in the 20,000,000 car wheels now 
in daily use. the danger line so far as car wheels are con- 
cerned, has been passed. 

The peculiar advantage discovered in nickel to improve a 
chilled car wheel mixture is the fact that it unites with the 
combined carbon, and reduces a part of it to graphitic car- 
bon, and at the same time adds greatly to its strength, thus 
giving the chilled surface of the tread a strong grey iron 
"backing." The wheels above referred to, show the follow- 
ing chemical analysis: 

A — Combined Carbon .80 C — Combined Carbon .68 

B — Combined Carbon .72 D — Combined Carbon .62 




Pennsylvania Electric Locomotive with 8-Car Train at Tunnel En'.rance, New York City. 

NICKELIZED CHILLED CAR WHEEL. In other words, the tensile strength was in proportion to 

By Robt. C. Totten. the combined carbon present. The effect of nickel on the 

Although millions of dollars have been spent in the last above mixtures would have been to increase the tensile 
fifty years to improve the quality of steel, little has been strength of A and B, 25% to 50%, and in C and D, the corn- 
done to improve the quality of a cast iron mixture. An ad- bined carbon would all have been turned into graphitic and 
vance has been made, in employing skillful chemists at foun- there would have been no chilled surface on the wheels. Of 
dry plants, but their analyses have only to do with the qual- course car wheels without any chilled surface would not 
ity of old car wheels and pig iron to insure uniformity in pass the M. C. B. test, and thus dangerously weak mixtures 
mixture. It has not added any new improving element to could not be used with nickel. 

the mixture themselves. Fifty years ago the only pig iron The following figures have been reached in actual tests 
made was cold blast charcoal and the car wheels made from made by the Pennsylvania Railroad at Altoona from nickel- 
such iron were very much stronger than those made from ized car wheel mixtures: Pounds Per 
the mixtures now in use. Cannon for the Government were Square Inch 

made from the same quality of pig iron that was used for Nickelized Chilled Wheel mixture :>1,670 

car wheels. Nickelized Chilled Wheel mixture 33,830 

Now. the mixture for car wheels is graded to suit the Nickelized Chilled Wheel mixture 34,800 

price received for the car wheels, and differs very much in Nickelized Chilled Wheel mixture 41,910 

the quality. The following figures taken from the report of Nickelized Chilled Wheel mixture 42,550 

the "Association of Manufactrrers of Chilled Car Wheels" Nickelized Chilled Wheel mixture 43.698 



[March, 1911] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



107 



The latter figures have never before been reached in a 
mixture of cast iron. 

The M. C. B. Drop Test. 
This test may be said to develop the elastic limit of a car 
wheel, that is, power to recover its original condition after 
a shock. It also develops any strains there may be in the 
casting caused by unequal contraction in cooling. 

The following comparison of a nickelized chilled wheel 
with a very superior standard wheel under this test, proves 
that both the elastic limit, and the freedom from shrinkage 
strain were greatly in favor of the nickelized chilled car 
wheel After being subjected to a heavy "sliding test," a 
steel car loaded with 50 tons scrap and moved back and forth 
a mile to develop flat spots on the tread, and 33 inch wheels 
taken from the same axle, one nickelized and one standard, 
were subjected to the M. C. B. test, that is, a weight of 200 
pounds, 12 foot fall. The M. C. B. requirement being 12 
blows. 

Nickelized. 
305th blow small crack developed through core holes 
330th Crack developed 
355th 2nd Crack through tread 
359th Piece broke out of wheel 

Standard. 
141st blow crack through flange across plate. 
250th Crack developed 
310th Another crack across tread. 
319th Piece broken out of tread. 
As showing greater resiliency, the nickelized wheel did 
not begin to crack until the 305th blow, while the standard 
began to give way at the 141st blow. These wheels were 
remarkably alike chemically, 

.58 Silicon in the Nickelized 
.60 Silicon in the Standard. 
Incidentally it showed also that the Nickelized wheel was 
not on so great a shrinkage strain, it being claimed for the 
nickel alloy that it has a lower co-efficient of expansion than 
any other alloy known. 

Rigidity and Stiffness of Flange. 
As showing rigidity and stiffness where the materials are 
subject to wear and abrasion as in the flange of a car wheel, 
two other wheels from the same axle, one a nickelized and 
one a standard, were tested under hydraulic pressure, a 
steel tool being used, shaped on the end to the curvature of 
the flange, 

The nickelized wheel broke at 70,000 lbs. 

The standard wheel broke at 54,000 lbs. 

A drop test of hammer weighing 19 lbs. falling directly on 

the flange showed 200% in favor of the Nickelized Wheel. 

Brinnell Test. 
Wheel without Nickel 485 495 

Wheel with Nickel 557 498 508 

Schoen rolled steel tread 223 

Showing 150% more wearing surface than the Schoen Steel 
Wheel. 

Service Test for One Year. 
156 33-inch nickelized chilled car wheels were put under 
Berwick 100.000 pound coal cars. After 12 months during 
which one wheel still running, made 29.966, nine wheels only 
were drawn for defects, showing less than 6% of the wheels 
drawn. As the railways of the country draw on an average 
30% of the car wheels they use every year, only 6% in one 
year is certainly a very remarkable showing for a first trial 
of nickelized car wheels. 

Service of 88-36 inch Nickelized Chilled Car Wheels. 
These wheels were put under locomotive tenders on the 
Pennsylvania, heavy mountain traffic, at the same time as 
the above 33 inch wheels. 

During the year nine wheels were drawn for "cotnby from 
brake-; nr brake burns.*' one for worn tread, mileage 21.260 



This mileage is believed to be as much as the average rolled 
or forged steel wheel gives before turning on the same kind 
of service. No cracks were reported in throat of flange. 

It is now admitted among practical railroad men that 
"brake burns" are not due to any deficiency on the surface 
of a chilled wheel, but to "natural causes from excessive 
brake action." There may be "spongy" places in the tread of 
a steel wheel that would develop into "comby places," but 
there can be in the nature of the case no soft places in a 
chilled tread. 

Cracks in Throat of Flange. 

The only reason the rolled and forged steel wheels, in the 
face of many undesirable qualities, are supplanting the chilled 
wheel, is because of their increased tensile strentgh and con- 
sequent backing of the flange surface, and the way to im- 
prove the chilled car wheel is to follow on the same lines 
and provide a stronger backing. 

The Chemical analysis of the wheels that stood the fore- 
going mechanical and service tests was ideal. 

Sil. Sul. Mang. Phos. C. C. Nickel 

Grey Iron 442 .131 .467 .343 .78 .687 

Chili Tread 441 .110 .483 .342 3.339 .687 

Dr. Dudley, the late deceased chemist of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, said that he had never before seen in 30 years rail- 
way practice, a car wheel mixture as low in silicon as .442. 
Silicon is only another name for fine sand, and the less sand 
there is in a car wheel mixture, the greater the strength. 

Comparison of Cost. 

In comparing the cost of nickelized chilled car wheels with 
other car wheel mixture, it is necessary to bear in mind two 
facts which have been demonstrated in the foregoing prac- 
tical tests, namely: 

First. That nickel is valuable in a mixture for car wheels 
in proportion, within reasonable limits, to the amount of 
combined carbon present, and that this excess of combined 
carbon can be readily and cheaply obtained by using scrap 
chilled car wheels analyzing not less than .68 combined car- 
bon. 

Second. That the nickel used in the mixture is indestruct- 
ible and is present when the nickelized wheel is remelted. 
thus reducing the cost of the nickel in the second melting 60 
per cent. 

In making a nickelized steel car axle, the lowest amount 
necessary to produce the best results has been fixed at 3^2 
per cent, or 70 lbs. per ton of 2.000 lbs. Owing to the 
greater amount of combined carbon in a chilled wheel mix- 
ture, it is only necessary to use 14 lbs. per ton of 2.000 lbs 
The present cost of nickel is 38c. a lb. in large quantities 
So that $5.32 represents the amount in dollars and cents 
per ton in a car wheel mixture in the first lot of wheels, 
but when these are remelted. the new nickel required would 
only be about $2.25 per ton. or seventy-five cent- per wheel. 

As compared with titanium, it has the advantage of being 
indestructible, while the former is a "scavenger" and goes 
off with the heat. For a good mixture a "scavanger" is nec- 
essary. As compared with venadium it softens, in-tead of 
hardens in a chill wheel mixture, and beside- costing 
it enables the founder to use more scrap wheels. 
No Change in Foundry Practice. 

The wheels above referred to were all made from cupolas 
and under regular foundry conditions and annealed once 
Twice as many -tandard wheels were cast at the same time. 
and no onlooker could have told which were nickelized and 
which were not. Tt is our opinion, however, that a stroi 
nickelized car wheel can be made by casting from an open 
hearth furnace and by double annealing. The expense would 
of course be somewhat greater, although n< nickel 

would be required, and in fact it could be used without pre- 
viously making an alloy 



10S 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[March, 1911] 



When 20,000 car wheels are needed daily, and the steel 
wheel makers are not able to furnish even 2,000 per day, 
the improvement of the chilled car wheel in strength seems 
a great necessity. 

Xickel and chrome are the most extensively used of all 
alloys to improve the quality of steel, and we believe we have 
found a way to use them to the same advantage in a chilled 
wheel mixture. 

Mileage. 

We do not claim any increase in mileage over the best 
chilled car wheel, which certainly gives the greatest mileage 
yet produced, and at the least cost per mile, The "Brinnell 
Test" given above, would warrant us in claiming 10 per cent 
increase. We claim that the use of nickel would prevent the 
use of inferior and weak mixtures for making chilled car 
wheels, and that no matter how good and strong a car wheel 
mixture is, the use of nickel would increase its strength, and 
that we are thereby introducing a very important element of 
safety in railway practice, and in the end increased mileage. 



LOCOMOTIVE SPECIFICATIONS. 

By L. E. Wiener. 

The framing of locomotive builders' specifications is an in- 
stance where the lack of standardization has created constant 
trouble and needless correspondence, because it will be found 
on examination of any two firms' catalogues that they have 
altogether different ideas as to what are the leading particu- 
lars required by their customers. The writer has, as prob- 
ably has everyone who requires data not included in the 
catalogue, experienced the courtesy of builders in supplying 
extra information, but much trouble and considerable time 
might be saved if there were more uniformity of specification 
and the desired information were always available in the 
first instance. The object of these remarks is to indicate 
what, in the writer's opinion, after long practical experience, 
is required to be embodied in all locomotive builders' cata- 
logues. 

The first matter on which information is required is the 
type of locomotive, and next in order the gauge for which it 
is built, because any type may be adapted to a number of 
different gauges, and even an illustration will not always in- 
dicate whether a particular engine is built for a particular 
gauge; as, for instance, in the case of the 2 ft. 6 in. metre 
(3 ft. 3^8 in.) or 3 ft. 6 in. gauge. These details are funda- 
mentally important, though obvious, because it is natural and 
desirable that one should begin by saying what is to be de- 
scribed, whether an elephant or a fox-terrier; yet most cata- 
logues leave out the gauge altogether. The type of locomo- 
tive should be quoted either in the numerical or nominal sys- 
tem, both of which are now well known. 

The date of the engine and the builder's name should also 
be given, because catalogue sheets are sometimes separated 
from the book, and if the maker's name is not on every page 
difficulties may arise. These details are so obvious that they 
are usually omitted, but this should not be. 

As regards dimensions, the first item to quote is the maxi- 
mum weight per axle. This all-important detail is hardly 
ever mentioned in a catalogue, and must be guessed roughly, 
previous to the builder's reply to a question on the subject, 
which may mean a lapse of several weeks or months. It is 
quite as important a factor as the gauge of the locomotive, 
and more so than any other particular to the intending pur- 
chaser. After that should come the weight available for ad- 
hesion, and the total weight of the engine in working order. 
Having determined from these particulars whether the track 
of an existing railway (in reference to the maximum weight 
per axle) and the bridges (as related to the total moving 
weight) will bear the engine, the curves of the line will have 



to be considered in respect to the wheel-base, which should 
be detailed as total, rigid, and bogie, if any. 

The diameters of the wheels, driving or coupled, bogie and 
others, if any, should follow. The sizes of the carrying wheels, 
are seldom quoted; they are not strictly necessary for any 
calculation of a locomotive's power or capacity, but they are 
useful, and might as well be supplied. 

Next in importance are the dimensions of the cylinders 
(diameter and stroke). These are always given, though some 
makers are apt to consider the diameter as the only im- 
portant item. Following these should come full particulars 
of the boiler, the working pressure in pounds per square 
inch, the mean diameter of the barrel, and the height of the 
centre above the rails. This latter detail is usually omitted, 
but should always be given. Then should be specified the 
number and metal of the tubes, their inside and outside diam- 
eters, and their length between the tube plates. 

The metal of which the firebox is constructed should be 
mentioned, as well as its length and width and mean height, 
and then should follow the heating surface of the firebox and 
tubes, and the grate area. 

The kind of fuel the engine is intended to consume should 
always be stated, and the tractive power should be stated in 
pounds, calculated on the basis of 0.65 of the theoretical 
power exerted. 

If there is a tender, particulars should be given of the 
number of axles, diameter of wheels, wheel-base, and weight 
empty and full. Both for tender and tank engines the water 
and fuel capacities should always be quoted. 

A point of considerable importance in many cases is a 
statement of the gauge limitations, or outside dimensions, of 
the locomotive, such as the extreme height, extreme width, 
and total length of engine alone and with its tender, if one 
is required. 

The foregoing is not a very formidable list, but on the 
other hand, none of the particulars quoted should be omitted, 
as they are almost essential in a number of cases, especially 
in the instance of engines supplied to lines outside the coun- 
try. Lastly, it is often useful to give the names of railways 
already using engines similar to those of which the specifi- 
cations are given. 

Many catalogues are written in several languages. Most 
of them are simply translated, which is useless unless the 
English measures are transposed into metrical equivalents. 
In this connection it should be borne in mind that the usual 
practice when metrical measurements are given at first hand 
is to give the heating surface on the inside, whereas in Eng- 
land the practice is to compute from the water side. Heat- 
ing surface should be completed on the same basis all the 
world over. 

Without recapitulating the foregoing items of specifica- 
tion in detail, the writer recommends as the result of long- 
experience that they should be tabulated practically in the 
same order as here mentioned, thereby placing the more 
vital particulars first. — "The Locomotive." 



The Grand Trunk Ry. has ordered a part of its recent 
inquiry for 61,000 tons of rails from the Dominion Iron & 
Steel Co. 

The Oakland Traction Company, Oakland, Cal., has or- 
dered 1,000 tons of rails from the Pennsylvania Steel Com- 
pany. 

The Pan-American of Uruguay has ordered 45,000 tons of 
65-lb. rails from the United States Steel Products Company. 

The Southern Railway has ordered 27,200 tons of 85-lb. 
steel rails, which will be used in track betterments. The 
orders were divided as follows: Tennessee Coal, Iron & 
Railroad Co., 22,400 tons; Illinois Steel Co., 1,800 tons; Mary- 
land Steel Co., 3,000 tons. 



'[March, 1911] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



109 



ENGLISH BUILT RAILWAY MOTOR CAR. 

An English built railway motor car of comparatively light 
•construction is shown in the illustrations which are repro- 
duced from Engineering (London). The car was built for a 
two-foot guage but there are many points of advantage about 
the design which could be applied in the buildingof standard 
guage American railway inspection cars. It is stated that 
the car as described is both economical and quiet running. 

The car is arranged to run equally well in either direction, 
reversible seats being fitted, as shown in the drawing, so 
that the passengers may always face in the direction of 
travel. The engine has two cylinders, cast together, of 4-in. 



of the engine, thus enabling internal adjustments to be made 
without dismantling. All main bearings are white-metal 
lined, and are of large dimensions and adjustable. The cam- 
shaft is driven by spiral gears, ensuring quiet running. The 
cams are solid with the shaft, the shaft and valve-tappet, 
rollers, etc., being case-hardened. The valves and valve-tap- 
pet gear are interchangeable. The clutch is of the internal 
cone type, leather faced, with adjustment for the spring load. 
It is arranged so that when in action the thrusts are bal- 
anced. 

The gear-box provides two speeds, in either direction", of 
13 and 27 miles per hour at normal engine speed. Speeds 







Elevation and Plan of Railway Motor Car. 



bore and 5-in. stroke. It runs normally at a speed of 1,000 
revolutions per minute, thereby developing about 14 horse- 
power. Ignition is by high-tension magneto. Forced lubri- 
cation is provided by means of a reciprocating pump within 
the engine casing. A centrifugal pump secures satisfactory 
water circulation through the system, which includes radia- 
tors placed at either end of the chassis. The radiators are 
hung on trunnions, and are thus relieved of stresses trans- 
mitted from the frame. A reserve supply of water is carried, 
and is kept automatically in circuit. The engine crank-case 
is provided with a large inspector-door, and the lower half 
of the case is removable without disturbing the remainder 



up to 35 miles per hour can, however, be maintained on the 
level. The shafts are provided with ball-bearings, and those 
taking the sliding gears are provided with castellations cut 
from the solid. The gears are entirely enclosed, and run in 
grease, a large inspection-door being provided for the gear- 
box, through which the gears can, if necessary, be removed 
without taking down the box itself. 

The axles are machined forgings of 40-ton tensile strength 
Steel, White-metal bearing- are provided, lubrication being 
by slip-rings which lift the oil from the reservoir at the hot- 
ton of the axle-box. The wheels are 24 ins. in diameter, of 
Cast steel. The final drive is by a Renold silent chain 



110 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[March, 1911] 




Chassis of Railway Motor Car. 



The body is timber, the framing being of ash. The finish 
is dark blue with gold and black lining. The seats, uphol- 
stered in blue leather, are well sprung. A collapsible Cape- 
cart hood, which can be closed down on either end to suit 
the direction of motion, is fitted above the body. Luggage 
space is provided under the front and rear seats. 

The control of the car is as follows: There is one hand- 
brake lever, and one forward and one reverse change-speed 
lever; of the latter the one not in use is automatically 
locked in neutral gear. Hand throttle-control is also fitted, 
as well as an advance lever for the ignition. Three pedals 
are provided — viz., one brake-pedal, one for the clutch, and 
one engine accelerator pedal. 

The fuel used is petrol, the carburettor being supplied 
from a tank, pressure-fed from the exhaust. The tank has 
a capacity sufficient for 300 miles. The exhaust may be dis- 
charged rearwards, in whichever direction the car is travel- 
ing. The weight of the car in working order is 35 cwt. 
The center of gravity has been kept as low as possible, con- 
sistent with adequate clearance above the rail and ground- 
levels. The car was built by Chas. Price & Son, Broadheath, 
near Manchester, England. 




Engine of English Railway Motor Car. 



BRITISH LOCOMOTIVE STANDARDIZATION. 

By Thomas Reece. 

Standardization of locomotives is a question of perennial 
interest and no broader or more interesting subject can well 
come up for discussion among railway engineers. It was 
very fitting, therefore, that the British Institution of Me- 
chanical Engineers — a body for which locomotive men have 
a very natural preference — should open its program for the 
winter session with a paper on this topic. There is so much 
to be said, on the one hand, from the railway man's point of 
view, and on the other, from the standpoint of the manu- 
facturer, that such a debate could hardly prove unattractive 
or fail to result in some healthy and stimulating exchange 
of view. Engines must be kept at work as continuously as 
possible in order to make the best use of the capital invested. 
Tt is not doubted in England that this can best be done if 
a broad system of standards be adopted. An engine in Eng- 
land earns roughly, say, about $25 net per day. If the in- 
convenience in repair work on an engine of an odd class 
keep it idle for only two days more per year than a standard 
engine, it will earn $50 less than the latter, which, capital- 
ized, gives a permissible difference of first cost for the stand- 
ard engine of $1,000. On this basis it would be as cheap 
to pay $1,000 extra in the first instance in order to obtain an 
engine conforming to railway standards, as it would be to 
secure a saving of this amount of capital expenditure at the 
risk of inconvenience later. The matter is more complicated 
than this, however. Quick delivery is sometimes of para- 
mount importance, and the balances have to be nicely 
weighed between present convenience and subsequent ex- 
pense on the one hand, and slightly increased first cost ac- 
companied by reduction of the all-important repair costs and 
time. This the railway can gauge better than either the manu- 
facturer or the public. 

The broader the system of standardization the better, pro- 
vided it in no way interferes with the economical handling 
of traffic. At home and abroad generally the principle is 
made to cover types designed for different classes of traffic 
on the respective railways. If i* can safely be extended so 
as to embrace different railways, it should 'prove of still 
greater advantage, especially under conditions such as obtain 
in India, with which the paper of Cyril Hitchcock read at 
the Institution of Mechanical Engineers dealt. Although 
several standard classes have now been produced for that 
country, no very decisive opinion as to whether or not the 



[March, 1911] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



111 



hoped for results have as yet been thoroughly achieved, ap- 
pears at present to exist. At the close of 1909 the open mile- 
age of the Indian railways reached a total of 31,490 made up 
of 16,309 miles of 5 ft. 6 in. gauge, 13,323 miles of metre gauge, 
1,443 miles of 2 ft. 6 in gauge, and 415 miles of 2 ft. gauge. 
The number of engines of these gauges at that time amounted 
to 4,517, 2,209, 220 and 78 respectively. The three large lines 
worked by the government at the close of 1909 represented 
5,298 miles of the total 5 ft. 6 in. gauge mileage with 1,469 
engines, and 1,022 miles of the total metre-gauge mileage, 
with 199 engines, and inasmuch as the lines worked by com- 
panies were also under direct government control, it would 
be seen that the conditions in India were favorable to the 
standardization of locomotives. 

With the rapid expansion of the railway systems of India 
during the recent years it became increasingly evident that 
the multiplied of locomotive types resulting from the ten- 
dency of each railway to evolve types of its own, differing 
often but slightly from those of neighboring systems, was 
attended by numerous disadvantages. A remedy should be 
sought in the direction of standardization which would have 
the effect of limiting the number of locomotive types and 
spare parts, of facilitating the transfer of engines and dupli- 
cate parts, and of enabling manufacturers to deliver engines 
in less time and at lower cost than had been customary. 
With regard to the extent to which standardization could 
be carried and maintained with advantage in the case of loco- 
motive engines, Mr. Hitchcock said consideration would 
show that a hard and fast limit could not be defined profit- 
ably, but if certain main principles were generally recognized, 
there was no doubt that much could be done towards the 
standardization of types, component parts, and materials, 
which would benefit both railways and manufacturers. Stand- 
ardization must not be allowed to check progress or to in- 
terfere with individual enterprise and invention. 

A glance at the British locomotives of today, compared 
with those' of only a few years ago, was sufficient to show 
the advances that were being made in locomotive design, 
and to demonstrate the obligation incumbent on all railways 
to keep abreast of the times. Standardization, as applied 
to locomotives, must therefore possess an elasticity which 
would admit of progress and must at the same time be suffi- 
ciently strict to prevent unnecessary departures from recog- 
nized standards. It could scarcely be expected that altera- 
tions which were not of such a character as to constitute sub- 
stantial departures from accepted standards or to inter- 
fere with the interchangeability of parts could be avoided 
altogether, as experience in actual working under the varied 
conditions which obtained in different parts of India was 
certain to suggest the need of improvements from time to 
time. It would be recognized that unremitting vigilance on 
the part of railway authorities in India, their consulting en- 
gineers at home, and of the manufacturers was necessary to 
guard agaist unauthorized departures from standards, and 
also that specifications and designs must be periodically re- 
vised, if standardization as applied to locomotives was to be 
a success. In the interests of standardization, it was neces- 
sary that alterations to details should not be made without 
due consideration of their full effect, as a small alteration 
might easily result in far-reaching complications. For in- 
stance, an additional wash-out plug placed to suit one par- 
ticular class of engine without reference to other types, 
might easily be found tp be inaccessible in the event of the 
boiler being interchanged with that of one of the other types, 
or even seriously to interfere with the change. Again one 
of the advantages sought in standardization was to obtain 
rapidity and cheapness of production by repetition work in 
the workshops, and as proposed modifications might involve 
alterations to expensive paterns. tools, dies, templates, etc.. 
they should be looked at from this point of view. 



The debate upon the paper did not reach a high level, but 
some points of interest were developed. S. B. Tritton, repre- 
senting the consulting engineers, who was the first speaker, 
complained of the difficulty of designing engines for people 
thousands of miles away. The designs of the standardiza- 
tion committee for the first lot of engines reached India at 
a somewhat adverse period, when a great demand for en- 
gines had suddenly arisen, with the result that large num- 
bers of the engines were sent out before there had been any 
opportunity of trying them on the road or rectifying small 
matters in which experience might suggest improvement. 
On the whole they had come out very well. E. Greg said 
the maker wanted to feel that standards were sufficiently 
permanent to enable him to put parts into stock in slack 
times with perfect confidence, and use them on the next 
lot of engines ordered. With every order from India 
there had been some suggestion for slight modification of 
details, which, while leaving unaffected the type and appear- 
ance of the engine, prevented the maker from going ahead 
with the parts which could be put in stock in slack times. 
So far as the speaker could recollect, the subject first arose 
about the year 1902, when orders had been placed in Ger- 
many owing to the capacity of the builders here being over- 
taxed at the time. Some of the builders had suggested that 
if the engines for India could be standardized, the parts could 
be made and stocked in slack times ready for the rush, and 
there would be no necessity to place orders abroad. That 
was, he believed, the origin of the standardization commit- 
tee. It was, however, difficult to guard against suggestions 
from up-to-date locomotive superintendents. Every indent 
for a fresh lot of locomotives, even of standard make, must 
necessarily be subject to certain variations. 

W. A. Stanier, who spoke next, said that the Great Western 
Railway Company had for some time endeavored to standard- 
ize their new types of engines. They had built six classes 
of boilers for certain types of engines. Their No. 1 boiler, 
for instance, would suit engines of the 4-4-2, the 4-6-0, and 
2-8-0 types. The No. 2 boiler would suit a number of differ- 
ent classes of 4-4-0 types, and the same applied to the No. 4 
boiler. The motion had been developed on standard lines in 
the same way. The same pattern of two-cylinder (outside 
cylinders) type could be used for any of the 18-in. by 30-in. 
cylinders used on the Great Western Railway engines with 
slight modification of the saddle. The crank-pin bushes were 
interchangeable in the sense that they could rely upon the 
spare bushes fitting the rods without the need of fitting. 
It was difficult to keep spare parts of even standard type. 
if subject to wear, unless they were kept in a range of sizes. 
The Great Western Railway practice with regard to metallic 
packings was to keep these to suit rods varying by 1/32 inch, 
so that when wear of the rods occured the next (smaller) 
sized packing could be fitted into the engine. 

It was the same with other parts; the wear had to be 
allowed for. Springs, although made in the same shop, 
varied — by half-hundredweights, possibly — in the load that 
they would carry with the same camber. When spring- were 
changed in the running shed, they were usually set by mea- 
surement: that sometimes had the effect of upsetting the 
riding of the engine. Had they in India had any mean- ol 
testing the weight on the wheel- after changing springs? 
Here springs had to be changed at running -lied- without it 
being possible to test the load on them, and difficulty was 
sometimes experienced. Portable weighing machines had 
been tried, but he remembered testing a -et some seven or 
eight years ago which showed result- varying anywhere 
between 2 hundredweight and 3 hundredweight. Tt seemed 
that portable machines required foundations just as level 
and as solid as those for a weighbridge, and he therefore 
did not consider the portable weighing-machine was of much 
use. 



112 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[March, 1911] 



The author of the Indian paper had referred to the case- 
hardening of the iron in motion details. In India he would 
think, judging from English practice, that there would be 
trouble with the sand. Case-hardened details usually gave 
trouble when grit got into them. The practice now with 
some railways — the Great Western among them — was to bush 
the motion with phosphor-bronze bushes, and face the jaws 
of the links with p_hosphor-bronze washers. The Great West- 
ern Company got good results from this practice, and spare 
bushes could be kept at the running sheds if there were any 
appreciable wear. George Hughes said that he had been 
struck by the fact that the paper dealt with the standard- 
ization of engines in a country 40 times the size of Eng- 
land. The proposition thus became almost impracticable. 
Quite early in the paper, the other had urged on behalf 
of standardization that three of the great railways in India 
were not only owned by the state, but were worked by it, 
while several of the other railways were state owned, but 
leased to companies, although controlled by the state. This 
was put forward as a reason for standardization. In addi- 
tion, for military reasons, the conditions in India were said 
to be very favorable. 



CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF MACHINE TOOLS IN 
A LARGE PLANT.* 

By C. K. Lassiter. 

The American Locomotive Co. in its various plants have 
about 9,000 machines. It is evident that the maintenance of 
this equipment requires a considerable organization, if the 
equipment is to constantly be up to its highest standard of 
efficiency. A few years ago such an organization was formed 
for the purpose of increasing the production of the plant 
with the least possible cost of the maintenance of the ma- 
chinery. At that time a great number of machines of obso- 
lete and complicated design were in use in the plant, oper- 
ated, for the most part, by inexperienced workmen. The 
growing use of high-speed steel in machines not especially 
designed for the heavy strains thus imposed, also made the 
cost of maintenance of these machines very high. 

The first step taken was to create an organization dividing 
and report on all conditions which might tend to cause fail- 
ures in the operations of machines: he also investigates and 
reports on all conditions which might cause accidents to 
employes, on abuses of equipment by the operators, and on 
equipment which is not kept clean and in order by the oper- 
ators. The equipment covered by these reports includes ma- 
chine tools, power equipment, pipes, sewers, buildings and 
with the conditions of the equipment in all the various plants, 
structures, rolling stock, cranes, elevators, etc. By means 
of this organization it is possible to keep constantly in touch 
the work of maintenance into different departments. In 
charge of the whole organization is placed the mechanical 
superintendent, and under him a general engineer of main- 
tenance who, in turn, at each plant has a local engineer of 
maintenance whose duty it is to look after all equipment 
such as machinery, buildings, grounds, tracks and rolling 
stock. The power plant is looked after in a similar manner, 
there being a general engineer of power with a local engi- 
neer of power at each plant, his duties being to look after 
such matters as power production, purchase and distribution 
of power, heat, light and water, fire protection, watchmen, 
etc. In addition there is a general small-tool supervisor with 
a local supervisor at each plant, whose duties are to look 
after all matters pertaining to the local tool-room, such as 
taps, reamers, twist drills, milling cutters, tool steel, and the 
like. 

In addition to the officials mentioned there is at each plant 

♦From a paper read before the National Machine Tool Builders' 
Association convention. 



an inspector of equipment, whose duties are to investigate 
A small printed form is used on which every machine tool 
failure is reported, showing the time when the machine failed, 
the cause of the failure and the estimated cost of repair. 
When the repair has been completed, the actual cost of re- 
pair and the length of time the machine has been out of serv- 
ice due to the failure are also reported. These reports are kept 
for each individual machine, so that there is a perpetual rec- 
ord of the performance of every machine in the plant. The 
failures are also classified under four heads, as: failures due 
1o negligence, to improper design, to accident, and to ordi- 
nary wear. Each oi these failures is systematically investi- 
gated. Those due to negligence are taken up with the men 
in charge of the operators with a view to having the ma- 
chines better cared for. The failures due to accident are in- 
vestigated, and, if possible, steps taken to reduce the number 
to the minimum. When failures are due to improper design, 
the weak parts are redesigned and strengthened. As regards 
the failures due to ordinary wear, investigations are contin- 
ually being made to see if it is not possible to simplify the 
construction of the machines and reduce the number of parts 
required to the minimum.- 

The system outlined was installed in 1907. The results 
obtained have been very satisfactory. The cost of mainte- 
nance has constantly decreased since the installation of the 




Generating Set of German Motor Car. 

system. The present cost of maintenance is about one-third 
of the cost at the time when this system was instituted. 
The saving effected in all the plants of the American Loco- 
motive Co. amounts to thousands of dollars a month. At the 
same time, the number of productive machine-hours that are 
lost due to failures has been reduced from 12 per cent to 1.75 
per cent. To illustrate just what this means, it may be well 
to mention that out of the 9,000 machines in all the plants, 
about 1,000 went out of service all the time on account of re- 
pairs when this system was begun, while at the present time 
this figure stands at an average of 100 machines only. It is 
interesting to note how these results were effected in one 
of the shops. By referring to the reports it was found that 
about 40 per cent of the failures were due to negligence. It 
has since been possible to reduce this negligence factor to 1.25 
per cent. 

In another case it was found that a certain type of ma- 
chine tool was purchased having an error in its design which 
had existed for ten years on this make of machine and which 
was costing the American Locomotive Co. something like 
$5,000 a year. This matter was taken up with the machine tool 
builder and the design changed, eliminating this entire charge 
of repairs. It was found that the maintenance of some types 
of machines was so heavy that it was concluded a waste to 



[March, 1911] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



113 



keep them in service, and they were replaced with modern 
tools. 

The system has also made it possible to determine defi- 
nitely what is the most economical design of the machines 
used, from the user's standpoint. Most of the machine tools 
now purchased by the company are built to specifications 
prepared by its own engineers, and the aim is to cut out 
every gear and moving" part not actually needed for the work. 
Planers, for example, are made with only one speed, because 
the works are so extensive that one planer can be put on one 
class of work and never changed. On vertical milling ma- 
chines but one pair of gears is used between the motor and 
cutting tool, and on large vertical boring mills the gear boxes 
have been cut out and the drive is equipped with a big plain 
pulley, the power being obtained from a variable speed motor 
placed in the ceiling where the countershaft was formerly lo- 
cated. On radial drills the speed of the driving shafts has 
been lowered and the diameter of the shafts increased, so as 
to reduce the cost of maintenance of the bearings. 

The question of the economic use of power in operating 
machine tools has been investigated in this connection. In 
testing out some of the machines it was found that there 



GERMAN RAILWAY GAS ELECTRIC CAR. 

By Frank C. Perkins. 

A German gasoline electric motor car is utilized by the 
Ostdeutsche Eisenbahn Gesellschaft. Its electric equipment 
is of 60 horse power capacity and the electrical generator 
and gasoline engine set, together with the electric motors 
and controllers were constructed by the Societe Anonyme 
Westinghouse of Le Harve, France. These cars operate at 
a speed of 22 miles per hour and carry 70 passengers and 10 
tons of freight or express on a trailer. Sufficient fuel is 
carried for operating the car a distance of 155 miles and, the 
total amount of gasoline used during such a trip at the 
normal speed is about 330 pounds. The four cylinder verti- 
cal engine has a stroke of 6.3 inches, the cylinders measuring 
5 l /> inches in diameter. The engine may be operated on oil 
or alcohol as desired and is said to work with good efficiency 
on either fuel. A high tension magneto is utilized for igni- 
tion and a regulator is provided on the carburetor controlling 
the mixture of air and gas as it enters the engine, so as to 
hold the speed constant regardless of the variation in load 
on the electric generator. 

As noted in the illustration the electric generator is of the 




German Gas Electric Motor Car. 



was a considerable amount of power absorbed through the 
friction of unnecessary gears. This is one of the reasons 
why an attempt has been made to cut out every gear possible 
on all new machines purchased. The result of this policy is 
that on a new design of radial drill where all except one 
pair of gears are done away with, the frictional load of the 
machine when running idle at the rate of about 160 revolu- 
tions per minute is only 0.7 H. P., while the same machine 
running at approximately the same speed drilling a 1J4 inch 
hole with a cutting speed of 50 feet per minute and a feed 
of 0.022 inch will use 5 H. P. In another case, a machine 
running at about 335 revolutions per minute will use 1 H. P. 
when running idle, while it requires s H. P. when drilling a 
1 inch hole at a cutting speed of 85 feet per minute and a 
feed of 0.02? inch. Hence the percentage of power used for 
the machine when running idle is small. 



four pole direct current type and is direct connected to the 
engine by means of a flexible coupling, both engine and gen- 
erator being mounted on the same base. 

The engine and generator set is mounted in the cab at 
one end of the car as shown in the illustration and the con- 
troller, which regulates the current to the motors on the 
car trucks, is located in the engine room in a similar posi- 
tion to that of the ordinary electric motor car. 

The railway line of the Ostdeutsche Eisenbahn Gesell- 
schaft has a gauge of one meter (3.3 feet), a total length of 
34 miles and a maximum grade of 16.7 r c. Each train consists 
of a gasoline electric motor car of the type shown and two 
trailers. Each motor car is equipped with two direct cur- 
rent railway motors of the Westinghouse type, with a ca- 
pacity of 30 horse power each. On the Chemins de fer d' 
Arad-Csanad, in Hungary, there is in operation a French 



114 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[March, 1911] 



gasoline electric motor car of this type of 100 horse power 
capacity. It hauls trains of four trailers on the above men- 
tioned railway, the power generating equipment consisting 
of a six cylinder gasoline engine direct connected to a four 
pole direct current generator. Its introduction for service 
between Arad and Csanad has met with great success. The 
total length of this line is 286 miles and the trains carry 
about 87 passengers and 6.1 tons of freight or express. The 
motor car weighs 16.7 tons and is equipped with two 
direct current single induction motors of 40 horse power 
each. The slow trains operate from 19 to 22 miles per hour, 
the motor cars hauling four or more trailers at this speed. 
The express trains weigh 28.7 tons hauling two trailers of 
6.5 tons and 6.1 ton respectively and operate at a speed of 
from 34 to 37 miles per hour, the motors developing about 
100 horse power with the trains operating at this speed. 
These French gasoline electric motor cars are divided into 
two compartments for first and second class passengers and 
it is stated that 24 trains per day are operated on this line. 
The Compagnie d'Arad Csanad has 41 gasoline motor cars 
in service traveling 830,000 miles per year and it is maintained 
that the cost of operation is very much lower than could 
be accomplished with steam or electric trolley service. 



RECENT COURT DECISIONS. 

The Supreme Court of the United States has sustained the 
law of Arkansas, regulating the number of men to be em- 
ployed on freight trains. The suit was that of the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific against the state, the supreme court of 
Arkansas having sustained the law. 

The law requires an engineman, a fireman, a conductor and 
three brakeman on every freight train of 25 cars or more, 
"regardless of any modern equipment." Railways not over 
50 miles long are excepted; penalty $100 to $500 for each 
violation, but the penalties are not to apply during strikes of 
trainmen. The train with which the offense was committed 
was equipped with both air brakes and automatic couplers 
and it had two brakemen; and the company declared that the 
requirement of a third man was unnecessary, and therefore 
a taking of its property without due process of law. 

The decision, by Justice Harlan, says that the principle sus- 
taining this law has been fully settled by former decisions, but 
quotations are given from a few of these earlier decisions. In 
the case of the Alabama law requiring locomotive enginemen 
to have licenses, Justice Matthews laid down the dictum that 
legislation might affect commerce without constituting a regu- 
lation of it. The Alabama license requirement only indirectly, 
incidentally and remotely affects interstate commerce, al- 
though the engineman in the case tried ran regularly to and 
from a point in Mississippi. The Alabama color blind law 
was decided in the same way. The law was not directed 
against commerce and affected it only incidentally. 

The New York law, forbidding fires in passenger cars, was 
assailed by the New York, New Haven & Hartford as repug- 
nant to the constitution, but the court held that it was for the 
protection of all persons traveling in the state of New York; 
and interstate passengers are entitled to as full protection as 
others. There may be a doubt as to the wisdom of such regu- 
lations, but that is a matter for the state to determine. Even 
if interstate trains were delayed and passengers inconveni- 
enced, such inconvenience cannot be avoided so long as the 
individual states are sovereign. This law, like the Arkansas 
Full Crew law. does not apply to short railways, but this ex- 
ception was justified by the court on the ground that the 
law-makers had undoubtedly deemed it more important to 
protect heavy through trains. The contention that the statute 
denied the plaintiff the equal protection of the laws, was there- 
fore rejected. 

Justice Harlan holds that in Arkansas passengers on inter- 
state trains are as fully entitled to the benefits of local laws as 



are citizen*, of the state. The state has never surrendered its 
power of caring for the public safety, and the validity of such 
statutes is not to be questioned in a federal court unless they 
are clearly inconsistent with some power granted to the gen- 
eral government, or with some right secured by the federal 
constitution, or unless they are purely arbitrary in their na- 
ture. The Full Crew law was enacted in aid, not in obstruc- 
tion of interstate commerce. There is room for controversy 
as to the wisdom of the law, but it is not so unreasonable as 
to justify the court in condemning it because of its arbitrari- 
ness. It is a means employed by the state to accomplish an 
object which it is entitled to accomplish, and such means, even 
if deemed unwise, are not to be condemned if they have a real 
relation to that object. Undoubtedly Congress in its discre- 
tion may take entire charge of the whole subject of the equip- 
ment of interstate cars and establish such regulations as are 
necessary and proper for the protection of those engaged in 
interstate commerce; but it has not taken action in regard to 
train crews, and until it does, the statutes of the state, if not 
arbitrary, and if they really relate to the rights and duties of 
all within the jurisdiction, must control. 




THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN CYCLOPEDIA OF 
FORMULAS. By Albert J. Hopkins; 1,077 pages, cloth, 
6x8 y 2 ; published by Munn & Co., New York City. Price, 
$5.00. 

This is a wonderfully useful work, as Mr. Hopkins' admir- 
ers among the readers of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 
will readily testify. As "Query Editor" of the above .men- 
tioned publication the author has made a reputation. This 
book, which is practically new, has called for the work of a 
corps of specialists for more than two years. Over 15,000 
of the most useful formulas and processes, carefully selected 
from a collection of nearly 150,000, are contained in this most 
valuable volume, nearly every branch of the useful arts being 
represented. The formulas are classified and arranged into 
chapters containing related subjects, while a complete index, 
made by professional librarians, renders it easy to find any 
formula desired. An entirely new departure in a book deal- 
ing with receipts, is the chapter on Chemical, Pharmaceutical 
and Technical Manipulation, which has been prepared with 
the aid of well-known chemists. The information contained 
in this chapter is entirely practical and a careful study of it 
will go far in saving the expenditure of both money and time. 
There is also a list of prices of odd, out-of-ordinary technical 
products, which is a very valuable feature and is also unique. 
Many usful tables are also included. This book will prove 
of value to those engaged in any branch of industry and con- 
tains hundreds of the most excellent suggestions for the 
many thousands who are seeking for salable articles which 
they can manufacture themselves on a small scale for a liveli- 
hood. 

MOTION STUDY. By Frank B. Gilbreth; 116 pages, 
cloth, 5%x7J4; published by the D. Van Nostrand Co., New 
York City. Price, $2.00. 

This book is. more of a thought producer than reference 
to the active engineer or industrial worker. As its title im- 
plies it is a study of motion and is meant to convey hints 
on the reduction of the waste of energy, and therefore of 
the cost of production of all industrial operations. Many 
examples are detailed and illustrated. The favorite sub- 
ject of the author is bricklaying. He shows how, by means 
of "non-bending" scaffolds and by proper arrangement of 
material, the bricklayer's output is greatly increased at a 



[March, 1911] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



115 



reduced expenditure of energy. As may be imagined the 
author finds numberless applications for his ideas. The text 
has appeared as a series of articles in INDUSTRIAL ENGI- 
NEERING, where they attracted a great deal of attention. 



RAILROAD TRAFFIC AND RATES. By Emory R. 
Johnson and Grover G. Huebner; two volumes, 524 and 448 
pages, cloth, 5^x8J4; published by D. Appleton & Company, 
New York. Price $5.00. 

This book appears to the reviewer to be a perfect gold 
mine of information on the subject implied by the title. 
Nothing like it in thoroughness and conciseness has hereto- 
fore been placed at the disposal of the student of railway 
problems. It has been written mainly to meet the demand 
of men in the railway service for complete and authentic 
information regarding traffic services and rate systems. It 
is not an attack upon railroads, nor a defense of them. It 
is an exhaustive account of the intricate and detailed work 
connected with railroad traffic and rate making. The vol- 
umes are written by university professors with the assist- 
ance of practical railway men. The business of the traf- 




A. C. Adams has been appointed superintendent of motive 
power of the Spokane, Portland, & Seattle, with office at 
Portland, Ore. 

J. W. Marden, superintendent of the car department of the 
Boston & Maine, at Boston, Mass., has resigned, and that 
position has been abolished. E. T. Millar, general foreman 
of the car department, at Concord, N. H., has been appointed 
general car inspector, with office at Boston, Mass, succeeding 
F S. Sanborn, assigned to other duties. 

O. S. Jackson, master mechanic of the Chicago, Indiana* 
polis & Louisville at Lafayette, Ind., has been appointed 
superintendent of motive power of the Chicago, Terre Haute 
& Southeastern, with office at Terre Haute, Ind. 

Mr. F. O. Walsh has resigned as master mechanic of the 
Atlanta & West Point and Western Railway of Alabama, 
to accept service with the Brazil Railroad Co., in the ca- 
pacity of mechanical assistant to the general manager. He 
is to be in full charge of the mechanical department of the 
road, with office at Sao Paulo, Brazil. Mr. Walsh is not 




J. W. Marden. 



F. O. Walsh. 



G. S. Hunter. 



lie department of railroads is covered in minute detail, and 
there are also several chapters upon the traffic problems with 
which the operating department is concerned — terminal 
handling of traffic, the work of the station agent, car service, 
time freight, etc. Officials and employees of the comp- 
troller's and auditor's offices will be specially interested in 
the elaborate explanations of the shipping papers and tickets 
used and the methods of accounting of freight and passen- 
ger traffic. The subject of rate making is gone into with 
absolute thoroughness, and the book contains a large 
amount of valuable material to be found in no other volume. 
For example, one hundred and fifty pages are devoted to a 
description of the actual systems of rate making. This 
highly important information has not been available hereto- 
fore in print. More than sixty pages are given over to a 
discussion of the express services and tariffs. A full ac- 
count of the Pullman Company, which has never been writ- 
ten up heretofore, is given in a lengthy chapter. There are 
three chapters upon the transportation of the mails and the 
payments therefor. The book is written in a concise, clear 
style. It is a manual that will be of daily assistance to rail- 
way officials, traffic men, government officers, university stu- 
dents, and everyone interested in railroad matters. 



the first American to go with this Brazilian road. He has 
been preceded by Mr John M. Egan, and more recently by 
two of the division superintendents of the Central of Georgia, 
Messrs. H. D. Pollard and H. B. Crawford. Mr. Walsh has 
been master mechanic of the Atlanta & West Point since 
1899. He received his early railroad training in the mechan- 
ical department of the Louisville & Nashville. He sailed with 
his family from New York on February 18. 

G. S. Hunter has been appointed a master mechanic of the 
Missouri, Oklahoma & Gulf, with office at Muskogee, Okla . 
succeeding E. Gilroy, resigned. 

C. A. Roth, storekeeper of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy at Galesburg, III., has been appointed a storekeeper 
at Havelock. Neb. J. L. Feemster, storekeeper at St Joseph, 
Mo., succeeds Mr. Roth at Galesburg, and 1. A Allen, gen- 
eral foreman at Aurora. 111., succeeds Mr. Feemster T. F 
Matthews, chief lumber inspector at Chicago, has been ap- 
pointed Pacific coast lumber agent, with office at Seattle 
Wash., and J. F. Rothschild, storekeeper at Hannibal. II 
succeeds Mr. Rothschild. 

R. G. Lowry has been appointed general storekeeper of 
the Kansas City Southern, with office at Pittsburg. Kan, 
succeeding C. V Twymas, resigned. 

V. W. Filet has been appointed a general foreman of the 



116 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[March, 1911] 



Rock Island Lines, with office at Rock Island, 111., succeed- 
ing J. E. Loy, assigned to other duties. 

^ John H. Guess, formerly general purchasing agent of the 
Rational Railways of Mexico, has- been appointed assistant 
general purchasing agent of the Grand Trunk, with office at 
Moritreal,. Que. 

M. Weber has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Albuquerque division of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
Coast Lines,; with office at Winslow, Ariz., succeeding Wil- 
$8m Daze, assigned to Other duties. 

' Willard Doud, shop engineer of the Chicago, Burlington 
El Quincy at Lincoln, Neb'., has been appointed shop engineer 
of the Illinois Central, with office at Chicago. He will give 
particular attention to planning improvements in power 
plants and other features of the shops, which come especially 
under the mechanical department. 

J. B. Emery has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Texarkana & Fort Smith, with office at Texarkana, Tex., 
succeeding E. Gilroy, resigned. ••■..• 



T. M. Price, assistant master mechanic of the Detroit, 
Toledo & Ironton at Jackson, Ohio, has been appointed gen- 
eral foreman, with office at Jackson, succeeding H. F. Mar- 
tyre, resigned. 

C. W. Dieman has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Green Bay & Western, the Kewaunee, Green Bay & Western, 
the Ahnapee & Western and the Iola & Northern, with 
office at Green Bay, Wis., succeeding W. P. Raidler, resigned 
to engage in other business. 

G. L. Lambeth master mechanic of the St. Louis division 
of the Mobile & Ohio, at Jackson, Tenn, has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Mobile division, with office at Whist- 
ler, Ala, succeeding E. G. Brooks, assigned to other duties. 
W. Q. Daugherty succeeds Mr. Lambeth. 

E. A. Sollitt, road foreman of engines of the Wabash at 
Montpelier, Ohio, has been appointed trainmaster, with of- 
fice at Moberly, Mo., succeeding J. W. Jones, promoted. 

W. L. Cooke has been appointed a division storekeeper 
of the Mobile & Ohio, with office at Murphysboro, 111. He 
succeeds D. L. Raich, who has been transferred. 




Bong^ Manufacturer's 



SPECIAL VERTICAL MILLING MACHINE. 

A double vertical milling machine as illustrated herewith 
was designed by the Newton Machine Tool Works, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., especially for the McClintic-Marshall Construction 
Co., to be used in milling the faces on the gates for the 
Panama Canal and arranged to cover the largest sizes of 
structural work. 

The spindle of the machine is 6§^ in. in diameter, fitted 
with a No. 7 Morse taper and revolves in bronze bushed 
capped bearings. It is driven by a steep lead worm and a 
worm wheel having a bronze ring, the driving worm is of 
hardened steel fitted with roller thrust bearing. Both the 
bearing for the driving worm wheel and worm are cast solid 
with the saddle. The outboard bearing is adjustable sidewise 
and is fitted with a taper bushing, having a parallel internal 
and taper external bearing with adjusting nuts to compensate 
for wear. The spindle saddle has square lock gibbed bear- 




ings on the upright of the special "Newton" construction, 
which has the saddle adjustments for alignment on one sheer 
of the face of the frame, which over-comes the tendency to 
distort the bearing surfaces under the old practice of having 
the bearings on the outside of each sheer. The saddle is 
counter-weighted, has reversing fast power vertical adjust- 
ment by means of a revolving nut fitted to a stationary screw, 
which has a top and bottom bearing to permit of its always 
being maintained in tension. The construction permits of 
having only one feed at a time, but sufficient change gears are 
furnished to give feeds of .3214 in., .2071 in., .285 in., .0892 in., 
.0554 in. and .0357 in. per revolution of spindle. The feed 
motion is clutch and the drive is taken from the spur gear 
mounted beside the driving worm wheel. 

The machine has a minimum capacity for cutters 25% in. 
in length and for cutters to a maximum length of 39J4 in. 
and up to 13 in. in diameter. The minimum distance from 
the work support to the centre of the spindle is 10y 2 in. and 
the maximum distance is 8 ft. 4% in. Reverse motion to the 
fast vertical elevation of the saddle is obtained through a 
double train of bevel gears engaged by a Carlyle-Johnson 
friction clutch. 

Each machine is driven by a 20 h.p. General Electric type 
DLC No. 2 motor, having a speed of 450 to 1,350 rpm. 
The motion is transmitted from the motor through a quride 
gear to the large driving spur gear mounted on the horizontal 
shaft on the side of the upright on which is also mounted a 
bevel gear driving the vertical spline shaft. The bevel gear 
on the vertical spline shaft is mounted above the bevel 
pinion. The stresses are thus counteracted and the thrust 
on the vertical spline shaft bearing is minimized. The base 
for supporting the work is clamped to and is adjusted with 
the upright. Each upright has 12 in. of hand adjustment on 
the base and the base is made in three sections with the in- 
tention of mounting one upright on each end section of the 
bed for exceptionally long work, of course, first separating 
the sections. This machine is manufactured in smaller sizes 
for the ordinary requirements of brace milling. 



Newton Special Milling Device. 



SOLID ADJUSTABLE DIE HEADS. 

The Landis Machine Co., Waynesboro, Pa., has recently 
brought out a new type of die head known as a "Solid Ad- 
justable Die Head." The purpose of this die head is to take 
the place of the solid dies now used on any of the screw 
machines and other types of machines where the work is 



[March, 1911] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



11* 



backed out of the die after the thread is cut. The die head 
is illustrated herewith showing the 1-in. standard size which 
has a range from % in. to 1 in. It embodies the use of 
the long life, high speed free cutting Landis die, with a very- 
wide adjustment. 

The dies are adjusted to and from the center on radial 
lines for different sizes and are held rigidly in their seats. 
The die head is held in the turret of any ordinary screw ma- 
chine and trips off by retarding the forward movement of 
the carriage. This die head will also be made without the 
tripping device for special requirements. The tripping ar- 




Landis Chaser. 

rangement is so arranged that when the desired length of 
thread is cut, the die head will trip and revolve with the 
work until the machine has time to reverse. By using this 
die very high cutting speeds are readily acquired, equal to 
the turning and drilling speeds on the other operations of 
the screw machine, so that the speeds need not be reduced 
in the threading operation for the accommodation of the die 
as is the case with the solid dies. 

Chasers can at all times be ground to suit the material 
to be cut; any amount of rake can be given that is neces- 
sary, thereby insuring the best possible cutting condition 
and securing ideal results. The dies are made from high 
speed steel and can be ground and reground many times, 
thus giving a life greater than other types of solid dies, be- 
sides never requiring to be annealed, hobbed or retempered. 

One set of chasers can readily be set above or below their 
rated diameter. For instance, ^4 in. (13 thread) can be set 




to cut 1 in. diameter when desired, or they can also be set 
to cut Y 4 in. diameter. The angle in the thread, however, 
will not be quite ideal, but all that is required for ordinary 
screw machine work. "With other types of die heads a spe- 
cial set of chasers is required each time you wish to ctft 
other than standard pitches. With this head any diameter 
within the range of the head can be cut with one set of dies 
so long as the pitch is the same. In very special cases 
where absolutely correct pitch is required, it would be advis- 
able to use special holders so as to set the chasers on the 
exact angle to correspond with the angle of the thread. 
Ordinarily this is not required. 

These heads can be supplied in standard sizes with shanks 
suitable for holders in ordinary screw machines. The y 2 in. 
head is 2^4 ins. in diameter, capable of cutting a thread of 
iy 2 ins. long. The 1 in. head is 4§^ ins. in diameter, capable 
of cutting a thread 2J^ ins. long. Other sizes with speciai 
shanks will be made to order. 

The special advantages with this type of head are that 
the head will admit of very much increased cutting speeds 
over others. Any one chaser of a set can be adjusted inde- 
pendently of the others if necessary, and each grinding of 
the dies gives all the qualities of a new die. Any chaser of 
a set can be replaced without replacing the complete set. 




ELLiter&ture 



The Browning Engineering Co., of Cleveland, has issued a 
neat booklet containing many fine half-tone views of Brown- 
ing pile drivers. 

Allis-Chalmers Co., of Milwaukee Wis., has issued a re- 
print of bulletin 1510 which deals with direct connected Rey- 
nolds Corliss engines. 

The Rockwell lathe and the Rockwell drill press are de- 
scribed in bulletins 52B and 54 of Jos. F. Ryerson & Son oi 
Chicago. 

"Railway Equipment Primer" is the title of booklet issued 
by the Chicago Railway Equipment Co., of Chicago, in which 
the advantage of using the Creco brake beam is set forth 
after the manner of our old "first readers." 

Stock list number 6 of the Waverly Warehouses, Newark, 
N. J., has been issued by the Carnegie Steel Co. It gives 
code words and dimensions for channels, angles and other 
steel forms. 

A catalogue of Alco acetylene burners and tips has been 
published by the American Lava Company, of Chattanooga, 
Tenn. A very comprehensive line is shown. 

The U. S.. Light & Heating Co., of New York, has issued 
a bulletin describing "National" storage batteries for sta- 
tionary service. A bulletin has also been issued on the in- 
stallation and operation of these batteries. 

The Stee! City Electric Co.. has issued a leaflet description 
price list of "Steel City" outlet boxes. 



[Mistrial /Notes 



Landis Solid Adjustable Die Head. 



The Hayes Track Appliance Co., Geneva. X. Y., has bought 
ground at Richmond, Ind., for construction of a new factory. 
The Geneva plant will be abandoned on April 1st when it is 
hoped the new plant will be ready for occupancy. This 
company has recently executed a standardization agreement 
with the Harriman Lines covering its derails. This was 
made when those lines already had over 3,000 of these de- 
rails in track, bought during the years 1904 to 1910 inclusive. 

The Sixty-third meeting of the American Society of Me- 
chanical Fngineers will be held in Pittsburg. Pa., from 



118 



-\ ^RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[March, 1911] 



30th to June 2nd, inclusive. The Society has not met in this 
city since 1884. An executive committee consisting of E. 
M. Herr, chairman, George Mesta, J. M. Tate, Jr., Chester 
B. Albree, D. F. Crawford, Morris Knowles, and Elmer K. 
Hiles, secretary, will have charge of the Pittsburg meetings. 
It is expected that from 300 to 400 members and ladies will 
be in attendance. There will be professional sessions when 
papers will be read and discussed. There will also be inspec- 
tion trips through the leading local industrial establishments, 
besides automobile trips through the parks, a visit to Car- 
negie Institute Memorial Hall, etc. 

The F. W. Miller Heating Co: advises that it has moved 
into new quarters in the McCormick Bldg., Chicago. 

Frank S. Layng, a director and formerly a vice-president 
of the Railway Steel-Spring Company, New York, died on 
February 11. 

At the railway exposition which has just closed. at Buenos 
Aires, Argentine Republic, The Buda Company of Chicago, 
111., was awarded the gold metal on its line of motor cars, 
motor velocipedes, hand propelled velocipedes, hand cars, 
track jacks, rail benders, car replacers, New Style Paulus 
Track Drill and Wilson bonding drill. 

The Union Steel Castings Company, Pittsburg, Pa., has 
bought some ground adjoining its present property and in- 
tends to build a new plant as soon as possible. 

Frank J. Walsh, general foreman of the Chesapeake & 
Ohio at Thurmond, W. Va., has resigned that position and 
is now with the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company, Chicago. 

The Northern Indiana Gas & Electric Co., of Chesterton, 
111., has ordered two 3,750-Kva. steam turbines from the 
Westinghouse Machine Co. The turbines will operate on a 
steam pressure of 175 pounds (100 deg. superheat) and will 
exhaust into a vacuum of 28 ins. The turbines will be con- 
nected to 750 Kva., 13,200 volt, 3-phase, 60-cycle Westing- 
house generators. 

The Bradford Electric Light & Power Company of Brad- 
ford, Pa., has ordered a 17 by 26 in. 375-h.p. horizontal gas 
engine from the Westinghouse Machine Co. The engine will 
operate on natural gas with a calorific value of 1,000 b.t.u. 
The engine will be connected to a Westinghouse 250-Kva., 
2,400-volt, 60 cycle, 3-phase generator. 

The Allis-Chalmers Company, Milwaukee, Wis., announces 
the appointment of F. C. Bryan as general traffic manager, 
with office at Milwaukee. 

L. F. Hussey, manager of publicity for the Wells Brothers 
Company, Greenfield, Mass., has resigned, effective Feb- 
ruary 25, to become advertising manager of the Standard 
Tool Company, Cleveland, Ohio. Mr. Hussey has had con- 
siderable practical experience in the manufacture of ma- 
chinery and tools, and also had charge of the commercial 
department of a high school at Mechanicsville, N. Y. 

The Pressed Steel Car Company, Pittsburg, Pa., has issued 
its report for the year ended December 31, 1910. The gross 
sales amounted to $27,975,978, as compared with $10,346,816 
in 1909. The net earnings from the operation amounted to 
$1,697,495 in 1910; there was a deficit in 1909. The net 
surplus for 1910 was $693,366, or 5.54 per cent on the $12,- 
500,000 common stock, as compared with a $959,583 surplus 
in 1909, after $1,200,000 had been received from the sale of 
the common stock of the Canada Car Company. The divi- 
dends on the preferred stock amounted to $875,000. Presi- 
dent, F. N. Hoffstot says that the company is now in a 
position to build cars at the very lowest cost in the history of 
the company. 

At the annual meeting of the King-Lawson Car Company, 
New York, held at Harrisburg, Pa., on February 8, the fol- 
lowing officers were elected: President and general manager, 
Thomas Lawson; vice-president, A. L. Squires; treasurer, 
John M. Delaney; secretary, Roscoe C. Lawson; directors. 



Edward Bailey, Arthur King and Curtis M. Rogers. The 
New York offices of the company were moved on February 
20, from 1 Madison avenue, to the Singer building. 

The circuit court for the county of Saginaw, Michigan, has 
rendered a decision in the case of the Willcox Engineering 
Co., Saginaw, Mich., against Harley C. Alger, dissolving the 
injunction granted to restrain Mr. Alger from allowing the 
use of his patents on water weighers by the Kennicott com- 
pany, Chicago Heights, 111. Mr. Alger is the inventor of the 
Kennicott water weigher, and is at present manager of the 
water weigher department of the Kennicott Company. 

The McKeen Motor Car Company, Omaha, Neb., has re- 
ceived orders from the Oregon Short Line for four 70-ft. 
motor cars and from the Oregon- Washington Railroad & 
Navigation Company for one 70-ft. motor car. When these 
are delivered there will be 104 cars of the McKeen type in 
service. 

At the annual meeting of Manning, Maxwell & Moore, 
New York, on February 13, W. O. Jacquette and R. A. Bole 
were elected vice-presidents, succeeding Charles A. Moore, 
Jr., and J. B. Brady. Mr. Moore also resigned as secretary 
and as a director, and C. M. Chester, Jr., treasurer, was made 
also secretary. Mr. Brady remains a director. 

The Industrial Supply & Equipment Co., Philadelphia, Pa., 
has been made eastern agent of the Union Machine Co., of 
St. Paul, Minn. 

The McKeen Motor Co., Omaha, Neb., has received an 
order from the Oregon Short Line for four 70-foot motor 
cars and one from the Oregon- Washington Railroad & Navi- 
gation Co. for one 70-foot motor car. This makes a total 
of 40 railroads that are operating or have ordered McKeen 
cars and there are 101 cars of this make in service at the 
present time. The company has just completed and shipped 
two cars to the Southern Pacific Co. 

The Jones & Laughlin Steel Company, Pittsburg, Pa., is 
dismantling furnace No. 3 of the Eliza group and will im- 
mediately build another blast furnace there, to cost about 
$1,500,000. This company is now spending about $4,000,000 
in the erection of furnaces at Aliquippa, all of which will be 
in service by May 1. The Pittsburg mills of this company 
are now operating at about 80 per cent of their capacity, 
while the mills at Aliquippa are operating at their full capac- 
ity. About $25,000,000 is to be spent on the plants at Ali- 
quippa, entirely for new undertakings. 

The Pawling & Harnischfeger Company, Milwaukee, Wis., 
has opened a branch office at 533 Baronne street, New Or- 
leans, La., under the management of T. W. Waddell. 

The American Steel Foundries, it is stated, will take up 
the extensive manufacture of the Davis cast steel wheel, 
which it has been testing and experimenting with for the 
past six years. 

Mr. A. C. Moore, district manager of the Safety Car Heat- 
ing & Lighting Co., with headquarters in Chicago, has been 
appointed general manager, in charge of the commercial in- 
terests of the company, with office at New York. Mr. J. G. 
Van Winkle has succeeded Mr. Moore at Chicago. He will 
have the title of general agent in charge of the northwestern 
district. 

The Concrete Form & Engine Company, Detroit, Mich., 
has been organized to combine the Collapsible Steel Form 
Company, Detroit, and the Belle Isle Motor Company, De- 
troit. The company will make collapsible steel forms for 
concrete culverts, conduits and sewers, general concrete 
and road-making machinery and Bell Isle gasolene 
engines for railway velocipedes and power cars. The officers 
of the company are: W. B. Gregory, president; Harry W. 
Frost, vice-president; W. W. Kenyon, vice-president; W. C. 
Shanafelt, vice-president and general manager; L. K. Rum- 
sey secretary and treasurer, and W. D. Waugh, assistant 
general manager. 



[February, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



119 



This Famous Limited Train 

photographed when passing over the Hack- 
ensack Meadows, is carried between the 
Manhattan Terminal and Manhattan Trans- 
fer by a four thousand horsepower electric 
locomotive. The Hudson River, New York 
City and the Terminal lie beyond the 
heights in the distance. The Pennsylvania- 
Long Island installations constitute the 
most important direct-current main line sys- 
tem in the world and all power is generated 
and applied through Westinghouse appar- 
atus. 



Whether operating conditions render Direct-Current, Single- 
Phase or Three-Phase Electrification preferable, Westinghouse 
Apparatus is unequalled. 




The Pennsylvania Special 
Under Electric Power 

Direct-Current System 



Heavy Passenger Traffic 

between New York City and New England 
on the New Haven System has been handled 
b)' Single-Phase Electric Locomotives over 
the New York Division for more than three 
years. This is not only the largest and most 
important Single-Phase electrification of 
steam railroads in the world, but the first 
trunk line to plan extension of electric oper- 
ation to entire main line divisions. All pow- 
er is generated and applied through West- 
inghouse apparatus. 



Whether operating conditions render Direct-Current, Single- 
Phase or Three-Pha«e Electrification preferable, Westinghouse 
Apparatus is unequalled. 




A New York, New Haven and Hartford 
Heavy Electric Train 

Single-Phase System 



The Giovi Line 

connects Genoa, Italy's greatest shipping 
port, with its greatest manufacturing center 
at Milan. In addition to passenger and gen- 
eral freight traffic, hundreds of cars of coal 
are daily sent to Milan through the Giovi 
tunnel over 3^2 per cent grades. The pho- 
tograph shows two, 2,000 horsepower, Three- 
Phase electric locomotives starting from the 
Pontedecimo Station in Genoa with a train 
load of 435 tons. All power is generated 
and applied through Westinghouse appara- 
tus. 



Whether operating conditions render Direct-Current, Single- 
Phase or Three-Phase Electrification preferable, Westinghouse 
Apparatus is unequalled. 




Electricity in Freight Service 
Italian State Railways 

Three-Phase System 



120 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[March, 1911] 




Ifeenf Tfeilos^u Mechanical p&tente 



Material for this department is compiled expressly for Railway Master Mechanic by Watson & Boyden, Patent 
and Trademark Attorneys and Solicitors, 918 F Street, N. W., Washington, D. C, and to them all inquiries in regard 
to patents, trademarks, copyrights, etc., and litigation affecting the same should be addressed. 

A complete printed copy of the specification and drawing of any United States patent in print will be sent, postpaid, 
on application to the above firm, to any address for ten cents. 



RAILWAY BRAKE BEAM. 
981,619— Seth A. Crone, East Orange, N. J. Patented Jan. 17, 1911. 
This invention resides particularly in a novel construction of the 
compression and struct members of the beam. As shown in the 
drawings the compression member is of channel shape and the 
flanges 13 are much heavier than the web 14, thereby giving in- 
creased strength where it is needed without unduly increasing the 
weight of the member. 



also on account of the very small amount of labor which is neces- 
sarily expended in adapting it to standard structures. When the 
axles are large and are called upon to sustain great weights, it is 
desirable to bore holes through their centers in order to remove the 
relatively poor metal commonly known as the "pipe" which is 
produced when they are forged. 



ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE. 
981,741— Hans G. Berentsen, Pittsburg, Pa. Patented Jan. 17, 1911. 

In regard to this arrangement the inventor says: 

My invention relates to electric locomotives and other railway 
vehicles and particularly to such vehicles as are provided with 
motor- operated pony trucks having limited swinging adjustments. 



9&L741. 
XPtJ 




LOCOMOTIVE VALVE GEAR 

982,989— Henry J. Pilliod, Chicago, 111., assignor to Pilliod Brothers 

Co., Toledo, Ohio. Patented Jan. 31, 1911. 

This patent is one of several granted on the same date and re- 
lating to the same subject, the other patents being Nos. 982,990 
and 982,991. 

The object of the present invention is to improve the construction 
of variable cut-off and reversing valve gears for locomotives, and 
to provide a simple and efficient valve gear, adapted to correct the 
evils of valve motion, viz., the unequal port opening, cut-off and 
release due to the angularity of the eccentric arm, and to produce 
an equal travel of the valve at the backward and forward move- 
ments thereof and a uniform distribution of steam. 

Another object of the invention is to equip the valve gear with 
an imparting motion device, which will secure a uniform rotative 
speed for actuating the eccentric arm and which will compensate 
for vibration and lateral motion of an engine and prevent fatal ef- 
fect of such motions on the valve gear. 

The drawings of these patents are quite elaborate and limited 
space forbids a complete description. For a better understanding of 
the devices reference should be had to the patent itself. 



983,080, 







The object of my invention, is to provide simple and effective 
means for resisting the tendency for the journal boxes of a loco- 
motive, equipped as above indicated, to spread apart or to approach 
each other by reason of the fact that the driving effort exerted by 
a swinging pony truck is applied to the side frames at an angle to 
the direction of movement of the locomotive. 

Pony trucks have heretofore been provided with such bearings in 
the side frames of the locomotive as to permit a limited swinging 
adjustment about a point in the central plane of the vehicle and at 
some distance from the center line of the axle. When trucks of this 
character are used merely for guiding purposes there is only a 
small tendency for the journal boxes to either spread apart or ap- 
proach each other, but when trucks of this character are provided 
with driving motors, there are obviously material components of 
the forces exerted upon the side frames which tend to either 
separate the journal boxes or draw them together, depending on the 
position of the truck and the direction of movement of the loco- 
motive. If these forces, which perform no useful function, are not 
overcome, they create such an end thrust between the bearing boxes 
and either the axle collars or wheel hubs as to produce high tem- 
peratures and excessive wear. 

According to my present invention, I bore a hole directly through 
the center of the axle to receive a tie-rod, the ends of which are 
rigidly secured to the journal boxes, the arrangement being such 
that the tie-rod is subject to strains in tension or compression and 
only useful driving forces are transmitted from the journal boxes 
to the side frames. This arrangement commends itself, not only on 
account of the simplicity and lightness of the tie-rod structure, but 



982,989. 



ANTIFRICTION SIDE BEARING FOR RAILWAY CARS'. 
983,080 — John F. O'Connor, Chicago, 111., assignor to W. H. Miner, 
Chicago, 111. Patented Jan. 31, 1911. 
The object of the invention is to provide a self-centering anti- 
friction side bearing capable of automatically returning to its cen- 
tral or normal position by its own gravity. The roller or rocker 
consists of a curved face polygonal bearing member clearly shown 
in the illustration. The operation will be apparent. 



VALVE GEAR. 
983,843 — Theodore C. Sewell, Portland, Oregon. Patented Feb. 7, 1911. 

This invention relates to valve gear for multiple cylinder steam 
engines and is intended more particularly for compound engines, 
and the object of the invention is to provide simple and efficient 
means for changing the travel of the steam valves so as to produce 
an early or late cut-off, and further to provide means whereby with 
one operating lever the engineer can change the travel of one 
steam valve and thus produce an early or late cut-off in one cylinder 
without changing the other, and further to provide an interlocking 
device so that the valve will operate in unison when desired. This 
is especially desirable on compound locomotive engines where it is 
desirable to use a short travel and early cut-off on a high pressure 
cylinder and a full travel and late cut-off on the low pressure 
cylinder. . , . 

As shown in the illustration the arrangement comprises a hand 
lever having a locking rack, and means associated therewith for 
interlocking such main lever with an auxiliary lever so that both 
valves may be moved in unison. 





[April, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



121 



^sterMkhanic 

Established 1878 

Published by THE RAILWAY LIST COMPANY 



WILLIAM E. MAQRAW, Pres. and Treas. 
CHAS. S. MYERS, Vice-Pres. 
C. C. ZIMMERMAN, Bus. Mgr. 
J. M. CROWE, Mgr. Cent. DJst. 



LYNDON F. WILSON, Managing Editor 
OWEN W. MIDDLETON, Assoc. Editor 
KENNETH L. VAN AUKEN, Assoc. Editor 
WARREN EDWARDS, 2d V.-P. & Assoc. Editor 



Office of Publication : Manhattan Building, Chicago 

Telephone, Harrison 4948 

Eastern Office: 50 Church Street, New York 

Telephone Cortlandt 5765 
Central Office: House Bldg., Pittsburg, Pa. 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway power, car equipment, shops, 

machinery and supplies. 
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Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, Under Act of March 3, 1879. 



Vol. XXXV. Chicago, April, 191 1 



CONTENTS. 

Editorial — 

Progress in Oxy-Acetylene Welding 121 

Government Ownership 121 

The Situation in Brief 122 

A Modest Request 122 

The Smoke Problem in India 122 

The Master Mechanic's Dream 122 

High Voltage Direct Current Railway Power in Switzerland 123 

Electrification of Chicago Railways 124 

Machine Equipment in Huntington Shops, C. & O. Ry 130 

Mikado Type Locomotive, C, B. & Q. R. R 131 

Car Stenciling 133 

Calculating Foundation Brake Beams 134 

Dupo Yard Lighting 137 

Steam Turbines for Locomotives 139 

Generation and Distribution of Electric Power 140 

Weight Transfer in Electric Cars and Locomotives 144 

New Bettendorf Steel Car Plant 147 

Personals 153 

A Fireman's Record 154 

Apprentice School, Pennsylvania R. R 154 

Among the Manufacturers 154 

Goetze Gaskets 154 

Lamb Portable Drill 155 

New Literature 1 .">.-> 

Industrial Notes 156 

Meeting of Executive Committee, C. I. C. I. & C. F. Assn. . 157 

Recent Railway Mechanical Patents 160 



PROGRESS IN OXY-ACETYLENE WELDING. 

Every shop of any size has by this time had more or less 
experience with the oxy-acetylene and similar processes of 
welding, and while the results have not always been all that 
might be desired, the practicability of the method has been 
firmly established. The variety of work to which it is 
adapted and the saving effected should bring it into especial 
prominence during these days of strenuous efficiency meth- 
ods. Judging from results already obtained, one of the 
factors which has much to do with its success or failure 
in particular instances has been the man on the job. It 
is much the same as the treatment of high-speed steel — the 
operator must have a certain amount of instinctive skill in 
order to produce the best results and he should be allowed 
to specialize in this work. Some of the failures have been 
due to allowing too many different individuals to attempt 
the welding, no one becoming proficient at it. This is an 
age of specialization, and the man behind the torch should 
be a specialist. One of the serious drawbacks from the 
operator's point of view has been the strain to the eyesight, 
but the use of smoked glasses does away with this. 

Considerable work has been done along the line of insert- 
ing patches in side sheets and it has been found that patches 
of almost any convenient size may be successfully welded — 
in fact, welds of twelve to fifteen feet in length have been 
M 4 reported. A saving of from 50 to 75 per cent has been 

made in the cutting out of fireboxes and side sheets, and 

for this work it has proven very successful. In welding 
cracks in flue and side sheets difficulty has been experienced, 
due to the subsequent contraction of the metal and the 
formation of a new crack. In order to overcome this diffi- 
culty in putting in patches very successful results have been 
obtained by pressing a U-shaped bend along the edge of 
the patch to take up the contraction. 

Welding tire flanges, connecting rods, tool holders, shafts 
and even spokes in cast iron pulleys are some of the diversi- 
fied uses to which the oxy-acetylene process has already been 
put, and it seems that the limit has by no means been 
reached. The increasing use of steel passenger cars has 
also opened a new field for this work and one which is sure 



to grow in importance. 
i 



An 



GOVERNMENT OWNERSHIP. 

experience with government ownership of a large 



public utility has resulted disastrously in England, as evi- 
denced from the following facts which are taken from 
an authentic report published in the London Spectator: 

It appears that when a plan for the purchase of the tele- 
graph by the postofflce was brought up an enthusiastic post- 
office official, Mr. Scudmorc. deceived himself and othcr- 
with estimates that were mere imaginings. The purchase 
price jumped from £2.500,000 to £7.000.000 by the time the 
government bought, and then £4.000,000 was added owint. 
to a little oversight. It was discovered after the deal had 
gone through that the telegraph companies did not have a 
freehold interest in their wire-; along the railroads, a- was 



122 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[April, 1911.) 



supposed, but that their interest was in leases only, and 
so it was necessary to settle the claims of the railroads. 

Now as to the business. Dreams of a net revenue of 8.8 
per cent on the capital were dissipated. No interest at all 
was paid on the capital out of profits after the second year. 
The system is kept going by government grants, and is a 
charge against the taxpayer. The cost of working the 
lines has increased, gross revenues are below gross expendi- 
tures, rate reductions have been an unprofitable venue. At 
this date there is a commercial loss of £35,000,000; each 
year there is an addition loss of £1,000,000; the working 
cost per thousand telegrams is more than it was thirty 
years ago. It is proposed, therefore, by critics of the system 
that instead of perpetuating it and acquiring the business 
of the National Telephone Company as well the govern- 
ment should create a new authority to take over both utilities. 

From these facts it would appear that the extreme regu- 
latory legislation course apparently so generally adopted in 
this country, while resulting in nearly the same ends as 
government ownership, is far ahead of (or behind) the latter 
in that the burdens and responsibilities remain with the 
corporation. This is a condition of affairs which cannot last, 
however. Government ownership, proving impracticable, 
means must be devised of insuring the safety of private 
capital, invested in public service corporations, more espe- 
cially in our railways, against the depredations of ignorant 
and malicious regulatory legislation. 



derailed. Having completed it, he equipped 
an engine and train and took it to Washing- 
ton, where it was given a trial before a num- 
ber of congressmen. Being wealthy, he does 
not care to sell his patent to any railroad that 
might sidetrack it, but wants all roads equipped 
with his device in Order that the public may 
be benefited. All he asks is that Congress 
recommend to the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission that the railroads be ordered to use 
the invention." 

In these days it seems unnecessary to go to the effort of 
demonstrating to the railway official the value of an invention 
since it appears so much more simple to use influence with 
legislators. Moreover, the results from the latter proceed- 
ing are much more certain. 



THE SMOKE PROBLEM IN INDIA. 

They are having trouble with the smoke problem over in 
India now. The health commitee of Calcutta is at present 
considering the recommendations of the smoke nuisance 
commission, among which are the more effective suppression 
of coke making in open fires, the prohibition of open flame 
oil lamps and the bringing of ship and domestic furnaces un- 
der the proposed act, as well as locomotives, which is a 
broader view than some of our American cities are taking. 



THE SITUATION IN BRIEF. 

Under the heading, "The Situation in Brief," the recently 
created Bureau of Railway Economics in its Bulletin No. 10 
points the following somewhat sinister statement: 

"January returns, when reduced to a per-mile basis, show 
a decrease with respect both to the returns for the preced- 
ing month, and to those for the corresponding month of the 
previous year. Net operating revenue, that is, total revenues 
less operating expenses, for all roads reporting, show a de- 
crease per mile from the figure of January, 1910, of $18, or 7 
per cent, and from the figure of December, 1910, of $76, or 
25 per cent." 



THE MASTER MECHANIC'S DREAM. 



A MODEST REQUEST. 

Inventors without influence must rely on the real and 
evident value of an improvement for success and financial 
reimbursement. For the one with a friend at court matters 
can often be hastened, however. Indeed he can often do so 
much more that it is not always necessary for the inventor 
to present a particularly valuable improvement, as evidenced 
by the following, taken from the daily press: 

"Representative Wm. B. Craig was a loco- 
motive engineer fourteen years ago, and a 
friend, J. T. Andrew, now a rich planter, was 
a fellow railroader. Since becoming a planter 
Andrew has been working on a device to pre- 
vent the wrecking of trains that may become 



By R. S. Lloyd, Chief Clerk, Motive Power Department, 
C. & E. I. R. R. 

The first that I remember was the smell of gas and smoke; 

Then I heard an angry voice say "Where is that reckless bloke."* 

Then a puffing and a blowing, as up the stairs it came, 

I could tell from its breathing that it was very lame; 

Down the hall it staggered, and how my heart did jump, 

When at the door of the nursery, it gave an awful thump. 

Out of my bed I sprang, tip-toed to the door, 

And there peeping in at the youngsters, I saw the 304; 

Ah, then I well remembered, but too late, as often true, 

That it was still in service, although for the shop long past due. 

I heard her command silence to all her numerous parts. 

And with a smile she said "God Bless Their Little Hearts"; 

"I must not wake them for t'would give them such a scare, 

And to make the darlings suffer, is more than I can bear"; 

She closed the door more gently than could either you or I, 

Then on she came so silently, she really seemed to fly. 

My door flew open and with a lunge she landed right upon my bed,. 

Her pony trucks in my stomach, her steam chest on my head. 

I tried to call for help, but t'was of no avail, 

She jammed the air hose down my throat and pumped an awful gale. 

Then she said: — 

"When you are through struggling, a few words with you I wish to 

speak, 
I have often wanted to meet you, I believe you are the Master 

Mechanic; 
You know it's been twenty months since the day you turned me 

our, 
Still you expect me to make the time, pulling your ten-car trains 

about; 
I know that you are busy, cannot always do as you elect, 
So I took this opportunity of letting you inspect." 
Her flues were very weak and her tires were very thin, 
The cab was all loose and the headlight stove in; 
Her fire-box was cracked and her machinery was poor, 
I thought that was all, but she declared there was more. 

She was loose in her boxes and her valves were out bad, 

Other defects so numerous, she had cause to be mad. 

I acknowledged my guilt, though badly scared, 

And promised to see that she was immediately repaired. 

"Toot" "Toot" said she, "All I want is fair play, 

But remember if you do not, I will see 5 r ou again, some day;" 

"These record-breaking stunts may be all right on the Santa Fe, 

But the conditions here are different, so please don't try it on me.' 

I assured her that to my promise I'd be true, 

She beamed on me most pleasantly and seemed to fade from view.. 



[April, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



123 



HIGH VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT RAILWAY diameter 2.3 feet, with a ratio of transmission of 1:11:45. 



POWER IN SWITZERLAND. 

The electric locomotives utilized on the Wengenalpbahn 
between Lauterbrunnen, Wengen and Scheidegg, in southern 
Switzerland, may be noted in the accompanying illustra- 
tions. On this mountain electric line the travel is, of course, 
the greatest in summer, amounting to 6,840 train-miles and 



Each of the two electric motors on this locomotive has a 
normal capacity of 150 horse-power, operating at a speed of 
750 revolutions per minute, the voltage of each machine is 
from 750 to 900 volts and they are connected in series, being 
supplied with current from the overhead trolley line at a 
pressure of from 1,500 to 1,800 volts. 



•s^V ■• ' '""""' 




View of Station and Electric Rack Locomotives at Wengen. 



about 207,000 ton-miles, the average weight of the train be- 
ing 28.5 tons. In winter the traffic is light, amounting to 
980 train-miles, with 28,100 ton-miles, the weight of the train 
being about 26 tons. 

This is a rack railway and it is interesting to note that 
it is operated with a direct current of from 1,500 volts to 
1,800 volts, differing from the low pressure city electric lines 
of 500 volts and from other mountain railways which utilize 
largely three-phase alternating current equipments. These 
direct current electric locomotives are capable of hauling 
two cars, having a seating capacity of 48 passengers each, 
at a normal speed of 5.3 miles per hour on a 25 per cent 
grade and a train of three such cars at the same speed on 
an 18 per cent grade. When operating on a 25 per cent 
grade the electric motors develop 300 horse-power, the total 
weight of the train being 33.5 tons, of which the locomotive 
weighs 16 tons, the two cars 10.5 tons and the 96 passengers 
7 tons. When operating with a train of three cars on a 
grade of IS per cent, the electric motors develop 280 horse- 
power, the (rain weighing 42 tons, the locomotive weight re- 
mains the same, the three cars weighing 16 tons, while the 
weight of the 144 passengers is 10 tons. The road has a 
gauge of 2.6 feet and the shortest curve lias a radius of 257 
feet. The electric locomotive is 18 feet in length and 10 feet 
in height, and the motors drive through double reduction 
gearing. The distance between the gears is 3.8 feet and the 



The locomotive is provided with both hand brakes and 
automatic brakes which bring the train to rest in from 2% 
seconds to 6%. seconds, according to the weight of the train, 
its speed and the grade on which it is operated. The train 
is electrically lighted and heated, about 20 kilowatts of elec- 
trical energy being required for heating the three cars. The 
maximum speed attained is about 6.8 miles per hour, while 
a speed of 5.6 miles per hour is attained on a grade of 15 




Electric Rack Locomotive with Casing Removed. 



121 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[April, 1911.1 




Plan of Electric Rack Locomotive. 



per cent. The electric locomotive and cars were designed 
and constructed by the Schweiz Lokomotiv-und Maschinen 
fabrik at Winterthur in connection with the Elektrizitats- 
Gesellschaf Alioth of Munchenstein. 



ELECTRIFICATION OF CHICAGO RAILWAYS.* 

By C. A. Seley, Mechanical Engineer, C. R. I. & P. Ry. 

In November, 1909, I had the honor of presenting to the 
Western Railway Club a paper bearing the same title and 
introduction as this one, and my excuse for again appearing 
before you is a belief that the time is ripe for a review of 
the conclusions then arrived at and of the progress of the 
art since that time. 

The smoke production by the railways in Chicago is still 
a matter of such grave importance according to the local 
press as to call for early and complete electrification of the 
railways. Most of these press articles are without qualifica- 
tions as to the merits of the case, possibilities or otherwise, 
and it is with pleasure that I quote the following editorial 
from the Record-Herald of February 17th as admitting there 
may be two or more sides to the question and urging study, 
co-operation and good faith as between the railroads and 
civic agencies. The editorial is as follows: 

"Chicago Smoke and the Railroads. 

"Tests and calculations made under the direction of the 
chief smoke inspector, Mr. Bird, show that the locomo- 
tives of the railroads entering Chicago make 43 per cent of 
all our smoke and discharge 560 tons of cinders every day 
in the year. 

"There may be error in the calculations, but even the aver- 
age 'man on the street,' or in a train entering or leaving 
Chicago, is well aware that the railroads are responsible for 
much of our smoke and dirt. This, however, is not neces- 
sarily an indictment of the railroads. A condition confronts 
them — the same condition that confronts the rest of us. They 
are here and we are here. Electrification is the only solu- 
tion of our smoke and cinder problem as far as the rail- 
roads contribute to it, but electrification cannot be ordered 
in a day or a year, and a mere ordinance will not bring it 
about. An earnest study of the very difficult question is 
needed — study, co-operation and good faith. 

"The railroads should work with the city and with those 
civic agencies which, like the City Club and the Association 
of Commerce, are grappling with the problem. Progress 



*From a paper read before the Western Railway Club 
March 21, 1911. 



will be rather slow at the best, but this very fact gives us 
the strongest argument against delay, negative talk of a 
vague character, the raising of fanciful objections. Elec- 
trification is the goal, and to reach a goal you must move, 
not stand still, and move toward it, not away from it." 

This is exactly in line with the recommendations in my 
former paper and also what has been done recently in 
Massachusetts with reference to electrification of the steam 
railway lines in Boston, which will be referred to later. 

Since my former paper was written, the Michigan Cen- 
tral tunnel at Detroit and the Pennsylvania Railroad tunnels 
at New York City have been completed and are now elec- 
trically operated. 

The former is a general transfer proposition of freight 
and passenger trains under the Detroit river, instead of 
over it in car floats, using electric locomotives specially 
designed for the work to be preformed. Trains are handled 
from stations or yards through the tunnel to the station 
or yard on the other side, steam locomotives performing 
the preliminary and following movements. The P. R. R. 
electrification takes passenger and suburban trains from 
points in New Jersey and Long Island to and from their 
new passenger terminal in New York City. 

The Detroit installation had its precedent at Baltimore 
on the Baltimore & Ohio and later at Sarnia on the Grand 
Trunk and again on the Great Northern in the Cascade 
tunnel, although none of the three are similar in the sys- 
tems employed. 

The Baltimore & Ohio uses direct current, generated in 
their own power houses. The Great Northern is the only 
example of three-phase electrification in this country, al- 
though there is something over one hundred miles of main 
lines in Europe thus equipped. The Sarnia installation 
is single phase and about 3.5 miles of line. 

The Detroit installation is D. C, the current being pur- 
chased from a local company which generates it three- 
phase, 60 cycles, 4,400 volts, the railroad company install- 
ing a sub-station with rotary converters, etc., for trans- 
formation. 

The Pennsylvania Railway electrification at New York 
City employs direct current, generated at their power house 
on Long Island. 

It has been stated that every system of electrification has 
its own particular features that must be taken into account 
in devising the best arrangement to suit the situation. It 
is very likely that this will account for the varying features 
in the electrifications quoted, as no two of them are exactly 
similar. Aside from the general features of the systems, 



[April, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



•-> 



125 



the details vary, partly for these reasons and perhaps also 
that the later ones represent deevlopments in the state of 
the art. 

Take for instance the design of electric locomotives, The 
New York Central gearless, the New Haven quill-mounted 
gearless, the P. R. R. side rod gearless, the Detroit and 
later B. & O. horizontally supported motor with twin gear- 
ing, and others yet to be heard from. There seem to be 
five or more methods of applying the motor on electric 
locomotives, and it may take some years to settle down 
to the best practice. 

Each system of electrification has its advocates; and 
elaborate estimates, covering costs for installation and 
maintenance, have been made, so that in a general way we 
are in possession of data giving the cost per mile for the 
various features in connection with the installation, cost of 
the current, attendance, maintenance, etc., which combined 
with the special features of each situation, will give an in- 
telligent view of the problem. My former paper stated the 
elements of the calculation, and I can only say in addition 
that we now have some data not generally available when 
that paper was written. 

An analysis of the steam railroad electrifications in this 
country develops the following facts: There is no complete 
electrification of any railroad or of any railroad terminal of 
any size comparable with any of the principal Chicago rail- 
ways; the principal electrifications are to facilitate or make 
possible tunnel operation on railroads when the length of 
tunnel or grades or both would render the operation of 
steam locomotives impossible on account of smoke and gases, 
and the question of concentration of power may also be a 
factor. 

The amount or length of lines electrified in most cases is 
so very short that it may be impressive to repeat some of 
them: 

Grand Trunk at Sarnia, 3.5 miles of line, 12 miles of single 
track. 

Michigan Central, at Detroit, about 4 miles of line, 19 
miles of single track. 

Great Northern at Cascade tunel, 4 miles of line, 6 miles 
of single track. 

B. & O., at Baltimore, 3.7 miles of line, 7.4 miles of single 
track. 

New York Central Railway at New York, 23 miles of 
line; 132 miles of single track. 

New Haven Railway at New York, 21 miles of line, 100 
miles of single track. 

Pennsylvania Railroad at New York, 20 miles of line, 75 
miles of single track. 

The first four cases are strictly tunnel propositions for the 
transfer of both passenger and freight trains with a limited 
amount of switching. The last three are strictly passenger 
and surban movement with practically no freight. 

There are some electrifications abroad, but they are main- 
ly for tunnel operation. A list in a paper compiled by Mr. 
George Westinghouse, dated July, 1910, gives 152 electric 
locomotives for roads in this country and 72 abroad, so that 
we are not behind the rest of the world in regard to num- 
ber, and our average horse power is considerably higher 
than abroad. We also excel in mileage of electrification, re- 
quiring electric locomotives. There is in this country and 
abroad a considerable mileage of lines using motor cars 
instead of locomotives. These will not be considered, as 
they are generally for passenger service with such a limited 
amount of freight as not to make them comparable. 

From the character of the newspaper side of the con- 
troversy and also from the reading of proposed ordinances 
considered to cover the Chicago situation, it will be noted 
that nothing short of complete and entire electrification of all 



steam railroad rails within the city limits is contemplated, so 
that steam locomotives will not be permitted for any class of 
service. 

According to figures compiled by Chief Smoke Inspector 
Bird during the summer of 1910, there was, in round figures. 
670 miles of main tracks within the city limits owned or 
controlled by 26 different railroad companies. There are in 
addition 1,512 miles of side tracks, or a total of nearly 2,200 
miles of single track which it is proposed to electrify in two 
years or less. I have purposely detailed the lengths of elec- 
trifications already accomplished elsewhere at most enor- 
mous costs, to bring into contrast the task proposed for Chi- 
cago railroads. The total mileage of single track of the 
seven electrifications listed is 351 miles. The total miles of 
line is 89.2, and on either basis the size of the Chicago job 
as compared with the totals of the seven is as over six to 
one. 

It may be urged that the mere size of the job is not an 
argument against electrification in Chicago and that it would 
be divided up among so many railroads that the proportion 
to each is the real problem rather than taking it in bulk. 
At the risk of repeating some of my former paper, would 
say that the connections and interchange between the vari- 
ous roads makes them almost as one and requires a co-opera- 
tion as to methods pursued, a similarity as to system, and 
many of the details to be employed, and the ability of the 
weaker as well as the stronger lines to assume the financial 
burden imposed. 

All of these factors for complete electrification can only 
be arrived at by the very proeess suggested in the Record- 
Herald editorial, and I am exceptionally fortunate in being 
able to report from information in the current technical press 
of a commendable example of such handling of a very similar 
problem in regard to the electrification of steam railway lines 
in the Boston district. 

The Massachusetts Joint Board on Metropolitan Improve- 
ments was appointed in 1910 to investigate proposed public 
improvements in the vicinity of Boston, this board being 
comprised of members from the Board of Harbor and Land 
Commissioners, the Metropolitan Park Commission, the 
Board of Railroad Commissioners, and the Boston Transit 
Commission. The joint board made a very exhaustive re- 
port of nearly 150 pages to the 'legislature on January 30th, 
including the question of electrification of the steam rail- 
roads in the Boston district. Passenger and suburban lines 
only were considered, freight and switching not being in- 
cluded, so that the consideration is not for complete elec- 
trification, as is the case in Chicago. 

The situation in Boston is quite similar to Chicago in hav- 
ing water on one side and radiating lines of railway from 
the center of the city, the total mileage of single track being 
589 miles, or 81 miles less than Chicago. No mention is 
given of the mileage of side tracks, which must be consid- 
erable, although probably less than in Chicago. 

The two railroad companies involved, viz., the Boston & 
Albany, controlled by the New York Central, and the New 
York, New Haven & Hartford, which also controls the Bos- 
ton & Maine, reported to the board their estimates as to the 
cost and other data, this being facilitated by the fact that 
these two interests electrified their New York terminals and 
thereby gained experience in the art. These estimates 
amounted to over $40,000,000 for the 589 miles of electrifica- 
tion and the equipment to be used thereon. 

Time forbids giving more than a brief summary of the 
conclusions of the board who made one majority and two 
minority reports. 

Nine members joined in the majority report and I quote 
a summary of their conclusions: 

(1) "The electrification of steam roads is a development 



126 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[April, 1911.] 



much to be desired. It would add to the comfort and con- 
venience of the public and would have advantages for the 
railroads as well." 

(This is, no doubt, true as a general proposition.) 

(2) "The best method of electrification is still unde- 
termined. The science is in a state of rapid change and 
standardization is much to be desired before extensive elec- 
trification is undertaken." 

(The statement is proven by my anaylsis of present elec- 
trifications, no two of which are identical. The two rail- 
roads involved proposed systems similar to what they had 
already in use in New York and which are absolutely dis- 
similar. If two railroads after some years of experience 
and observation thus disagree on fundamentals, it indicates 
something of the difficulty in arriving at a satisfactory solu- 
tion of the problem in Chicago with twenty-six railroads to 
line up to agreement.) 

(3) "So far as experience has yet shown, the electrifica- 
tion of the terminals of steam railroads under present condi- 
tions does result in economy, but, on the contrary, increased 
expense, aside from the interest on the first cost incurred." 

(No one knows more about this than the two railroad 
companies involved.) 

(4) "If a greatly increased traffic should result from 
electrification, this expense would be reduced and might 
ultimately be changed to a profit." 

(The increased traffic would necessarily come from sub- 
urban travel, the profitable features of which would be 
problematical on the lines now carrying that travel while 
many Chicago lines have none.) 

(5) "Electrification would probably result from some time 
in obliging the railroads to make charges to operating ex- 
penses due to property abandoned or replaced, in addition 
to interest on new capital and increased expense of opera- 
tion." 

(The reason for this is that the regulations of the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission requires a railroad to replace 
in kind any of its structures or equipment out of earnings.) 

(6) "Electrification would, therefore, in all probability re- 
quire an increase of passenger fares and perhaps of freight 
rates to produce the revenue required to pay for it." 

(This is already true in New York City as regards pas- 
senger and suburban rates and probably would be with re- 
gard to freight if that were involved.) 

(7) "Electrification, while desirable, is not necessary nor 
is it required on grounds of public safety. It is desirable 
mainly, if not entirely, on account of added convenience and 
comfort." 

(It will be noted that there is no reference made to elimi- 
nation of smoke, except inferentially with reference to con- 
venience and comfort. The principal feature of federal regu- 
lation of railroads aside from rates is for safety. A railroad, 
however, has to provide for the safety of the public whether 
on the cars or not, and the number of danger signs used 
on some of the electrifications is proof of the existence of an 
added element of danger to the public unless extra precautions 
are taken not necessary on steam lines. In my former paper 
attention was called to the fact that the electrifications now 
in use are almost entirely in protected rights of way, which 
is not possible in Chicago ith the hundreds of open crossings, 
team and industrial tracks, switching yards, etc., the elec- 
trification of which is bound to add material elements of 
danger to the public and the railway employes.) 

f8) "There are other expenditures which should be made 
by the railroads which are demanded by considerations of 
necessity to enable them to meet the demands of increasing 
traffic and which should have precedence of electrification. 
To compel electrification would postpone these more impor- 
tant improvements." 



(The amount of this is even greater in the West than in 
the East, due to age and development of transportation fa- 
cilities.) 

(9) "The railroads are already subject to much regula- 
tion by the state and the nation. To require them to expend 
large sums of money for electrification would make it diffi- 
cult if not impossible for them to raise the capital required 
to move the increasing traffic of the country and would thus 
hamper industrial development." 

(The arguments of the railways for increase of rates in- 
clude a large amount of information as to the cost of com- 
pliance with state and federal legislation on such a variety 
of matters that the situation is becoming intolerable.) 

(10) "As a result of the foregoing conclusions, the board 
believes that it is not wise nor in the public interest to en- 
act legislation compelling any electrification of railroads." 

(If the foregoing conclusions are fair, what other deduc- 
tion could be made?) 

(Conclusions 11 and 12 are local considerations regarding 
a tunnel between Boston stations, and- not apply to the 
Chicago situation.) 

(13) "The traffic to be handled in Boston is nearly three 
times that at the Grand Central Station in New York and, 
on account of the radiating traffic in Boston (as compared 
with the north and south traffic in New York) and the large 
number of lines in Boston (as compared with the single 
line with three branches in New York), the expense in Bos- 
ton is very much greater. There is not sufficient justifica- 
tion for requiring the railroads to spend this sum of money 
here." 

(It is believed that this is even more true as regards Chi- 
cago.) 

(14) "If electrification of steam roads, either for passen- 
ger or freight or both, is required by law, it should also be 
provided that the revenue may be increased so as to afford 
reasonable compensation to the roads for the expense in- 
volved and to make it possible to raise the necessary capital." 

(As railway rates are controlled by federal law, it is dif- 
ficult to provide for such an increase.) 

(15) "If the expense of electrification is forced upon the 
railroads by legislative enactment, a fair increase of rates 
and fares will be inevitable, and it should fairly be laid upon 
Boston business and might add to the disadvantages under 
which Boston now labors." 

(Assuming that the difficulties in the way of an increase 
of freight rates could be overcome, undoubtedly the busi- 
ness interests of Chicago would have to carrv a handicap 
as compared with those of other cities not enjoying the 
luxury of electrification of their railways.) 

(16) "The benefits of electrification in Boston will accrue 
mainly to the commuters and short-distance traffic and also 
in a very large degree to owners of property along the lines 
electrified. To . raise suburban fares simplv would place 
the burden where it mainly belongs, but where it is. least 
capable of being borne; and such action would in itself tend 
in some measure to discourage the development of subur- 
ban territory and to divert travel from the steam lines." 

(No doubt true also of Chicago.) 

(17) "Electricity is probably the coming form of trac- 
tion power; indeed, it is not improbable that at some time in 
the future all the trunk lines of the country which there is 
heavy traffic will be electrified. The problem, however, is 
not like that of providing safety appliances, such as air 
brakes, signals, standard couplers, or the abolition of the 
car stove and replacing it by steam heat from the locomo- 
tive. All of these matters were required from considerations 
of safety. The public demand for electrification, however, 
arises not from considerations of necessity or of safety, but 
from those of convenience. Considering that there are other 



[April, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



127 




Map of Chicago Showing Zone Considered in Plans for Railway Electrification. 




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Map of Boston Zone Considered In Plans for Electrification of Railways. 



128 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[April, 1911.] 



improvements which are necessary in order to meet the de- 
mands of increasing traffic, the joint board believes that an 
improvement resting on considerations of convenience should 
be allowed to work itself out without legislative enactment." 

(The first sentence is rather optimistic. The problem is 
fairly stated, however, in the remainder. of the conclusion and 
again there is no reference to smoke, although public neces- 
sity is referred to coupled with safety.) 

(Conclusion 18 is another reference to a local condition 
and looking to future development, a feature which should 
be kept in mind as regards Chicago.) 

(19) "It should be recognized that all improvements of 
this kind, whether they are the construction of tunnels or 
the electrification of lines, which afford greater facilities to 
the public and involve the expenditure of large sums on the 
part of the railroad companies, if not offset entirely by in- 
creased earnings or reduced expenses, should be accompanied 
by such increase of fare or rates as will enable the roads to 
maintain a fair rate of return upon their total investment. 
In all such improvements, the public is a partner in the un- 
dertakings. The principal benefit accrues to it with no risk. 
Its attitude should be such as to encourage the legitimate 
and econominal expenditure of capital and to compensate it 
fairly and even liberally for any risks involved. Under the 
laws of this state there is little danger of a misuse of capital 
expenditures." 

(The attitude of the public is here fairly stated.) 

The first minority report was signed by five members, and 
is quoted in full: 

"The undersigned dissent from so much of the report as 
relates to electrification and submit the following statement. 
Without undertaking to discuss in detail the statements and 
conclusions set forth in said report, it is enough to say that, 
taken together, they amount to a declaration that electrifica- 
tion is, for the present, impracticable. In our opinion, ex- 
perience elsewhere has demonstrated both the feasibility and 
the financial ability of railroad corporations to equip a por- 
tion of their lines with electricity, and we find no conditions 
in Boston or its vicinity which lead us to a different con- 
cluson. Indeed, the officers of the New York. New Haven 
& Hartford Railroad Company have stated to the Commis- 
sion on Commerce and Industry, and on several occasions 
to the public, their purpose, if allowed to control the Bos- 
ton & Maine system, which control is now effected, 'to 
equip both systems with electricity for a considerable dis- 
tance near Boston.' The further proposals of this manage- 
ment to electrify the Boston, Revere Beach & Lynn Railroad, 
if authority to acquire the same is granted by the general 
court, is additional evidence that electrification to some ex- 
tent is both feasible and within the financial ability of the 
companies. The studies submitted to the joint board by 
the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad Company 
for the electrification of certain portions of the Boston & 
Albany Railroad also indicate feasibility within a cost far 
from prohibitive. 

"We are convinced that the public wefare demands some 
legislation with respect to electrification. While we are not 
in favor of legislation compelling the electrification of all 
steam railroads of standard gauge in the Metropolitan Dis- 
trict before a date now to be fixed, we do not believe that 
leaving the matter in the hands of the several rairoad com- 
panies exclusively will result in as speedy action as will fol- 
low some legislative requirement plainly indicating the policy 
of the State. Experience plainly has shown that similar 
legislation as to automatic car couplers, fenders and vesti- 
bules for street cars, the prohibition of car stoves and the 
like has been found in the public interest and has accom- 
plished good results. , 

"We are of opinion that any legislation should secure to 
the railroad companies the greatest latitude with respect to 



lines first to be electrified, but that the time for commencing 
the actual work of construction for electrical operation 
should be fixed at a reasonable date by the General Court 
or some public agency designed by it, with authority to such 
agency to extend the time for good cause shown." 

It will be noted that although mandatory legislation is 
recommended it is for portions of the lines and not for com- 
plete nor entire electrification. 

The second minority report was signed by two members 
and reads as follows: 

"The undersigned dissent from so much of the report as 
relates to electrification, but are unable to join in the above 
statement of the views of the minority for the reason set 
forth below. We are unwilling to give our assent to all 
the arguments, inferences, and statements set forth in the 
majority report, and we believe that its whole tendency is 
unduly to discourage and postpone electrification, even by 
the voluntary action of the railroad companies. In our 
opinion, continued study of the subject under legislative au- 
thority and reports to some public authority setting forth 
progress made will tend to advance electrification and 
to promote agreement upon and adoption of that system of 
electrical operation best adapted for general use and for 
facilitating interchange of traffic between different systems. 
We, therefore, believe that legislation should be enacted di- 
recting some public board to prosceute further investigations 
and make report to the Legislature and requiring the rail- 
road companies, under the supervision of such board, to 
make further studies with plans and estimates not confined 
within the arbitrary limits of the metropolitan district and 
including freight as well as passenger traffic. We think that 
it should be left to such board to recommend compulsory 
legislation if and when it is found to be called for. 

"We are not, however, convinced of the advisability at the 
present time of any legislation requiring electrification. The 
fixing of the time within which the work of construction for 
electrical operation must be begun by all railroads within 
the Metropolitan District, even though some public authority 
is, given the power of extending such time for good cause 
shown, seems to us to be compulsory legislation, the wisdom 
and necessity of which are yet to be demonstrated. How- 
ever strong the desire of the public may be that all railroads 
within the Metropolitan District should be electrified, we 
doubt whether the problem has yet reached the stage where 
any form of compulsory legislation is warranted by the 
facts shown or will really expedite an intelligent and com- 
prehensive settlement of the question. We also believe that 
the effect of the great expense of electrification in justifying 
or requiring an increase in rates or fare within the Metro- 
politan District should be more fully considered before any 
form of compulsory legislation is recommended." 

If the minority is generally more nearly in the right, as 
has been said, then the minority of the minority has the 
best view of the situation, and I leave that point for your 
judgment. 

If the Chicago situation were to be reviewed by a com- 
mission of proper talent, engineering knowledge, financial 
ability, and a modicum of horse sense, I am persuaded that 
a very illuminating report might be produced. It might not 
be fully in accord with the ideas of some of the ladies, but 
they do not as a rule pay the bills. 

Following, I quote some portions of the reports of the 
roads in connection with their estimates. V. P. Wilgus of 
the New Haven says, 

"The problem in its general nature is altogether different 
from the conditions at New York, as in the latter case the 
entire traffic of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Rail- 
road and the New York Central Railroad comnanies within 
the city limits is concentrated upon a single four-track route 



[April, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



129 



between the Grand Central Terminal and Woodlawn, while, 
on the contrary, at Boston the suburban business is diffused 
over a great area requiring the equipment for electric opera- 
tion of not less than 20 through routes and branches, with 
a corresponding effect upon first cost and operating charges. 

"Notwithstanding the more favorable conditions at New 
York incident to the greater density of traffic and the simp- 
ler track system in the region served by the New Haven and 
New York Central Railroads, the records of the New Haven 
Company demonstrate that under present conditions the 
electric train service not only fails to earn any interest upon 
the very large amount of capital invested, but that it has 
also increased the cost of operation, and with the less favor- 
able conditions in the vicinity of Boston it is impossible to 
escape the conclusion that the deficit in fixed charges and 
operating expenses will be still greater." 

He goes on to prove that more economical operation can 
be obtained by combining freight and passenger movement, 
but says in this connection: 

"The extension of the estimates to include the much larger 
expenditures required to cover the inclusion of freight serv- 
ice and yard switching, together with the probable enlarge- 
ment of the limits of the electric zone, is not possible at 
this time, as the data for such estimates are not at present 
available, but it is certain that the revised and completed 
totals will be of the most imposing magnitude. 

"In general it \\Duld seem altogether more practical at first 
to restrict the substitution of electricity for steam to a few 
of the more important routes, subsequently extending the 
system as rapidly as consistent with the financial conditions 
and the public needs." 

Vice President A. H. Smith of the Boston & Albany ac- 
companies his report with the following: 

"The Gross revenue derived by the Boston & Albany 
Railroad in the district under consideration for electrifica- 
tion, including return tickets, single trip tickets, mileage 
proportion for traffic entering and leaving Boston for points 
west of South Framingham, is approximately $1,300,000. 

"The visible operating expense of affording this service 
under steam operation at the present time, without any in- 
terest whatever upon the large investment for right-of-way, 
tracks and structures, is slightly in excess of the gross re- 
ceipts. 

"If to this present deficit there be added the above addi- 
tional annual expense as result of electrification, namely 
$539,191, the net revenue above operating expenses which 
accrues to the Boston & Albany Railroad as a whole from 
the business handled in and out of the Citv of Boston be- 
tween all points on the road will be practicallv absorbed, 
thus leaving no net revenue from such service to meet exist- 
ing obligations or those which would be created bv this new 
investment. 

"The solvency of a transportation company is of par- 
amount importance to the public as well as to the railroad. 
Insolvency necessarily means inefficient service, and inef- 
ficient service means inconvenience and commercial and in- 
dustrial calamity to the public. 

"It would, therefore, seem imperative that any act pro- 
viding for the electrification of steam railroads under such 
circumstances, empowering the proper board or boards to 
determine the manner in which such work should be pros- 
ecuted, should also empower the board or other properly 
constituted authorities to permit the railroad companies to 
assess all passengers and traffic using the facilities with a 
terminal charge sufficient to bear the financial burdens im- 
posed, with some addition profit to the operating- company 
for performing the service and assuming the additional re- 
sponsibilities and liabilities necessarily introduced. This 
would seem more consistent and equitable than to impose 



it upon other cities, villages or rural communities in local 
fares or other forms of transportation which receive no 
real estate or other benefits from the new form of transporta- 
tion employed. 

"The Boston & Albany Railroad has no material source 
of income except the receipts from transportation afforded 
the public. If the public elects through legislative 1 mandate 
to have that service provided through the use of more costly 
appliances and methods than formerly, the conclusion is in- 
evitable that the public must ultimately pav the cost and 
should therefore have full information on the subject in 
advance. The case is analogous to the elimination of grade 
crossings, where the public participates in the immediate 
costs and assumes in transportation expenses the carrying 
charges on the remainder." 

There has been some criticisms of the railway company 
estimates of the costs at Boston: 

One is the expenditures for power houses and that current 
could be purchased and reduce the capital account by sev- 
eral millions expense for power houses and their equipment. 
It is apparently overlooked that some service must supply 
the capital which will produce current and the cost to the 
user would include charges for the use of that caoital. so that 
there would be no ultimate saving and the railroad company 
would not have the same degree of assurance or control of 
the facilities as if they had their own. This includes arrange- 
ment for duplicate machinery to use in case of accident or 
failure, also to be able to take advantage of latest develop- 
ments or improvements in machinery or processes. 

On the other hand, local conditions might offer facilities 
that should receive consideration. One could hardly justify 
twenty odd power houses for the railway systems of Chi- 
cago in case they were to electrify. 

Another point was the number of cars and locomotives in- 
cluded in the estimate to replace steam equipment. The 
railroads at interest no doubt would have better informa- 
tion as to their probable requirements than outsiders who 
in the very nature of things could not have the same experi- 
ence. 

Another point was the doubtful value of steam equipment 
released. I quote from the railway company report on this 
point: 

"The electrification of the Boston suburban district would 
release a large number of steam engines and passenger 
coaches, which should properly be credited to the construc- 
tion estimate, but, as there is no apparent opportunity for 
the utilization of so large an amount of equipment of this 
special type, and as its value for resale would be so doubt- 
ful, it is not practicable to assign values to this item." 

The popular mind has been led to believe that there are 
large economies in electrification of railroads and savings 
can be made in fuel and locomotive maintenance. A recent 
paper by Mr. F. Darlington, chief engineer of the railway 
department of the Westinghouse Electric <x Mfg. Co., read 
to the Canadian Railway Club analyses the generation and 
distribution of electric power in a most enlightening way. 

His argument in brief is that in most cases the load factor 
is too low. He defines load factor to be the ratio between 
the average load and the maximum or peak load. The load 
factor of the principal plant- generatig railroad power is 
between 20 and 35 per cent. or. in other words, their aver- 
age work is about one-quarter of the total capacity, and. 
as the fixed charges are necessarily based on the complete 
plant and maximum output, it places a heavy burden on the 
actual production. 

He also calls attention to the size of the plant as influenc- 
ing the cost of production per unit. For instance, the cost 
of operating labor of a 000 kilowatt plant runs about .75c 
per kilowatt hour, while in a (3.000 kilowatt plant it falls to 



130 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[April, 1911.] 



30c. If the output is again multiplied ten times and with 
a good load factor, the cost will drop to about .075c per 
kilowatt hour. 

The same is true of fuel, the big plants giving an economy 
of 1 to 2 or even 1 to 3, as compared with small ones. His 
conclusion is that, unless railroad electrical power can be gen- 
erated in very large plants and with a good load factor, the 
results will not be economical. He suggests a combination 
service, doing other work as can be arranged for at times 
when railroad power demands do not call for all the capac- 
ity in order to better the load factor. He also calls attention 
to the short runs in all cases thus far of railroad electrifica- 
tion, which not only cuts down the load factor, but makes 
a disproportionately expensive system for a few miles as 
compared with what the cost would be if the steam locomo- 
tive were allowed to finish the run. The following paragraph 
from Mr. Darlington's paper very well expresses the situa- 
tion: 

"Much valuable practical experience in the cost of heavy 
trunk line operation by electric power has been gained from 
American railroads, but it is manifestly unreasonable to ex- 
pect them to show economy of operation and pay fixed 
charges on the investment. Take, for example, the New 
York terminals of the N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R., or the 
N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R., and suppose that, instead of elec- 
trification of their terminals, an improved steam locomo- 
tive, which was smokeless and more economical than the 
main line locomotives, have been used within the limits of 
the present electrified zone. Under such circumstances, even 
if the improved locomotives had been better than the out- 
side main line locomotives, had been used within the limits 
•of the present electrified zone, the cost of providing new 
locomotives and changing the motive power on all trains 
entering the zone would have been a heavy additional ex- 
pense sufficient to more than offset a large superiority in 
the terminal locomotives. The failure of electrifica- 
tion to show a profit under such conditions is not 
an indication of poor economy of electrical operation, 
but is due to very unfavorable and costly operating con- 
ditions for any kind of motive power. It is well known 
that some conditions are much more favorable to electric 
traction, in comparison with steam operation, than others, 
but none of the practical applications to trunk line operation 
in America have been such as to realize the conditions that 
are most favorable for superior economy by electric power. 
It is fairly established by practice that operation of heavy 
trains by electric power saves large sums in locomotive re- 
pairs and approximately one-half of the fuel as compared 
with steam locomotive operation. Fuel saving by electric 
operation is only realized to the best advantage where elec- 
tric power for .railroads is put out from generating stations 
working at good load factors; and, as already explained, 
this is only realized to the fullest extent from a diversity of 
service and large generating stations." 

This expression from one who is so close to the situa- 
tion, particularly from that of the builder of electrical equip- 
ment is deserving of fullest consideration. 

In conclusion I would say that the events of the past six- 
teen months, since my former paper was written, confirm 
rather than qualify the conclusions which were there stated. 
That paper was admirably supported by a very considerable 
discussion, and I trust that the additional information here 
presented may be of value and interest. 



MACHINE EQUIPMENT IN HUNTINGTON SHOPS, 
CHESAPEAKE & OHIO RY. 

It was intended to publish the following list of machine 
equipment in connection with the description of the shops 
of the Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. at Huntington, W. Va , which 



appeared in the March edition of the Railway Master Me- 
chanic. Owing to lack of space, however, it was omitted. 
We are indebted to Mr. J. F. Walsh, general superintendent 
of motive power, for the data. — Editor. 

Machine Shop. 

1 single axle lathe, Niles Tool Works, Hamilton, O. 

1 54 in. x 14-ft. planer, Betts Machine Co , Wilmington, Del. 

2 2x24-in. turret lathes, Jones & Lamson Mach. Co., Spring- 

field, Vt. 

1 8-ft. vertical boring mill, Betts Machine Co., Wilmington, 
Del. 

1 6-ft. Universal radial drill, Niles Tool Works, Hamilton, 
Ohio. 

1 15-in. slotter, Niles-Bement-Pond Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

1 Universal milling machine, No. 3 LeBlond, Universal Mill- 
ing Machine Co , Cincinnati, O. 

1 30xl2-in. engine lathe, Lodge & Shipley Co., Cincinnati, O. 

2 sensitive drill presses, Hill, Clark & Co. (Inc.) Machine 

Tool Co., Boston, Mass. 

1 Universal grinder, No. 3, Landis Universal Grinding Ma- 
chine Co., Waynesburg, Pa. 

1 24-in. shaper, American Tool Works Co , Cincinnati, O. 

1 guide grinder, Springfield Manufacturing Co., Bridgeport, 
Conn. 

1 18 in. x 6-ft. brass lathe, Schumacher-Boyce & Ennis, Cin- 
cinnati, O. 

1 centering machine, D. E. Whitten Machine Co., New Lon- 
don, Conn. 

1 link grinder, H. G Hammett Machine Co., Troy, N. Y. 

1 44 in. x 14-ft. planer, Niles-Bement-Pond Works, Plain- 

field, N. J. 

2 24 in. x 12 in. engine lathes, Lodge & Shipley Machine Co., 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 

2 18 in. x 12 in. engine lathes, Lodge & Shipley Machine Co., 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

1 V/% in. triple bolt cutter, Detrick & Harvey Company, Balti- 
more, Md. 

1 piston rod grinder, Landis Machine Co., Waynesburg, Pa. 

1 18 in. tool room lathe, Lodge & Shipley Machine Tool Co., 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

1 42 in. vertical boring mill, Bullard Machine Tool Co., Bridge- 
port, Conn. 

1 oil separator, American Tool & Mch. Co., Boston, Mass. 

2 portable cranes, Franklin Railway Supply Co., Franklin, Pa. 
1 35 h. p. motor, General Electric Co. 

Blacksmith Shop (Locomotive). 

1 double punch and shear, Covington Machine Co., Covington, 
Virginia. 

1 No. 11 Sturtevant blower, Buffalo Forge Company, Buffalo, 
N. Y. 

1 No. X 1 in. triple bolt cutter, Detrick & Harvey, Baltimore, 
Md. 

1 2 in. double bolt cutter, Detrick & Harvey, Baltimore, Md. 

1 1 in. heading and forging machine, Acme Mfg. Co., Cleve- 
land, O 

1 V/ 2 in. heading and forging machine, Acme Mfg. Co., Cleve- 
land, O. 

1 4 in. heading and forging machine, Acme Mfg. Co., Cleve- 
land, O. 

1 5,000-lb. double frame steam hammer, Niles, Bement Pond 
Co., Philadelphia, Pa. / 

1 2,000-lb. single frame steam hammer, Niles, Bement Pond 

Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
1 1,100-lb. single frame steam hammer, Niles, Bement Pond 

Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

1 1,600-lb. open frame steam hammer, Niles, Bement Pond Co., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

3 jib cranes, Yale & Towne Mfg. Co., Stanford, Conn. 



[April, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



131 



1 No. 1 Ferguson furnace, Railway Materials Sup. Co., Chi- 

cago, 111. 

2 No. 3 Ferguson furnace, Railway Materials Sup. Co., Chi- 

cago, 111. 
1 No. 4 Ferguson furnace, Railway Materials Sup. Co., Chi- 
cago, 111. 

1 No. 5 Ferguson furnace, Railway Materials Sup. Co., Chi- 

cago, 111. 

2 2 ft. 10 in. x 4 ft. 4 in. Ferguson furnace, Railway Materials 

Sup. Co., Chicago, 111. 

1 case hardening furnace, Railway Materials Sup. Co., Chi- 

cago, 111. 
12 forges with air ducts, Richmond Loco. Works, Richmond, 
Virginia. 

2 cast iron forges, Richmond Loco. Works, Richmond, Va. 

1 5 ft. x 8 ft. Ferguson furnace, Railway Materials- Sup. Co., 
Chicago, 111. 
12 anvils. 

Brass Foundry. 

1 Berkshire molding machine, flask and pattern plates, Berk- 
shire Mfg. Co., Cleveland, O. 

1 No. 3 Rockwell furnace, Rockwell Furnace Co., Jersey City, 
N. J. 

1 open ladle heater, Rockwell Furnace Co., Jersey City, N. J. 

1 26 x 48 tumbling barrel, (maker unknown). 

1 wire cutter, F. B. Shuster Co., New Haven, Conn. 

1 Dings magnetic separator, E. W. Bliss Co. 

Boiler Shop. 

1 portable pneumatic riveter, Fairbanks Company, New York. 

2 60 in. throat punch and shear, Cleveland Punch & Shear Wks,. 

Cleveland, O. 

1 comb, punch and riveter, Fairbanks Company, New York. 

1 rotary bevel shear, Lenox No. 3, Jos. T. Ryerson Co., Chi- 
cago. 

1 walking gib crane, Whiting Fdy. & Mch. Company, Chicago. 

1 6 spindle flue sheet drill, Foote Burt Co., Cleveland, O. 

1 Lassiter staybolt cutter, Modern Tool Co., Erie, Paa. 

1 Lassiter staybolt drill, Modern Tool Co., Erie, Pa. 

1 Lowe staybolt breaker, William White & Co., Moline, 111. 

1 horizontal flange punch, Long & Alstatter, Hamilton, O. 

1 die grinder, Modern Tool Co., Erie, Pa. 

1 Ferguson furnace, Railway Materials Company, Chicago. 

1 hydraulic flange press, R. D. Wood Company, Philadelphia. 

1 accumulator and pump, R. D. Wood Company, Philadelphia. 

Tin Shop. 

1 Cornish brake, The Peck, Stow & Wilcox Co., Cleveland, O. 

1 rotary shear, The Peck, Stow & Wilcox Co., Cleveland, O. 

1 circular shear, Niagara Machine & Tool Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

1 grooving machine, Niagara Machine & Tool Co., Buffalo, 

N. Y. 

2 hollow mangrel stakes, Niagara Machine & Tool Co., Buffalo, 

N. Y. 

Planing Mill. 

1 large vertical cut-off saw and gainer, No. 8, J. A. Fay & 

Egan Co., Cincinnati, O. 
1 No. 3 self-feeding large rip saw, J. A. Fay & Egan Co., 

Cincinnati, O. 

Pipe Shop. 
1 new Armstrong pipe machine, power driven, Manning-Max- 
well & Moore, New York. 
1 triple valve test rack, Westinghouse Air Brake Co., Wilmer- 
ding, Pa. 

Blacksmith Shop (Freight Car). 

1 16 h. p. steam hammer, Niles-Bement Pond Co., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

1 No. 6 bending and forging machine, Long & Alstatter Co., 

Hamilton, O. 
1 1 in. rivet and forging machine, Acme Mch. Co., Cleveland, O. 



1 No. 9 Williams & White bulldozer, Williams & White, Mo- 
line, 111. 

1 double bulldozer Ferguson furnace, Railway Materials Co., 

Chicago, 111. 
1 No. 3 forging Ferguson furnace, Railway Materials Co., 

Chicago, 111. 
1 single bulldozer Ferguson furnace, Railway Materials Co., 

Chicago, 111. 
1 steel car Ferguson furnace, Railway Materials Co., Chicago, 

111. 
1 No. 1 Ferguson furnace, Railway Materials Co., Chicago, 111. 
1 No. 7 Sturtevant blower, Acme Machine Co., Cleveland, O. 
1 Buffalo cupola blower, Buffalo Forge Company, Buffalo, N. Y. 
1 eye bolt machine. 



MIKADO TYPE LOCOMOTIVE, CHICAGO, BURLING- 
TON & QUINCY RAILROAD. 

The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. has recently 
received from the Baldwin Locomotive Works fifty Mikado 
type locomotives, which are among the heaviest eight- 
coupled engines thus far constructed. Full advantage has 
been taken, in this design, of the opportunity to secure 
increased boiler capacity by using a wide and deep firebox, 
which is placed back of the driving wheels. This arrange- 
ment requires the use of a long boiler barrel, and the tubes 
have a length of 21 feet over the tube-sheets. The design 
thus bears the same relation to the Consolidation type, that 
the Prairie type does to the Mogul; that is, the boiler power 
is increased in proportion to the tractive force developed. 
As, other things being equal, the boiler power limits the 
speed at which a given tractive' force can be maintained, 
the superiority of the Mikado type .for service where speed 
is an important factor, is clearly 'indicated. This wheel 
arrangement can also be used to advantage where the quality 
of fuel burned requires a deeper furnace than can conve- 
niently be placed above the driving wheels of a Consolida- 



tion engine. 



'X'.-' 

I 



The locomotives now under notice have driving wheels 
64 inches in diameter, this being the •'largest sized wheel 
thus far applied by the builders to an eight-coupled engine. 
The rigid wheel-base is 16 feet 9 inches, and the total wheel- 
base 33 feet 9^ inches. The trucks have sufficient swing 
to enable the locomotive to traverse 20-degree curves. 
Superheated steam is used at moderate pressure, and the 
tractive force exerted is 49,300 pounds. With 205,600 pounds 
on the driving wheels, the ratio of adhesion is thus 4.17. 

The boiler is designed for a pressure of 200 pounds, but 
in service the safety-valves are set at 170 pounds. The 
barrel is composed of three rings, the first of which is 
tapered. The diameter at the front end is 78 inches, and 
at the third ring 85 inches. The longitudinal seams have 
"diamond" welt strips. In accordance with the railroad 
company's practice, the side water legs of the firebox taper 
in width from 6 inches at the front to 4 inches at the back. 
The throat is sloped; the back head is vertical to a point 
immediately over the fire-door opening, above which it is 
inclined forward. A brick arch is used, and it is supported 
on angle irons which are studded to the side sheet-. 

The superheater is of the Emerson fire-tube type, and 
provides 845 square feet o\ superheating surface. The super- 
heater pipes are lH inches in diameter, and they are placed 
in 24 5^-inch tubes. An equalizing pipe cross-connects the 
live steam passages in the cylinder saddle. 

The steam distribution is controlled by 14-inch piston 
valves. The valve heads are separate from the body; the 
packing rings are L-shaped. and are carried on bull rings. 
Each valve stem is secured to a long cross-head, which 
slides in a bracket bolted to the upper guide-bar. The 



132 RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC [April, 1911.] 

Walschaerts valve gear is used, and the combining levers Details of dimensions, weights, etc., are given in the fol- 

are pinned directly to the above-mentioned cross-heads. lowing tables: 

The cylinders are provided with vacuum relief valves, Gauge 4 ft. S l / 2 in. 

which are tapped into the live steam passages. The by-pass Cylinders 27 in. x 30 in. 

valves are of the flat plate type, and arep laced above the Valves Balanced piston 

steam chests. Boiler. 

The equalization system in this locomotive is divided be- Type Wagon top 

tween the second and third pairs of driving wheels. The Material Steel 

front truck has a cast steel frame and bolster, with three- Diameter 78 in. 

point suspension links of the same material, while the Thickness of sheets Y A in. and 13-16 in. 

rear truck is of the Hodges type with outside journals. The Working Pressure 170 lbs. 

spring saddles and equalizing beams are of cast steel. F ue i Soft coal 

In accordance with the regular practice of the builders, Staying Radial 

the frames have double front rails and separate rear sec- Fire Box. 

tions. The main frames are of cast steel, and measure 5 Material Steel 

inches in width. They are braced transversely by the guide Length 108^ in. 

yoke; by the steam valve-motion bearer, back of the second Width 72 J4 in. 

pair of drivers.; by a broad steel casting between the main Depth, front 84 in. 

and rear drivers; and by the furnace bearer crosstie, also Depth, back 73 in. 

of cast steel, which spans the frames at the point where the Thickness of sheets, sides. . , ^i in. 

main and rear sections are spliced. At this same point, Thickness of sheets, back ^ in. 

the frames are supported by the back equalizing-beam ful- Thickness of sheets, crown % in. 

crums. The lower frame rails are braced transversely be- Thickness of sheets, tube T / 2 in. 

tween each adjacent pair of driving axles. Further bracing Water Space. 

is provided by cast steel deck plates front and back. Front , 6 in. 

1 *^v"' 




... i II.IWI— i „ ,. , _ ,,,,, , ..,■, ,„ i || , i)munm!mmi , K „, -,-, upiyj , ^,.. . ,.. „ - '-aag a- "" •'■ ■"■ •««•*>*** 

II II. pii h i 

Baldwin Mikado Type Locomotive, C, B. & Q, R. R. 

The driving wheel centers and boxes are of cast steel, Sides v 6 to 4 in. 

and the' boxes work in bronze shoes and wedges. The wheel Back 4 in. 

centers have bronze hub-liners. The driving tires are 4 Tubes. 

inches thick and are all flanged. The cross-heads have Diameter i> T / 2 and 2J4 hi. 

cast steel bodies and cast iron gibs, with babbited wearing Material Iron 

surfaces; while the guides are of hammered steel, supported Thickness o]/ 2 in., No. 8 W. G. 

by cast steel bearers. Thickness 2% hi., No. 11 W. G. 

Castle nuts are used on all the moving parts of this loco- Number 5]/ 2 in., 24; 2% in., 221 

motive, also on the guides, engine truck equalizers and Length 21 ft. in. 

spring hangers, pedestal binders, and tender trucks. Heating Surface. 

The tender frame is composed of 12-inch channels, with Firebox 215 sq. ft. 

front bumper of oak and back bumper of steel, built up. Tubes 3,444 sq. ft. 

The trucks are of the arch-bar type, with cast iron wheels Total 3,659 sq. ft. 

having reinforced flanges. The sloping floor of the fuel Grate Area 54.2 sq. ft. 

space is hinged at the bottom, and can be raised by a steam Driving Wheels. 

cylinder, thus pushing the coal forward to the fireman. A Diameter outside 64 in. 

system of piping is installed by which the air-pump exhaust Diameter center 56 in. 

can be discharged into the tank, in order to heat the feed- Journals, main 11x12 in. 

wa ter. Journals, others 10x12 in. 

These engines are the first of their type constructed by Engine Truck Wheels. 

the builders for this road, and in weight and capacity exceed Diameter, front 3734 hi. 

any single-expansion locomotives heretofore placed on the Journals 6x10 in. 

system. The design follows Burlington practice closely, and Diameter, back 42J4 in. 

detail parts interchangeable with those on existing engines Journals 8x14 in. 

have, where practicable, been applied to the new locomo- Wheel Base. 

tives. Driving 16 ft. 9 in. 



[April, 1911.] RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 133 

Rigid 16 ft. 9 in. figures 1 to 0, representing the tare weight digits, and. 

Total engine 33 ft. 9 l / 2 in. just above, 1 to 12, representing the number of the cur- 
Total engine and tender 65 ft. 11^4 in. rent month and year; KC, LA, SF, etc., representing the 

Weight. station abbreviation or symbol, and having printed there- 

On driving wheels 205,600 lbs. on in smaller type the full name of the weighing station 

On truck, front 29,000 lbs. and also the* means of showing whether the car was wet 

On truck, back 35,000 lbs. or dry when light weighed. 

Total engine 269,600 lbs. The cards, made of treated fiber board, are light, and, 

Total engine and tender, about . .430,000 lbs. in the limited space of 12^xl2j4xl2^ inches in the 

Tender. weigher's working outfit, there are a sufficient number of 

Wheels, number 8 these cards to equip more than five hundred cars with 

Wheels, diameter 33 in. their corrected tare weight marks, at a cost averaging 

Journals 5>4xl0 in. about one cent to the car. Metal signs may be substituted 

Tank capacity 8,200 lbs. later on, but it is confidently believed that the treated 

Fuel capacity 13 tons board cards will prove sufficiently lasting. Four styles 

Service Freight of cards are being experimented with, namely: Cards not 

Engine equipped with superheater. treated; cards dipped in shellac or varnish; cards paraf- 

Superheating surface, 845 square feet. fined; cards made of metal. The intention is to use as stand- 

ard the cheapest quality that is sufficiently lasting. 

CAR STENCILING. The weighing station may guard against temporary 

A method of stenciling freight car tare weights which shortage of printed cards by substituting cards as shown 

seems to be the means for a considerable saving has been at the left of the larger illustration, on which the weigher 

devised by F. C. Maegly, assistant general freight agent writes the new tare weight, station symbol and date, in 

of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. The system the spaces provided therefor, using waterproof carbon pencil, 

has been placed in service on the Santa Fe where it oper- On a large proportion of Santa Fe System freight cars 

ates with success. the rack shown in the smaller illustration may be applied 




Weighers Outfit for Stenciling Freight Cars. 



Tare Weight Indicator as Applied to Car. 



The tare weight indicator does away with paint and 
stencils, relieves the mechanical department of an irregu- 
lar, inconvenient and expensive service and enables the au- 
thorized weigher himself to correct the tare weight on 
cars before they leave the scale or while in the immediate 
vicinity of the scale. It avoids all the switching between 
the scale and the paint track, also all delays to equip- 
ment incident to the painting cut of the old tare weight 
marks and the restenciling of the new ones. The inven- 
tion is very simple and inexpensive, as evidenced by the 
accompanying illustrations. 

One of the illustrations shows a metal rack nailed, riveted 
or bolted on each side of the car and having openings or 
windows through which the tare weight cards show. 

The other illustration shows, at the extreme right, an 
interchangeable metal filler or cardholder, fitting in and 
secured to the rack by means of a car seal. In the center 
is seen a supply of cards having printed thereon the 



directly over and hiding the first three figures of the old 
stenciled weight, thus avoiding the necessity of painting 
out the old tare weight mark.-. But on a limited number 
of the cars other locations are preferable, either for the 
convenience of the weigher or for drainage, in which event 
the old tare weight marks must be painted out at the time 
the rack is applied. For this purpose some of the racks 

built have wider vertical flanges with the "Wt 00" 

stenciled thereon. On these the entire space aero-- the 
bottom is left open to provide for the most complete 
drainage. 

The weigher may change the marked tarc< while the 
cars are on the scale, or lie may wait until lie finishes weigh- 
ing all the empties in the drag, immediately thereafter set- 
ting up the corrected tares and making substitution thereof 
for the old tares. The latter plan is recommended where 
drags of from ten to twenty cars are light weighed at a 
time and the switching crew has other pressing work to 



134 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[April, 1911.] 



do. The switching crew would thus have at its disposal, 
say, ten minutes on a ten-car drag, which it could utilize 
in attending to other work while the weigher was occupied 
correcting the tares on the cars just weighed. By either 
method the entire service of weighing and correcting the 
tares and releasing the cars is accomplished at the rate 
of one car every two minutes. 

To expedite matters the weigher keeps at the scale or 
any other convenient place a supply of exchange fillers. In 



2000h 3 =4000h 2 . 



Then h ! =Mm or h= VMm + J4". 



4000 



4000 

For levers j4" thick: 
these he sets up the known factors of the forthcoming PL = Mm = SI = 24000bh 3 =2000bh 3 = 

tare, namely, station symbol, date, year and the first tare 

weight figure, so that, on the arrival of the switching crew, e l 2e e 

the car is weighed and only two remaining digits have 2000h 3 3=6000h 3 =6000h 3 =3000h 2 

to be put in place in each filler, over the extra carbon 

leaf of the original scale ticket. 4e n X4 



2h 



CALCULATING FOUNDATION BRAKE DETAILS. 

By Edwin G. Chenoweth. 

Mechanical Engineer, Erie Railroad. 

In calculating the stresses in brake levers, brake rods and 
pins, the writer has found it very helpful to have a table 
which will give the width of beams, the thickness being 
assumed, when the pull on rods at either end of lever is 
known and the distance from the end holes in lever to the 
middle hole or to a hole located anywhere between the two, 
is known and a table from which the diameter of brake rod 
and pin can be taken when pull on rod is known. Three 
thicknesses of lever, 94", 1" and V/\" will cover all practical 
conditions. 

The width of the brake lever in which the maximum fibre 
stress does not exceed 23,000 pounds per square inch, is 
readily taken from the following tables without the long 
and tedious calculation' when the moment of inertia must be 
calculated and allowance made for middle pin hole at which 
point the maximum stress always comes. The stress per 
square inch in outer fibre referred to above is the recom- 
mended figure and adopted by the Master Car Builders' 
Association. The table gives the width of beams so that 
stress in outer fibre will vary only between 20,000 to 23,000 
pounds. 

The formula for all brake beam widths is: 

N = VMm + ^". 



derived as follows: 

Let Mm = Maximum moment, or the product of the pull on 
brake rod in pounds, by the distance in inches from 
center of brake pin to the center of fulcrum pin. 

S = Stress per square inch in outer fiber. 

I =Moment of inertia=bh 3 



12 



e^Maximum distance from center of gravity of section to 
h 

outer fiber, or — 
2 
N = Width of lever. 
b = Thickness of lever. 

d = Diameter of pin hole. Not to exceed l]/ 2 ". 
C= Constant which equals: 

3000 for levers %" thick.' 

4000 for levers 1" thick. 

5000 for levers 1%" thick. 
P=Pull of either brake rod attached to end of lever. 
L = Lever arm, or distance from center of pin hole at end 

of lever to center of fulcrum pin hole. 
It was found by trial that, if 24,000 lbs. was substituted 
for S and add *4" to the derived formula, it would reduce 
S to less than 23,000; also compensate for 1%" diameter of 
pinhole. Then for lever 1" thick: 
PL= Mm= SI = 24000bh 3 = 2000bh 8 = 



12e 



Then lr=Mm or h= VMm + %". 



3000 3000 

For levers 1%" thick: 
PL=Mm = SI = 24000bh 3 =2000bh 3 : 



e 12e e 

2000h 3 5=10000h 3 =10000h 3 = 



4e 



4e 4Xh 



10000h 3 =5000h 2 . 



2h 
Then h 2 =Mm or h= VMrn-r-^". 



5000 5000 

Figure No. 1 shows brake lever en which is shown the 
symbols as referred to above. 




Fig. 1. 

TABLE A— For Brake Levers 3-4 Inch Thick 

Table Giving Width (h) of Brake Lev ens % Inch Thick Corres- 
ponding to -the Maximum Moment, Mm. Allowance Made 
for Pin Hole 1*4" Diameter.. Stress in Outer Fiber 
from 20,000 to 23,000 Pounds" per Square Inch. 



Mm 


h 


Mm 


h 


Mm 


h 


Mm 


h 


6000 


1%" 


48000 


4V 4 " 


114000 


63/ 8 " 


234000 


9Vfe" 


7500 


1%" 


51000 


43/ 8 " 


117000 


6V2" 


240000 


91/4" 


9000 


2 " 


54000 


4V 2 " 


120000 


6%" 


246000 


9V 4 " 


10500 


2%" 


57000 


4%" 


123000 


63/ 4 " 


252000 


93/ 8 " 


12000 


2y 4 " 


60000 


43/4" 


126000 


63/ 4 " 


258000 


9V4" 


13500 


23/ 8 " 


63000 


4%" 


132000 


6%" 


264000 


9%" 


15000 


21/2" 


66000 


4%" 


138000 


7 " 


270000 


93/4" 


16500 


2%" 


69000 


5 " 


144000 


TVs" 


276000 


9%" 


18000 


23/ 4 " 


72000 


5V 8 " 


150000 


71/4" 


282000 


10 " 


19500 


23/ 4 " 


75000 


51/4" 


156000 


71/2" 


288000 


10W 


21000 


2%" 


78000 


53/ 8 " 


162000 


7%" 


294000 


101/4" 


22500 


3 " 


81000 


53/ 8 " 


168000 


73/4" 


300000 


101/4" 


24000 


3V«" 


84000 


5i/ 2 " 


174000 


7%" 






25500 


3>/ 8 " 


87000 


5%" 


180000 


8 " 






27000 


31/4" 


90000 


53/4" 


186000 


8V 8 " 






28500 


31/ 2 " 


93000 


5 7 /s" 


192000 


8V 4 " 




* 


30000 


314" 


96000 


5%" 


198000 


8%" 






33000 


3%". 


99000 


6 " 


204000 


8V>" 






36000 


33/4" 


102000 


6y 8 " 


210000 


8%" 






39000 


3%" 


105000 


6V4" 


216000 


83/ 4 " 






42000 


4 " 


108000 


6 V4" 


222000 


8%" 






45000 


4*6" 


111000 


€ 3 / 8 " 


228000 


9 " 


• 





[April, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



13: 



It is recommended that, instead of increasing the width 
(h) of lever over 8^2" the thickness (d) should be increased. 

The following example shows how the width of Levers 
is obtained from the tables: 
Assume that lever is 1 inch thick. 
The Pull (p) on Brake Rod is 1,800 pounds. 
The Length (L) equals 24 inches long. 
Then, Mm= 1800X24 = 43200. 

The nearest width of lever (h) corresponding to this Mm 
is 35/ 8 ". 

It is recommended in this connection that the width of 
lever vary in J/£ of an inch, this to decrease the number of 
different widths that it is necessary to carry in stock. 

In figuring the leverage in order to get the pull which the 
levers must sustain, it is correct to assume that, when brakes 
are applied, the total system is in equilibrium, and therefore 
each lever in the system is in equilibrium. Taking as a 
simple example: A lever with rods connected at the end of 
lever pulling in same direction with a fulcrum consisting of 
a brake rod connection pull in opposite direction: Then, 
if the fulcrum connection is half-way between the two end 
brake rod connections, the pull of the two rods will be equal 
in order to keep the lever in equilibrium, or P x L at one 
end of lever, equals P x L at other end. Now, if L at one 
end in longer than at the other end, the pull (p) must also 
be different, for P x L for one end must equal P x L for 
the other end; therefore, inasmuch as the products are equal, 
it will at once be noted that the pull on either end rod can 
be multiplied by its length from fulcrum point, and the 
product equals "Mm" in the table. 

In getting the value of Mm, the starting point, of course, 
should be at the brake cylinder, and the pressure taken 
should be the greatest which can be gotten with the type 
of brake under consideration. 

The maximum pressures per square inch in brake cylinder 
for different types of equipment can be used as follows: 

Engine 

Westinghouse Air Brakes — Driver Tender Truck Cars 

Ordinary low pressure brake 50 60 50 60 

High speed brakes 85 85 85 85 

E. T. Equipment 93 93 93 

L. N. Equipment 






104 



TABLE B— For Brake Levers 1 Inch Thick 

Table Giving Width (n) of Brake Levers 1 inch thick Corres- 
ponding to the Maximum Moment Mm. Allowance made 
for Pin Hole iy 2 " diameter. Stress in Outer Fiber 
from 20,000 to 23,000 Pounds per Square Inch. 



Mm 


h 1 


Mtru 


fa 


Mm 


h 


1 

Mm 


h 

1 


4000 


iy 4 " 


56000 


4 " 


144000 


6V 4 " 


264000 


83/ 8 " 


6000 


IV2" 


60000 


4y 8 " 


148000 


63/ 8 " 


272000 


8y 2 " 


8000 


1%" 


64000 


41/4" 


152000 


63/ 8 " 


280000 


8%" 


10000 


1%" 


68000 


43/ 8 " 


156000 


6V 2 " 


288000 


83/ 4 " 


12000 


2 " 


72000 


41/2" 


160000 


6%" 


296000 


8%" 


14000 


2V 8 " 


76000 


4%" 


164000 


63/ 4 " 


304000 


9 " 


16000 


2V 4 " 


80000 


43/4" 


168000 


63/ 4 " 


312000 


9y 8 " 


18000 


2%" 


84000 


4%" 


172000 


6 7 / 8 " 


320000 


91/4" 


20000 


2V 2 " 


88000 


5 " 


176000 


6%" 


328000 


93/ 8 " 


22000 


2%" 


92000 


5V 8 " 


180000 


7 " 


336000 


91/2" 


24000 


23/ 4 " 


96000 


5V 4 " 


184000 


7 " 


344000 


9%" 


26000 


23/ 4 " 


100000 


5V 4 " 


188000 


7y 8 " 


352000 


93/4" 


28000 


27/ 8 " 


104000 


53/ 8 " 


192000 


7y 4 " 


360000 


9 7 / 8 " 


30000 


3 " 


108000 


5y 2 " 


196000 


7y 4 " 


368000 


10 " 


32000 


3y 8 " 


112000 


5%" 


200000 


73/ 8 " 






34000 


31/4" 


116000 


53/ 4 " 


208000 


7y 2 " 






36000 


31/4" 


120000 


53/4" 


216000 


7%" 






38000 


33/ 8 " 


124000 


5%" 


224000 


73/ 4 " 






40000 


3V 2 " 


128000 


5%" 


232000 


77/ 8 " 






44000 


3%" 


132000 


6 " 


240000 


8 " 






48000 


3%" 


136000 


6%" 


248000 


8y 8 " 






52000 


37/ 8 » 


140000 


6V 4 " 


256000 


8V 4 " 







TABLE C— For Brake Levers 1 1-4 Inch Thick , 

Table Giving Width (h) of Brake Levers iy 4 " Thick Corres- 
ponding to the Maximum Moment (Mm). Allowance made 
for Piri Hole H/ 2 " Diameter. Stress in Outer Fiber 
from 20,000 to_23,000 Pounds per Square Inch. 



Mm 



Mm 





1 


50000 


1 

3y 2 " 


55000 


3%" 


60000 


33/ 4 " 


65000 


3 7 / 8 " 


70000 


4 " 


75000 


4y 8 " 


80000 


4y 4 " 


85000 


43/ 8 " 


90000 


4y 2 " 


.95000 


4%" 


100000 


43/4" 


105000 


43/4" 


110000 


47/ 8 " 


115000 


5 " 


120000 


5%" 


125000 


5y 4 " 


130000 


53/ 8 " 


135000 


51/2" 


140000 


51/2" 


145000 


5%" 


150000 


53/ 4 " 


155000 


53/4" | 



160000 
165000 
170000 
175000 
180000 
185000 
190000 
195000 
200000 
210000 
220000 
230000 
240000 
250000 
260000 
270000 
280000 
290000 
300000 
310000 
320000 
330000 



Mm 



Mm 



5 7 / 8 " 


1 


6 " 


340000 


6y«" 


350000 


6y 4 " 


360000 


6y 4 - 


370000 


63/«" 


380000 


63/ 8 " 


390000 


6y>" 


400000 


6%" 


410000 


63/ 4 " 


420000 


6 7 / 8 " 


430000 


7 " 


440000 


71/4" 


450000 


73/ 8 " 


460000 


7V/' 


470000 


7 %" 


480000 


734" 


490000 


7%" 


500000 


8 " 




8%" 




8V4" 




83/ 8 " 


1 



81/2" 

8%" 

83/ 4 " 

3%" 
9 " 
9y 2 " 
9y 4 " 
93/ 8 " 

93/ 8 " 

91/2" 

9%" 

93/4" 

9%" 

10 " 

ioy 8 " 
101/4" 
10%" 



I 



60 

85 



104 



Xew York Air Brakes — 

Ordinary low pressure brakes 50 60 50 

High speed brakes 85 So 85 

Automatic control equipment 93 93 93 

J Triple Valve with Supplementary 

Reservoir 

The table below gives the area of piston in different diam- 
eter brake cylinders by which the above pressures should be 
multiplied and which will give the maximum load on cylin- 
der end of cylinder lever: 

Diameter Cylinder. Area Square Inches. 

8" 50.26 

10' 7 78.54 

12" 113.09 

14" 153.93 

16" 201.06 

It might be stated here that the tables for width of brake 
levers on cars and tenders, can as well be used to get width 
of brake beams on engines. 

An example of this is as follows: 

Figure Xo. 2 shows a type of locomotive brake beam which 
is in general use. 

Obtain the pressure (p) which is the force exerted on 
the vertical brake lever, or on the brake shoes direct; and 
then multiply this force (p) by length in inches from a point 
half way between center pin hole and shoulder of beam to 
center of pin hole. The product will be the maximum moment 
(Mm), and by referring to table giving the required thick- 
ness, the width (h) can easily be obtained. 

The beam should not chance in width (h) between the 

two end pin hole 

In a beam of this type, attention is directed to the point 
where the end bearing joins on the beam- proper, designated 
by "A," Fig. No. 2. There should be a fillet at this point 
instead of a sharp corner, as is often the case. 



— - l 1 




^e 



Fig. 2. 



^$a 



13G 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[April, 1911.] 



TABLE D— Moduli of Circular Sections 



TTD' =.0982D , =- 1 



Values of - for Different Diameters 



3IT7- 


8 


1 


1 


5 


4 


E 


E 


7 


"ST" 





■■■18 


n 








.0988 


.78660 


2.6507 


6.2848 


18.2760 


21.8118 


33.682 


60.279 


71.918 


98.20 


130.70 


1/1 e 


.0000839 


.11779 


.86167 


8.8806 


6.5840 


12.7411 


21.88 


34.69 


61.46 








l/e 


.0001918 


.18981 


.94X89 


8.996 


6.89 


13.22 


28.56 


35.62 


62.67 


74.61 


10L92 


135.21 


S/16 


.000647 


.16069' 


1.0879 


3.18 


7.81 


13.71 


23.26 


36.46 


63.897 








1/4 


.001634 


.19179 


1.118 


3.37 


7.64 


14.81 


23.97 


37.42 


66.14 


77.72 


105 JC 


139.82 


6/16 


.00(996 


.88801 


1.8143 


3.669 


7.876 


14.78 


24.7 


38^398 


66.4 








3/8 


.00618 


.86688 


1.3166 


3.776 


8.88 


16.85 


25.44 


39.39 


67.69 


80.91 


109.65 


144.53 


7/14 


.0088 


.896 


1.48 


3.99 


8.68 


16.79 


86.8 


40.4 


68.99 








1/2 


.0123 


.331 


1.634 


4.81 


8.948 


16.338 


26.968 


41.428 


60.31 


84.19 


113.67 


149.35 


9/16 


.0175 


.376 


1.668 


4.339 


9.284 


16.908 


27.753 


42.47 


61.647 








6/e 


.08397 


.4814 


1.776 


4.6777 


9.716 


17.477 


28.65 


43.65 


63.02 


87.561 


117.78 


164.26 


11/11 


.0319 


.478 


1.906 


4.984 


10.114 


18.067 


29.37 


44.613 


64.386 








S/4 


.0414 


.6863 


8.048 


5.1786 


10.684 


18.668 


30.2 


46.71 


66.786 


91.02 


121-99 


169.30 


15/16 


.0687 


.6847 


8.836 


6.448 


10.945 


19.884 


30.976 


46.815 


67.81 








»/a 


.0668 


.6473 


8.336 


S.714 


11.377 


19.913 


31.91 


47.968 


68.646 


94,56 


12629 


164.44 


16/16 


.0809 


.7148 


8,489 


6.996 


11.881 


80.556 


32.788 


49.11 


70.106 









To get the diameter of this end bearing, the following 
procedure should be followed: 
Let D = Diameter. 
tt=3.1416 

I = Moment of Inertia 
S = Stress per square inch 
Mm = Maximum Moment 
r = radius of bearing 

1 
Then the moduli of the circular section is — and the value 

r 
of the same is shown in the following' table, this value being 
obtained as follows: 
I = ttD 4 



64 



r = D 



I=:64 = 7rD 3 =3.1416D 3 =.0982D 3 



r D 32 



32 



The method of using table is as follows: 
Mm = SI 



Mm = I 



S r 

Let L = distance from center bearing to shoulder. 

Mm=PXL 

Then to use table, divide Mm by 15,000, the allowable stress 
per square inch, and this quotient should be taken in the 
table which will give the diameter of the bearing, the upper 
row giving even inches while the fractions at left side are 
fractions of an inch and the sum of these two is the diameter 
required. 

The above covers all forged levers, but not those cast with 
an irregular section, for cast levers generally are made 
thicker and heavier at the edge and thinner at center with 
sometimes holes cored along the neutral axis. If levers are 
made of cast steel and regular in section, the foregoing will 
apply. 

Brake Rods, Pins and Brake Rod Jaws. 

The stress on tension brake rods is due only to direct 
pull, and, of course, must withstand, with a good factor of 
safety, the maximum pull that would in any case come upon 
it. This, it will be noted, will make, perhaps, as many dif- 
ferent diameters as there are rods, unless a maximum di- 
ameter is taken and same made standard for all. This, 



however, will cause more weight to be carried in foundation 
brakes than is absolutely necessary; yet, on the other hand, 
it would be an advantage to be obliged to carry only one 
diameter of rod in stock. 

If the pull (p) on rod is known, divide it by 15,000 which 
gives the area section rod. This, however, is all worked 
out and tabulated in table E, and the diameter of the rod 
can be read direct if the pull (p) is known. 

For example, say the pull on rod is 14,500 pounds; then, 
by referring to third line of column marked "Pull on Rod" 
(P), it will be noted that the nearest diameter for a pull 
of 14,500 is V/s" rod. 

For figuring strength of brake rod jaw, the allowable 
stress should not exceed 10,000 pounds per square inch. This 
is a smaller allowable stress than is taken for brake rods, 
because, in figuring jaws, the nominal diameter of pin hole 
is taken, and no allowance made for excessive wear or en- 
larging of the hole. 

The strength of jaw is calculated as follows: 
S = P= P P=SX2(TW— DT) 



A 2TW-2DT 



T = Y A " if width (W) is less than 3V 2 ". 

Either T or W should be assumed; and it is recommended 

that the thickness (T) be assumed to be %" and the 

width calculated.. 
The foregoing table E, gives diameter (D) of rod suitable 
for different pulls (P), with the corresponding pin diameter 
and width (W) for various widths (W) for the various 
thicknesses of T. 



TABLE E— Foundation"Brake Details 



k.* 



*35£ 



PUIL Of 
ROD (P) 


D1A. OF 
ROD (D) 


DIAMETER OF 
PIN M.C-B. 


W1DTR 


(W) FOF 


TKE VARIOUS T 


hdKwEssfes" It) 


5/8" 


3/4" 


1/B' 


1" 


\ 1/8" 


1 I/* 


9080 


7/8" 


1 3/32" 


1 7/8" 


1 3/4" 


1 5/8" 


1 5/8" 






11781 


1" 


1 3/32" 


2" 


2" 


1 7/8" 


1 3/4" 






14910 


1 1/8" 


1 3/32" 


2 3/8" 


2 1/8" 


2" 


E" 


1 3/4" 




18108 


1 1/4" 


1 7/32" 


£ 5/8" 


2 3/8" 


2 1/8" 


2 1/8" 


£" 




22274 


1 3/8" 


1 7/32" 


3 1/8" 


2 3/4" 


2 1/2" 


2 3/8" 


2 1/4" 


2 1/8" 


26507 


1 1/2" 


1 11/32" 


3 1/2" 


3 1/8" 


2 7/8" 


2 3/4" 


2 l/£" 


2 1/8" 


31109 


1 6/8" 


1 16/3E" 


4" 


3 5/8" 


3 1/4" 


3" 


2 7/8" 


2 3/4" 


36080 


1 3/4" 


1 19/32" 


4 -,/£» 


4" 


3 6/8" 


3 1/2" 


3 1/4" 


3 1/8' 


41418 


1 7/8" 


1 19/32" 




4 3/8" 


4" 


3 3/4" 


3 1/2" 


3 1/4" 


4 71 £4 


Z" 


1 23/52" 




6" 


4 l/£" 


4 1/8" 


3 7/8" 


3 5/8" 


53199 


2 1/8" 


1 27/32" 






6" 


4 1/2" 


4 1/4" 


4* 


59642 


2 1/4" 


1 31/32" 






5 1/2" 


6" 


4 5/8" 


4 3/8" 


66452 


2 3/8" 


2 3/32" 








6 l/£" 


5" 


4 3/4" 


73631 


2 1/2" 


2 7/32" 








6" 


6 1/2" 


5 1/4" 


eii'9 


2 5/0" 


2 11/32" 








6 1/2" 


6" 


5 5/8" 


00092 


2 3/4" 


2 15/32" 










6 l/£" 


6 1/8" 


97 377 


2 7/8" 


2 15/32" 












6 l/£" 


106029 


3" 


2 19/32" 












6 7/8" 


115049 


3 1/8" 


2 23/32" 












7 3/8" 



The Western Maryland is said to have ordered 6,550 tons 
of rails from the Bethlehem Steel Company and 4,050 tons 
of rails from the Pennsylvania Steel Company. 

The Illinois Contracting Co. has ordered 2,600 tons of 
rails from the Illinois Steel Co. 

The Interurban Traction Co. has ordered 2,200 tons of 
rails from the Illinois Steel Co. 

The Harriman Lines are said to have ordered 1,200 tons of 
rails from the Pennsylvania Steel Company. 

The Central of New Jersey is said to have ordered 2,500 
tons of structural steel from the American Bridge Company. 

The Boston Elevated Ry. is* asking for bids on 600 tons 
of 85-lb. rails. 



! 



[April, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



137 



DUPO YARD LIGHTING. 



By W. S. Austin. 

At Dupo, 111., about thirteen miles southeast of St. Louis 
Union Station on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern 
R. R. of the Missouri Pacific Railway System, is located one 
of the largest double hump freight yards in the West, de- 
signed to handle both north and south-bound traffic, each 
hump having a capacity of 120 cars per hour. The yard is 
about three miles long and about 800 feet wide at the classi- 
fying yards, with connections to the railroad company's Illi- 
nois division, East St. Louis, Ivory Ferry, the Terminal 
Railroad Association and other systems. The yard is divided 
into receiving, classification, forwarding, storage, caboose 
and repair yards. The two humps, the roundhouse repair 
yards, coal and water stations, and the power house, together 
with a hotel and other facilities, are located at practically 
the longitudinal center of the yard, making it very nearly 
symmetrical. 

Under the direction of the construction department of the 
Missouri Pacific Ry., Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co., in 
1906, acting as engineers and constructors for the railway, 
designed, constructed and equipped its Dupo power house. 
The following, year the engineers were instructed to inves- 



it possible to study the effect, intensity and quality of light 
produced by both systems by using first one system and 
then the other. 

Tests made showed that in direct sunlight an 8-inch high 
white chalk figure made on a brown background with a 
J/2-inch diameter crayon could be read up to 275 feet, and 
that on a dark night with the flaming' arc the same figure 
could be read at a distance of from 100 feet to 150 feet, de- 
pending upon the position of the board with relation to the 
lamp; under the same conditions with carbon and other 
white light arcs the figures could not be read more than 
one-half the distance possible with the flaming arc. This 
had an important bearing on the selection of a lamp, as in 
operating the humps it is necessary that the men in the 
switch towers at the entrances to the classification yard be 
able to read the car numbers at a distance of from 100 
feet to 175 feet in order to throw the proper switch in front 
of the approaching car. 

A detailed investigation and study showed that the candle- 
power of the flaming arc was greater than that of any other 
type; that the quality of light generated by it was better 
suited for this installation than that produced by any of the 
other lamps, as the penetration in clear weather as well as 
in smoke and fog was greater than with any of the other 




Artificial Illumination at Dupo Yard, at Roundhouse. 



tigate and recommend a system of artificial illumination for 
the yard. All of the commercial systems of outdoor arc 
lighting were investigated but as the power house contained 
alternating current equipment the direct current systems 
could not be given serious consideration. Owing to business 
conditions all work in the yard was suspended from 1907 to 
1909 in the fall of which year the subject was again taken 
up, and, as many improvements had been made in the dif- 
ferent lighting systems, another investigation and report was 
made, which included flaming arcs in addition to the systems 
previously considered. 

Several installations of flaming arcs were visited in and 
around New York, including those at the Bush terminal 
yards, the New York Central yards, and a foundry installa- 
tion. In a portion of the foundry the carbon arcs (which the 
flaming arcs had superseded) had not been removed, making 



types; and that it had the further advantage that the un- 
shaded lamps would not blind or dazzle the eyes of the 
switching crews while working around the yard, even though 
they looked directly at the lamp or beyond it. thus making 
it unnecessary to provide expensive and complicated reflec- 
tors and shades. 

A comparative study of the different kinds of flaming arcs 
was made to determine reliability, freedom from interrup- 
tion, length of burning between trim-, cost of operation, re- 
pairs, maintenance, etc., with the result that the regenera- 
tive flaming arc manufactured by the Adams-Bagnall Elec- 
tric Co. was recommended for this installation. 

A drawing herewith shows the outline of the yard and 
spacing of tracks, as well as the approximate location and 
spacing of lamps. The lamps arc spaced closest around the 
humps and the distance between the lamps increases through 



138 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[April, 1911.] 



s 



J"," 



^ 



d 



« 



<* 



Buying 






Hard Rubber Bushing 



440WOLT5 1 100 VOl T5 




*/4 
R.CD.B 



^J 



- 1 uua> sjnr>» L - 

Method of Mounting Lights, St. L. & I. Mt. & S. Ry. 



\ v« 



!• 



•K. 1 



f* /W 



the classification yard and out into the forwarding and re- 
ceiving yards, where some of the lamps are spaced 600 feet. 
A spacing of 400 feet was found to give a very satisfactory 
illumination for general work with the lamps located 40 
feet above the rails, making it possible for men standing 
on the cars to see underneath the lamps. 

The problem of locating the different lamps was worked 
out in conference with the railway engineers, and when the 
system was put 'in service it was found necessary to move 
but one of the lamps; this was not to change the distribution 
of light, but on account of one of the poles obstructing the 
view of the towermen. This being the first large installa- 
tion of flaming arc lamps in a railroad yard in this country, 
no data was available that could be used as a guide in locat- 
ing the different lamps. 

The entire installation, including distribution and erection 
of poles, feeders, etc. was made without interfering with 
the operation of the yard and without any one being injured. 

The different types of lamp suspension were considered, 
with the result that the lamps were installed in pole tops 
designed for the installation, as shown in one of the draw- 
ings. The arrangement of circuits is such that two ways 
are provided for supplying current to the lamps on the 



[April, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



139 



humps and in the classification yards. No duplication was 
attempted for the other yards, where cars could be moved 
without artificial illumination, if necessary. 

The intensity of illumination secured equaled all expecta- 
tions, and when the lamps were started up in the north half 
of the yard the effect produced was such that engineers on 
trains crossing "the Eads and Merchants bridges, twelve 
miles away, could plainly see the illumination, and residents 
as far distant as ten miles telephoned to ask what was burn- 
ing at Dupo. Since the system has been put in operation 
it has been possible to secure results in operating and polic- 
ing the yards at night such as have never been approached 
elsewhere. The photograph shown was taken at night and 
shows something of the intensity of illumination secured. 

At the present time this yard is, without question, the 
best artificially illuminated railway freight yard in the coun- 
try and the only one in which the results obtained give any- 
thing approaching a uniform intensity of illumination over 
the entire area. 



STEAM TURBINES FOR LOCOMOTIVES* 

By W. Heym, Engineer, Magdeburg. 
A company established in Milan by several engineers is 
busily occupied in attempting the solution of the problem of 
giving the steam turbine a suitable shape for the direct work- 
ing of locomotives. A turbine of special design was fitted to 
an old locomotive, and extensive experiments were then made 
with this locomotive under definite conditons. One of the 
engineers concerned, Mr. Belluzo, has just published some 
of the observations taken during these experiments. In his 
paper he starts with the use of steam turbines for driving 
ships. In his opinion no steam turbine has as yet been 
brought out for steamships, which works quite satisfactorily 
and is quite reliable. Above all, two conditions have to be 
satisfied, namely, the possibility of reversing, and economic 
working at varying speeds; the latter condition is of particu- 
lar importance as regards the navy. The reversibility has 
been obtained by a special turbine on the same shaft which 
the main turbine operates for going ahead. This reversing 
turbine turns in the direction opposite to that of the main 
turbine, and produces a vacuum in the condenser when the 
ship is going ahead. The problem of obtaining economic 
working at varying speeds has not yet been solved. The 
steam consumption per horse-power-hour is about 1.75 times 
as great at the average speed in question as at full speed. 
It is an important point that when a steam turbine is used 
for drivng a ship there is a close relation between the speed 
and the power developed by the engine; when running at 
half speed the power required is only one-eighth of that which 
is required for running at full speed. 

In the case of locomotives the working conditions and the 
gradients on any section of line vary so much that it is im- 
possible to lay down any definite rule as to speed and power 
required. A locomotive may be required to give its highest 
power at varying speeds, or to give varying power at a 
definite fixed speed. The power must also remain unchanged, 
whether the locomotive is running forwards or backwards, 
and the locomotives must be able to start running under 
load. On the other hand, the space for the engine is ex- 
ceedingly limited. In certain cases, a high efficiency is re- 
quired, for instance under full load or at full speed or half 
speed; and it has in this case to be considered that the varia- 
tion in the steam consumption, the power and the speed, 
must amount in current practice to about 40 per cent. 

A special design has been adopted, in order to make it 
possible to obtain a good economy with a steam turbine even 
when the speed varies. This includes, in the first place, a 



distributer in which the steam expands, from the pressure 
it has in the turbine, to that existing in the turbine cylinder. 
Four sets of movable blades are used in connection with 
this distributer. At low speeds the steam strikes all the 
blades in succession, and is guided by the guide blades placed 
between every two blades. At high speeds the steam only 
strikes the first set of blades, while at intermediate speeds. 
two sets and three sets can come into play. 

The reversal is effected by a special device. The rotors 
have two sets of blades, of opposite curvature. When run- 
ning in the one direction the steam passes through the blades 
of the one rotor and escapes at the other; when running in 
the opposite direction this process is reversed. In both cases 
the loss of energy due to the blowing action of the second 
set of blades will only amount to a small fraction of the to- 
tal loss. Numerous experiments, made with steam at differ- 
ent pressures show that this loss is only 2 to 3 per cent. 
Starting under load is only possible with a turbine in which 
the steam can strike all the blades simultaneously. In this 
way the maximum torque is obtained with the least consump- 
tion of steam. 

The firm Miani Silvestri, Comi and Grondona, in Milan, 
made a practical trial of such a turbine. The locomotive, to 
which this turbine was fitted, had been built in 1876, and 
was entirely reconstructed before the trials were begun. The 
boiler had a heating surface of about 65 square metres (700 
square feet) and generated steam having a pressure of about 
nine atmospheres. The locomotive originally had three driv- 
ing axles, but during the reconstruction the whole weight of 
26 tons, in round figures, was placed on two axles, operated 
by the turbine which gave 100 horse-power, in round figures. 

The experiments were made on a very undulating section 
of line. Accurate observations were taken showing the varia- 
tions in the steam consumption under varying loads and 
speeds. The consumption of steam never exceeded 17 kilo- 
grams per horse-power-hour (38 lb. per British horse-power- 
hour), for both directions of revolution of the turbine. A 
locomotive of double the weight with turbine of six to ten 
times the power would give much lower figures, if the avail- 
able boiler pressure were 50 per cent higher. The locomo- 
tive started well under load both on curves and on gradients; 
the turning moment was a little less than 170 metre-kilo- 
gram (1,229.63 foot-pounds). 

These experiments have proved that the following ad- 
vantages can be attained by turbines on locomotives: 1 It 
is possible to attain higher speeds; 2 oscillation can be ef- 
fectively prevented; 3 a saving is made in lubricants; 4 the 
fuel is utilized better; 5 there is a. longer life and a lower 
cost of maintenance; 6 it is easier to drive the locomotive: 
7 all the dangers otherwise connected with reversing are 
eliminated. 



*Bulletin of the International Railway Congress. 



The Wabash-Pittsburg Terminal Ry. is said to be contem- 
plating ordering an additional 1,000 steel hopper car-. 

The Bingham & Garfield has ordered 120 sixty-ton dump 
cars from the Pressed Steel Car Company. 

The Minnesota, Dakota & Western has ordered 50 tlat cars 
from the Haskell & Barker Car Company. 

The Buffalo. Rochester & Pittsburg i- -aid t<> have re- 
instated its inquiry for 2,000 freight car-, which it withdrew # 
last month. 

The Western Maryland is reported to have equally divided 
its order for 500 fifty-ton gondolas between the American 
Car foundry Co. and the Mount Vernon Car Mfg. ( 

The Pittsburgh & Cake Erie i- -till in the market for 1,000 
gondola cars and 1.000 hopper cars. 

The Pennsylvania Equipment Company is in the market 
for a number of 30-ton box cars, some 70-ft. vestibule pas- 
senger cars and some 38-ft. eaboo- 



140 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[April, 1911.] 



GENERATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC 

POWER AND ITS APPLICATION TO 

RAILROADS.* 

By F. Darlington, Ry. Dept, Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Economy in the electric working of railroads was first ob- 
tained in street car work, where the weight of the cars was rel- 
atively small, as compared with heavy trunk line trains. The 
application of electric power to railroads has been developed 
from this beginning, first to the economical operation of inter- 
urban single car trains, and then to the operation of multiple 
unit trains. The latter use of electric power, that is, its use on 
trunk lines has thus far had little or no practical application, ex- 
cepting where other conditions than economy of operation have 
been important. Every development in electric power and electric 
railroad work has advanced the time of economical trunk line 
electrification, until to-day there are excellent opportunities for 
important savings in this direction. 

When electric power was first generated and distributed from 
central stations, it was chiefly for electric lighting ; next it was 
used for fan motors and other small motors. After awhile there 
was a demand for still larger motors for all kinds of industrial 
purposes; later, electricity was applied to moving light street 
cars, and simultaneously it was applied to factory and mill work, 
and then to larger railroad uses, but each step in the wider use 
of electric power was the result of more economical power gener- 
ation and distribution and better methods of aplication. 

In Montreal and vicinity there is now developed, or in pro- 
cess of development, upwards of 200,000 electric horse power, 
chiefly from hydro-electrical plants. This is a large amount of 
power for a city of this size, and it demonstrates the very gen- 
eral application of electricity and the economy of electric power 
generation in large units. 

The electrification of a railroad necessitates three principal in- 
stallations : — First is the electric power generating plant ; second 
is the transmission and distribution system for carrying the elec- 
tric power from the generating plant to the moving train, which 
includes transmission lines, sub-stations, trolley or third rails, 
etc., and, third, the electric locomotives or motor cars. Electric 
power plants and transmission lines, trolleys, etc., and electric 
locomotives are all very costly, and it may seem at first glance, 
that since they cost far more than steam locomotives, they may 
prove a costly means of hauling trains. The situation regarding 
electric locomotives vs. steam, is exactly the same to-day as was 
the situation a few years ago regarding electric drive vs. steam 
engine drive for factories and mills. Take, for example, cotton 
mills. In order to obtain electric drive for these, it was neces- 
sary to install an electric power generating plant, electric trans- 
mission lines, distribution lines, transformer stations, and elec- 
tric motors, costing for the complete electric equipment generally 
between $150.00 and $250.00 per horse-power delivered to the 
mills, while a good, steam engine plant with condensing engines, 
etc., for large mills, could be installed for approximately $50.00 
per horse-power. It seemed difficult in advance to demonstrate 
the net economy of electric drive when the difference of installa- 
tion cost was taken into consideration, but experience has amply 
demonstrated the economy. To-day there is one power system 
known as the Southern Power Company, with transmission lines 
in parts of North and South Carolina that is serving over 160 
large customers of power, of which over 100 customers are cot- 
ton mills, and many of these cotton mills have steam plants in- 
stalled, which have been discontinued by electric power, because 
of its superior economy. This condition has come about rapidly 
as the result of building up large central power generating plants 
and obtaining the resulting economy of generating power in large 
units. 

There are many central points already established where power 
is generated and transmitted over large areas. Montreal is one 



♦From a paper before the Canadian Railway Club. 



of the important centers. In California there are two great 
power centers, one around San Francisco, another including Los 
Angeles; another large power center is at Grand Rapids, Mich- 
igan; another about Buffalo and Niagara Falls ; another center 
near Albany and Schenectady, N. Y., and then there are those of 
North and South Carolina, one of which has been mentioned, 
also there is a large power system north of Chicago, and another 
in the outlying districts around Boston. These are examples of 
scattered powers being supplied from central power plants and 
they each offer opportunities for purchasing power from central 
stations, and in these places, the application of electricity to 
railroading can be carried out by the purchase of central station 
power and the installation of trolley lines, or third rails and 
electric locomotives, and the same things that make electric drive 
economical for cotton mills will all help to make power econom- 
ical for railroad operation. A railroad locomotive is simply a 
portable steam engine usually of about 500 to 1,200 h.p. capacity, 
according to the weight of the locomotive. 

In the experience of mills adopting electric power it was found 
that the economy of electricity vs. steam did not rest wholly on 
the difference in cost of power by electric plants and steam plants, 
but there were many secondary advantages resulting from elec- 
tric drives that were not strictly questions of the cost of power, 
but were the results of certain advantages that pertain to elec- 
tric working. The same thing is true where electric power is 
used on railroads. There are many kinds of work and many 
conditions of work that can be economically accomplished 
with electric power that are too expensive or are unadvisable 
with steam locomotives. They result in electric service giv- 
ing better facilities and making better gross earnings than 
can be made in such places with steam. 

The constantly increasing economy of central station power 
generation has led to wider and wider applications of power 
for stationary uses, and has finally put the power business on 
a basis where the application of electricity to move trunk line 
railroad trains can be made advantageous under many conditions 
where it has not yet been applied. 

It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the generation and 
distribution of electric power, with especial reference to its use 
on railroads for the operation of heavy trains, such as are gen- 
erally used on steam roads. 

In order to fully appreciate the engineering matters and com- 
mercial questions that determine the conditions favorable for 
the generation and application of electric power, the following 
facts should be kept in mind : 

Quantity of power is measured in two ways : 

First, by the peak load or the maximum momentary require- 
ment, which determines the required capacity of the generating 
plant in horse-power or kilowatts. 

Second, by the amount of power in horse-power hours or kilo- 
watt hours, which is determined by the average load upon the 
power plant and the length of time it is maintained. 

The ratio between the maximum load and the average load on 
a power plant is spoken of as the "load factor," and as the term 
"load factor" is used under different conditions for indicating 
other ratios, it should be understood that in this paper it denotes 
the ratio between the average load on the plant and the maxi- 
mum or peak load that may occur for a short period. 

The cost of producing power naturally divides itself into two 
parts. One of these depends on the size of the plant required 
for the maximum load that it has to carry, and the other on 
the average output of the plant or the average amount of power 
produced. The first includes all fixed charges, such as interest 
on the cost of the plant, taxes, sinking fund, etc., reasonable 
charge for upkeep of plant and allowance for obsolescence. The 
second includes nearly all operation expenses, such as station 
labor, fuel, water, and supplies of all kinds that go into the op- 
eration and maintenance of the plant, which are mainly consumed 
by reason of the operation. 



[April, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



141 



Both fixed and operating expenses of power production are 
much less per unit generated in very large plants, working at a 
good load factor, than in small plants, or in plants working at a 
poor load factor. This is well illustrated by all modern central 
station electric plants. 

While there are great variations in individual cases, it is 
reasonable to consider the cost of operating labor per kilowatt 
hour output of a 50,000 k.w. steam plant as somewhere in the 
neighborhood of 15 per cent or 20 per cent of the labor for 
a 1,000 k.w. plant. 

The matter of power plant efficiency is greatly in favor 
of large plants as compared with small ones. This is 
especially true in regard to steam plants, but is also true 
to a certain extent of hydro-electric and gas engine plants. 
In modern steam turbine plants working at a good load 
factor ,the fuel economy of a 50,000 k.w. installation will 
often be better than the economy of a 1,000 k.w. plant in 
about the ratio of 1 to 2 or even 1 to 3. There are some 
large steam plants working on a thermal efficiency, or an 
efficiency between the heat units of the fuel supplied and 
the heat units of electric power output, of 10 per cent or 
11 per cent, which is equivalent to about 2%. to 2}4 lbs. of 
best quality coal per kilowatt hour output, or 1.7 to 1.9 lbs. 
per electrical horsepower hour. In a 1,000 k.w. plant the 
thermal efficiency in practical operation will rarely exceed 
about 4 per cent, which is equivalent to about 6 lbs. of good 
coal per kilowatt hour output. There are, of course, a great 
many things affecting plant efficiency that necessarily make 
these figures very general. To get exact figures in any 
specific case it is necessary to enter into many details, such 
as load factor, type of steam plant, whether engine-driven 
or turbine-driven, whether condensing or non-condensing, 
etc., but whatever the other conditions may be, large capacity 
of a generating plant is one thing that always tends to 
cheap power production and a good load factor is another. 

Load Factor on Electric Plants for Working Heavy Rail- 
roads. — Plants generating power for heavy railroad opera- 
tion generally show a poor load factor. There are several 
fairly large plants in America that are used exclusively 
for supplying power to main line railroad trains, and their 
load factors (ratio of maximum output to average output) 
are somewhere between 20 per cent and 35 per cent, which 
means that the average load on the plant is only about 
one-quarter of their capacity. On this basis the fixed 
charges alone on the cost of steam plants generating electric- 
ity for railroad service (interest on investment, taxes, de- 
preciation, etc.) are generally between .4c and .5c per kilowatt 
hour delivered. 

At such poor load factors the operating expenses per kilo- 
watt hour are also very high, and in existing power plants 
for trunk line railroads the operation and maintenance, ex- 
clusive of fuel, comes to about .20c to .30c per kilowatt hour 
(except where the load is equalized and the peaks supplied 
by very heavy and costly storage batteries, which modify 
the results by improving the load factor). Fuel is the other 
principal operating expense in power production, and in ex- 
isting railroad plants it amounts to about .lie to .155c pel 
kilowatt hour for each dollar per ton for good coal. 

If power stations were much larger than the existing rail- 
road plants above referred to, wheih are between 10,000 kilo- 
watts and 25,000 klowatts each, the construction cost per 
kilowatt capacity would be much less, since very large 
plants cost less per kilowatt than smaller ones. If a great 
many locomotives were supplied by a single plant, the load 
factor might often be doubled, and these two things together 
might easily reduce the fixed charges per k.w. hour from .4c 
or .5c per k.w. hour to approximately .2c or less per k.w. 
hour. Again, because large plants can be operated and main- 
tained more cheaply proportionately than smaller ones, and 



plants working at a good load factor cost little more for labor 
and repairs than when working at a poor load factor, the 
operating labor and repairs of power plants for railroads 
might be reduced to 10c or .15c per k.w. hour, as against .20c 
to .30c from actual experience of railroad plants at poor load 
factors. ^ Moreover, as the coal consumption per k.w. hour is 
very much less in large plants working at good load factors 
than in smaller ones at poorer load factors, there is a chance 
for 10 per cent to 20 per cent saving in the item of fuel. 

All of the foregoing shows that electric power should, 
wherever possible, be supplied at a good load factor, which 
may be secured by serving as many different operations as 
possible from one large station. 

Each of the existing American installations for trunk line 
elctric operation has its own power plant, which generates 
electricity for its individual use and for practically nothing 
else. The load factor on the power plants is poor, excepting 
in two instances, the N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R. and the Detroit 
River Tunnel of the L. S. & M. C. R. R., where it is par- 
tially equalized by tremendously costly storage batteries. In 
each of the cases the electrified section is relatively short, 
and does not cover what would ordinarily be a complete 
locomotive run or operating division. In each instance steam 
locomotives take all or many of the trains to the electrified 
zone, and except for the -difficulties and danger of tunnel 
operation, could readily complete the run without the electric 
service, and at very little extra expense. It is obvious that 
electric operation on a short section, which breaks up an 
engine run and substitutes electric motive power for a short 
distance only, must be a source of extra expense (regardless 
of the superiority, or otherwise, of electric power relative to 
steam power), since, after a steam locomotive has made the 
80 or 90 miles of an ordinary engine run of 100 miles, more 
or less, for which it is adapted, it will not entail much addi- 
tional cost to complete the run with the steam locomotive. 
To install an entirely new motive power system for a few 
miles of operation must always be disproportionately ex- 
pensive. 

A projected electrification of importance has recently re- 
ceived considerable public notice. It is the electrification of 
all the steam railroads within the metropolitan district of 
Boston, upon which subject the principal railroads entering 
Boston have made reports to a special commission appointed 
by the Massachusetts Legislature. These reports give esti- 
mates of the equipment cost and operating expense for the 
electrical operation of all steam railroad trains within the 
metropolitan district; and as the proposed power plants are 
to be used for railroad work only, they show very poor load 
factors. Under these conditions, where electric operation is 
not to replace steam locomotives for an entire locomotive 
run, but only to take up the work of steam locomotives at or 
near the metropolitan district lines (irrespective of the end of 
the usual engine run), the report of the railroad companies 
that the cost of electrification would be much heavier than 
the saving in operating would warrant, should seem entirely 
reasonable. 

It is clearly the view of the officials of the N. V.. X. H. & 
H. R. R. that breaking up a train run to change from steam 
to electric power, and vice versa, is too expensive a method 
of operation. This is indicated in their report to the Mas- 
sachusetts Legislative Commission, in which they say: 

"It therefore seems quite safe to conclude that no general 
substitution of electric for steam traction should be made 
unless the substitution is complete, including passenger and 
freight operation, and yard switching in addition, and also 
that, in making such substitution, the operation should be 
extended to include the full length of run or engine district, 
in order to avoid the uneconomical subdivision of the present 
'trains run,' together with the added expense and delays inci- 
dent to intermediate engine transfer stations " 



142 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[April, 1911.] 



. Much valuable practical experience in the cost of heavy- 
trunk line operation by electric power has been gained from 
American railroads, but it is manifestly unreasonable to ex- 
pect them to show economy of operation and pay fixed 
charges on the investment. Take, for example, the New 
York terminals of the N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R., or the 
N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R., and suppose that, instead of 
electrification of their terminals, an improved steam loco- 
motive, which was smokeless and more economical than 
the main line locomotives, had been used within the limits, 
of the present electrified zone. Under such circumstances, 
even if the improved locomotives had been better than the 
outside main line locomotives employed to take the trains 
to the electrified zone, the cost of providing new locomo- 
tives and changing the motive power on all trains entering 
the zone would have been a heavy, additonal expense suffi- 
cient to more than offset a large superiority in the terminal 
locomotives. The failure of electrification to show a profit 
under such conditons is not an indication of poor economy 
of electrical operation, but is due to very unfavorable and 
costly operating conditions for any kind of motive power. 
It is well known that some conditions are much more 
favorable to electric traction, in comparison with steam 
operation, than others, but none of the practical applica- 
tions to trunk line operation in America have been such 
as to realize the conditions that are most favorable for 
superior economy by electric power. It is fairly established 
by practice that operation of heavy trains by electric power 
saves large sums in locomotive repairs and approximately 
one-half of the fuel as compared with steam locomotive 
operation. Fuel saving by electric operation is only real- 
ized to the best advantage where electric power for rail- 
roads is put out from generating stations working at good 
load factors; and, as already explained, this is only realized 
to the fullest extent from a diversity of service and large 
generating stations. 

In the repairs of electric locomotives as compared with 
steam, there are many who claim that the saving is one- 
half or more. This saving is generally greater in instances 
where steam locomotives are replaced by motor car trains 
than where electric locomotives are used, but the saving in 
locomotive maintenance and repairs cannot be realized to 
the best advantage where locomotive runs are short. 

There are many secondary savings by electric opera- 
tion, such as increased facility of train movements, addi- 
tional capacity of terminal yards and crowded main line 
tracks, reduced cost of track maintenance, ability to oper- 
ate motor car trains instead of locomotive-hauled trains, 
etc., but none of these are realized to best advantage in 
very short runs. 

The tendency of modern practice, based on economy of 
power generation, is working towards the time when all 
districts in which the aggregate amount of power used in 
large industries will be served from central power plants 
located at strategic points reasonably near the center of 
distribution, and where conditions are favorable for making 
cheap power. When competition fairly drives all small 
power-users (and users of power in less quantity than 5,000 
or 10,000 k.w. will eventually be relatively small for certain 
territories) to seek central power plants for their source 
of power, then all kinds of power for all classes of work 
within given territories will be supplied from a single sys- 
tem of high tension transmission lines having branches and 
spurs such as railroads have in populous countries. 

Such conditions already exist in large cities where the 
lighting and power and street railway companies have cen- 
tralized their power generating business to a very great 
extent, but centralization of the power business in more 
widely distributed areas may become even more complete 
than in concentrated metropolitan districts. 



From such large central stations the supply of power to 
electric railroad operation will be extended, and will be 
combined with electric lighting and industrial power busi- 
ness on a large scale, and perhaps with some electro-chem- 
ical work. This will result in larger plants and better load 
factors, and consequent reduction in the cost of power, to- 
gether with monopoly of power business, since the erection 
of competitive transmission systems would be too costly 
where the distances to be covered are great. 

Transmission Lines. — In order to establish central power 
plants, supplying power to large areas and to various 
classes of service, thereby securing large units for power 
generation and good load factors, it is necessary to have 
effective means of electric power transmission and distri- 
bution. In power transmission, as in power generation, 
the best economy is secured by handling power in large 
units. Under ordinary circumstances it would not be profit- 
able to transmit 1,000 k.w. 25 miles, because the first cost 
and maintenance of transmission lines 25 miles long would 
entail too heavy a charge for so small an amount of power; 
but, for large amounts of power, transmission apparatus 
is economical for very long distances, so that it is often 
profitable to construct lines over 100 miles long from a 
source of power supply. 

Both the economical size of the plants and their distances 
apart will largely depend on the total amount of power 
used in the territory served; and, within certain limits, the 
greater the amount of power the greater the distance apart 
of the central stations, since it is economical to transmit 
large powers longer distances than small powers. 

New types of insulators for transmission line, especially 
insulators of the suspended type, and a better understand- 
ing and application of protective devices for high tension 
lines against both lightning and short circuits, have made 
it possible and economical under ordinary conditions to 
locate generating stations from 100 to 200 miles or more 
apart, where the quantity of power is large and the other 
conditions favorable. When once any country or large ter- 
ritory is provided with such transmission lines, with con- 
nections to large generating plants, then the electrification 
of railroads will become quite a different problem from 
what it is to-day. Steam railroads in such territories con- 
templating electrification of their lines will not be con- 
fronted with the necessity of themselves going into the 
central station power business, but will be able to purchase 
power and to accomplish the electrification of their tracks 
by erecting electric conductors along their right-of-way 
and purchasing electric motive power apparatus. The pur- 
chase of electric power by railroads will become quite as 
simple as the purchase of coal is to-day; and electric power 
companies when once established, as described, will be in 
a position to sell power to all of the various railroads, 
whether competing or otherwise, which may be located 
within the territory reached by their transmission lines. 
Such will be the tendency of progress, because it is the 
economical thing to do, since it secures the economy of 
large generating plants working at a good load factor and 
transmission lines carryin power in large quantities. 

One of the ablest railroad men in the United States 
takes about this view of the matter: If a railroad requires 
power for its uses in a country that is supplied from a 
central station power plant doing' a general power business, 
it is advisable and right for the railroad to purchase its 
power from such a supply company as long as it does 
not have to pay the supply company more for such power 
than it would cost the railroad to produce the power it- 
self; and the railroad in such cases will generally be able 
to pay a price for its power that will leave the power com- 
pany a profit, while the railroad will share the prosperity 
of the power company by the increased transportation 



[April, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



143 



business built up through its means. The very fact of the 
power company having the railroad contracts will assist 
the company in making the power more cheaply for all pur- 
poses, including the railroads, because every additonal cus- 
tomer reduces the generating cost per unit of power by 
increasing the output and load factor of the plant. 

At the present time railroad men who are seeking to 
get electric power plants with good load factors, outside 
of metropolitan districts, realize that wherever their trans- 
mission lines extend they should realize large returns if 
they are in a positon to furnish power for all kinds of 
work at reasonable rates, and that cheap power develops 
a country and increases railroad business and affords a 
secondary source of profit. There seem to be some par- 
ticularly g'ood opportunities for the sale of power for irri- 
gation pumping from plants designed for railroad power 
supply in some of the irrigated countries of the Middle 
Western United States, where, with reasonable priced 
power, much profitable irrigation work can be done by 
pumping water where it cannot be supplied by gravity. 
The same electric power plant that generates electricity 
for railroad working can be made to automatically start 
electrically driven pumps whenever the load on the railroad 
does not utilize the full power of the generating plant. 
With moderate priced power, irrigtation by pumping prom- 
ises to become a very large business, and an ideal supple- 
ment to a railroad load for equalizing 1 the demand and 
raising the load factor on power plants. In such work 
railroads would derive a triple profit from electrification, 
wherever conditions will justify the substitution of electric 
for steam locomotives. They will make a saving in the 
railroad motive power; they will share the advantage of 
better load factors secured by combining irrigation work 
on the power plant from which they can take their electric 
railroad power, and they will get a return on the increased 
travel and freight business resulting from irrigation works 
developing the surrounding country. Then, again, the 
larger the power generating' plants become and the more 
power the railroads use, the more cheaply power can be 
generated and sold. This will help the territory concerned, 
not only in irrigation, but in every way that cheap power 
benefits a district. It follows that everything that goes to 
increase the size of central stations and improve the relia- 
bility and economy of power transmission contributes to 
improve the means of railroad operation by electric power, 
and that other' classes of power work that buildup the size 
of the plants by improving the load factor can be combined 
with railroad power to a special advantage. This advan- 
tage will be realized by establishing power centers with 
apparatus and equipment suitable not only for all kinds of 
railroad work, but also for all kinds of industrial power 
supply, all kinds of electro-chemical or other classes of 
work, and for everything for which electric power can be 
used. 

Every improvement in the economy and efficiency of elec- 
tric power generation and transmission has furthered the 
abandonment of small power plants and the adoption of 
large central station systems. Economy and convenience 
are so much on the side of large units that a power busi- 
ness, once established under favorable conditions, will nat- 
urally grow into absolute control of the business in its ter- 
ritory, especially where the power is supplied over a con- 
siderable territory requiring extensive transmission lines. 
Centralization of power business will result, just as tele- 
phone companies have monopolized telephone business in 
certain districts, because it is more economical and con- 
venient to serve all customers from one system than to 
keep up two systems, and just as railroads tend to control 
the transportation business adjacent to their tracks. 



Generating plants that are favorably located and well 
established, especially if they have control of water powers 
or coal mines, have an immense advantage from being first 
in the field, and every improvement in the means of power 
transmission and distribution will increase the advantage. 

Discussion. 

Mr. A. B. Brown: Those who are responsible for the 
handling of heavy tonnage on divisions where an occa- 
sional grade is encountered know the difficulties experi- 
enced occasionally with steam locomotives due to the pres- 
sure dropping back from one or more of the causes which 
contribute to this in service. I have seen steam locomotives 
lose time and even stall on grades, thereby delaying not 
only that particular train, but others following or running 
in opposite direction. On this account I have been sur- 
prised to note the way an electric locomotive will pick up 
a load and keep the train moving on a grade; in other words, 
there does not appear to be the same tendency to stall. 
Possibly Mr. Darlington might be willing to give us the 
reason for an electric locomotive handling' itself so much 
better than a steam locomotive of the same capacity under 
the conditons named. 

Mr. Darlington : A properly designed electric railway sys- 
tem includes the power generating plant and electric locomo- 
tives with electric conductors connecting them together. The 
electric conductors form a link between the generating plant 
and the electric locomotives. If the electric designers and 
builders have accomplished the work that is intended by an 
electric railroad system, the link between the power plant and 
electric locomotive is the means of delivering the power in large 
quantities from the power plant to the electric motors that 
drive the locomotive. It is because of the superior power of 
large central generating plants, compared with portable steam 
engines on steam locomotives, that electric locomotives re- 
ceiving power from central stations are more positive and less 
liable to stall than are steam locomotives. It is because an 
electric locomotive has the power of a large power house be- 
hind it, instead of a relatively small portable steam engine, as 
on steam locomotives, that the former are more powerful in 
starting and less liable to stall. 

Mr. W. N. Dietrich: To look at the question from another 
standpoint, I would request, Mr. Chairman, for the purpose 
of arriving at an opinion as to the relative cost of steam and 
electric operation, that we have you act for the time being in 
the capacity of president of a railroad corporation which de- 
sires to go into the question of electric operation. We will 
assume that you approach the electrical companies and state 
that you have a railroad approximately 200 miles long, all 
equipped in every way, including freight and passenger rolling 
stock. You estimate that it will take about 20 steam locomo- 
tives to handle the traffic, but you have yet to purchase the 
motive power. You ask, "What would be the approximate cost 
of steam motive equipment on the one side of the account, 
and electric motive power on the other side?" 

Mr. Darlington : This question, which is a very pertinent 
one, I can answer in general terms. For the electrification of 
200 miles of steam railroad track with 20 locomotives operating. 
the cost of electrification, including the generating plant, trans- 
mission lines, trolley or third rails, and also the electric loco- 
motives, would be several times as much for electric power as 
for steam. The cost of a steam locomotive, you may say. i- 
between $15,000 and $20,000. The cost of an ordinary electric 
locomotive i- somewhere between $20,000 and $40,000. which 
amount does not include the cost of the generating plant, or 
trolleys, etc., so when you go to electrical equipment the cost 
is several times the cost of steam locomotives, just as I said it 
was in the cotton mills, where steam power plants cost about 
$50 a horsepower, and electric power equipment costs several 
times as much. The advantages of the electrical plant offset 



144 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



{April, 1911.] 



the great difference in cost. There is a limit beyond which you 
cannot economically carry the difference in cost. When we 
electrify we have got to save enough money to pay the in- 
creased fixed charges due to increased cost, and have some- 
thing left for the sinking fund and profit, else we do not want 
electric power. The use, under proper conditions, of electric 
power which is available in this country of water powers, 
would certainly pay all these extra charges and show a good 
profit. 

W. N. Dietrich: Assuming in the case of electrification that 
there is considerable loss in the transformation and transmis- 
sion of power, and for this reason that an electric power house 
will be required of the combined capacity of the steam locomo- 
tives, which in our assumed instance is 200,000 h.p., an electric 
plant of this size would cost about $100 per horsepower, or 
$2,000,000. The transmission and trolley, or third rail equip- 
ment, will cost about another $2,000,000, or, roughly, $4,000,000 
altogether. 

In the case of the steam motive power $20,000 has been 
mentioned as the approximate cost of a steam locomotive. 
This is undoubtedly high for an average size locomotive. But 
using this figure, twenty locomotives would cost $400,000. 

As far as the original investment is concerned, and this is 
always a very important consideration, this comparison would 
indicate that in the assumed instance the electric equipment 
would cost about ten times as much as the steam. 

Another consideration, it seems to me, is emphasized by the 
fact that we have had illustrated and described to-night three 
systems of electric traction, viz., the single-phase, the three- 
phase and the direct-current third-rail method. In many in- 
stances well known engineers are not of the same opinion as 
to which of these three systems is best. In veiw of this, and 
of the apparent heavy investment required for electrification, 
and also of the fact that, on the other hand, the steam loco- 
motive is continually improving in general efficiency, it would 
appear that for some time to come the sphere of usefulness 
of electric operation will be limited to special cases such as 
city terminals, tunnels, heavy grades and places where traffic 
is dense or coal is costly, or power is very cheap. 

Mr. Darlington: I think the figures the gentleman has taken 
(of course, they are assumed figures) are a little too extreme. 
Nobody is going into electrification where the motive power 
is going to cost $300 per electric unit. It is not correct to 
classify the electric railway systems geographically, because 
the engineers have not taken sides on the subject of systems, 
according to their geographical residence in Europe or Amer- 
ica. I believe the foreign practice is going very largely to 
single-phase alternating current, and two proposed American 
installations which are receiving very careful consideration are 
being planned for three-phase alternating current, and another 
three-phase installation is already in operation in America, you 
know. I do not think we ought to delay a careful considera- 
tion of electrification just because different details of motive 
power are recommended by different engineers. When the 
final consideration of the electrification of large railroads comes 
up it will be met in exactly the same way as other engineering 
problems have been met. When the work is presented for final 
accomplishment the engineers will decide whether it will be 
with direct-current, with single-phase or with three-phase. The 
time for electrification will be when the central power plants 
are able to supply electic power in large quantities, and at 
suitable prices. When this comes, the engineer will find the 
best way to do the work. 

W. D. Hall, Superintendent St. Clair Tunnel, G. T. Ry., 
Port Huron, Mich. : In reply to the question put by Mr. 
Murphy as to whether the electrification of the St. Clair Tun- 
nel increased the haulage capacity, I would say that the haul- 
age capacity has been increased fully one-third. With the 
steam locomotives, no matter how much business < there was for 
them to handle, it was necessary that they should be taken out 



of service at frequent intervals for fire cleaning, coal and 
water, so that in addition to the fact that we can now haul 
trains of 1,000 tons and over up the two per cent grade as 
compared with trains of only about 750 tons with the steam 
locomotives, and this without slipping the wheels and conse- 
quent delay; the electric locomotives are always available for 
service. 

It may be of interest to know that while the St. Clair Tunnel 
power plant has a rated capacity of only 2,500 k.w., the aver- 
age cost of operating labor is only .23c per k.w. hour, although 
the load factor (ratio between average and maximum load) 
seldom exceeds 18 per cent. 

As already pointed out, with perhaps the majority of ter- 
minal propositons, it is unreasonable to expect that electric 
operation will show economy after paying fixed charges on the 
investment, yet it is gratifying to know that under certain 
conditions, such as operating on grades through tunnels, it is 
possible for the saving in fuel for locomotives alone to nearly 
pay a reasonable fixed charge on the cost of power plant and 
lines, to say nothing of the increased haulage capacity, absence 
of smoke and gases, saving due to decreased cost of track 
maintenance, and in other directions, depending on the pre- 
vailing conditions. The great saving in fuel is due to the 
fact that with modern stokers and other equipment slack coal 
can be burned economically, whereas for the steam locomotives 
a more expensive grade of coal must be used, a large per- 
centage of which is wasted with the present method of firing 
locomotive boilers. 



WEIGHT TRANSFER IN ELECTRIC CARS AND 

LOCOMOTIVES.* 

G. M. Eaton, Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing 

Company. 

When the axles of an electric locomotive or car are inde- 
pendently driven, that is, when each axle is driven by its own 
motor, it is well recognized that under maximum tractive effort 
conditions the wheels on certain of the axles will slip on 
the rails in advance of the other wheels. The fundamental 
principles acting to produce this res lit, however, are not so gen- 
erally understood and a brief explanation will show the import- 
ance of giving due consideration to this as a feature of design 
in order to obtain maximum adhesion and reduce the liability 
of slipping of the wheels. 

The simplest case may be illustrated by a mine haulage loco- 
motive in Fig. I. Assume that the locomotive is standing still 
and is exerting its maximum draw bar pull in the direction A. 
The draw bar pull, as it is applied to the locomotive, may be 
represented in location and direction by B. The wheels are then 
exerting an equal force at the rails and the rail reaction on the 
locomotive is represented by C = C/2 + C/2 which, under the 
conditions noted, is equal to B. It should be noted that B is 
less than the tractive effort of the motors by the amount neces- 
sary to overcome the static internal friction of the locomotive. 
The two forces B and C then constitute a couple which is tend- 
ing to produce an anti-clockwise rotation of the entire locomo- 
tive. To maintain equilibrium there must be an equivalent 
couple tending to produce an opposite rotation of the entire 
locomotive. It is evident that the only points where such a 
couple can exist are the points of contact between the wheels 
and rails and the forces are represented by E and F which are 
equal. That is to say, a part of the weight on the wheels 12 
is being used to maintain equilibrium and is not available for 
adhesion, while the rails are exerting on the wheels 11 a force 
in addition to their normal share of weight and this force as 
well as the weight is available for adhesion. If W is the weight 
of the locomotive and if in repose this weight is equally divi- 



*First published in the Electric Journal. 



[April, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



145 



ded between the two axles, it will be seen that under maximum 
tractive conditions the rail pressure on the wheels // equals 
W W 

1- F and on the wheels 12 equals E. The value of E 

2 2 

and F may be determined from the equation of equilibrium 

B X D 

B X D= E X GorE = where D is the distance of the 

G 
line of application of the draw bar pull above the rails and G 
is the wheel base of the locomotive. The expression E X G 
will be referred to as. the transfer couple. Then with an equal 
coefficient of friction between the rail and each set of wheels 
it is evident that if the motors 5 and 6 are taking an equal 
current the wheels 12 will be the first to slip. 

It will be noted that in this discussion no attention has been 
given to the method of mounting the motors. Given a constant 
weight distribution in repose on the two axles with various 
motor arrangements, it makes no difference where the motors 
are hung or how they connect to their axles, except that the 
connection must be such as to produce an equal pull at the 
wheel tread with equal current in the motors. The only 
factors necessary in determining the value of E or F, termed 
the weight transfer, are the draw bar pull, the height of the 
draw bar above the rail and the wheel base. This is because 
the draw bar and the wheel contacts with the rails are the only 
points at which external disturbing forces acting upon the entire 
locomotive can be applied. Such factors as gear tooth pressure, 
axle bearing pressures, etc., are strictly internal forces producing 
internal stresses in the locomotive framing, etc., but having no 





Fig. 1. — Mine Haulage Locomotive Exerting Draw- Bar Pull at 

Standstill. 

effect upon the equilibrium of the locomotive, as a whole. They 
are, in other words, "boot strap" forces. 

If the locomotive service is such that the maximum draw bar 
pull is demanded in only one direction it is evident that the 
most advantageous use of the adhesion can be obtained by 
making the normal or repose weight on the wheels 12 equal to 

W 

— -f- E and upon the wheels 11 equal to F. Then under 

2 
the maximum tractive conditions, each pair of wheels would 

W 
have a weight of — available for adhesion and theoretically 

2 
both wheels would slip at the rame instant. When, however, as 
is usually the case, the maximum effort is demanded in both 
directions it is evident that this arrangement would be unsat- 
isfactory. 

A very easy way of making use of the total adhesion at all 
times is to connect the two axles by quartered side rods as in 
a steam locomotive, and mining locomotives and electric cars 
have been built embodying this principle. The two motors and 
the two axles then becom: a rotative unit and individual slip- 
page can not occur. Another method of preventing the wheels 
12 from slipping prematurely would be to reduce the percentage 
current passing through the motor 6, and this has been done on 
some experimental locomotives. It has proven, however, to be 
an unjustifiable complication. 



H-«- 



C 'S^-/ I C 'y^y 



Fig. 2. — Mine Haulage Locomotive, Accelerating. 

When the locomotive is accelerating, the conditions are some- 
what different. The forces acting under these conditions are 
indicated in Fig. 2. Assuming the tractive effort of the motors 
to be the same as before, it will be noted that the rail reaction 
upon the wheels, viz., C, is less than C in Fig 1, due to the fact 
that the tractive effort of the motors is partly expended in pro- 
ducing accelerated rotation of the armatures, gears, wheels, etc., 
and in overcoming the total running friction of the locomo- 
tive. If it is assumed that one half of the energy used in pro- 
ducing accelerated rotation is expended on the armature and 
that the other half is absorbed by the gear and wheels, then the 
forces producing this accelerated rotation will produce no 
weight transfer. In the case of gearless motors a slight weight 
transfer is produced by the forces which cause accelerated ro- 
tation, but as the transfer is comparatively small, it will not be 
of particular interest to outline the method of computation. 
(It should be noted that the relative effects of the internal 
friction of the locomotive under the static conditions of Fig. 1 
and the accelerating condition of Fig. 2 have been omitted from 
the discussion.) 

The tractive effort of the motors during acceleration is further 
expended in overcoming the inertia of advance of the entire lo- 
comotive. The force exerted by the inertia of advance is repre- 
sented by H, Fig. 2, which acts at the center of gravity of the 
entire locomotive. The draw bar pull B' is then the remainder 
of the tractive effort. The equation of equilibrium of advance 
is C = B' -j- H and the equation of equilibrium of rotation 
of the entire locomotive is E' X G = B' X D -f H X J. The 
expression H X J will be referred to as the inertia couple. 

When the locomotive is on a grade as in Fig. 3 there is a 
weight transfer to the down hill wheels due to the grade itself, 
the weight W being divided upon the wheels 11 and 12 in the 
ratio of L to K; however, under conditions practicable for ad- 
hesive operation this transfer is very small. For instance, the 
transfer due to a ten per cent grade with a locomotive of the 
type shown in Fig. 3, whose center of gravity is distant from 
the rail by an amount equal to say one-fourth of the rigid 
wheel base, would be approximately 2.5 per cent of the total lo- 
comotive weight. 

When running up a grade the rail reaction upon the wheels 
must not only overcome the entire running friction of the loco- 




Fig. 3. — Mine Haulage Locomotive, Standing on Grade. 



146 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[April, 1911.] 




Fig. 4. — Outline of Maximum Traction Car Showing How Slipping 
of Driving Wheels Occurs. 

motive and the inertia for any acceleration, but it must also 
actually lift the locomotive up the grade. The force expended 
in lifting the locomotive itself constitutes a loss of draw bar 
pull and this force produces no weight transfer. To prove this 
fact, consider the locomotive as a single unit of mass, standing 
at rest on the grade. The weight supported on the wheels n in 
Fig. 3 may be represented by ab = L, and the weight on the 
wheels 12 by de—K. Draw etc and df perpendicular to the rails 
and draw be and ef parallel to the rails. Then ac and df rep- 
resent the normal pressure on the rails, and be and ef represent 
the reactions parallel to the rails "exerted at the points of wheel 
and rail contact" to the forces which hold the locomotive from 
running down the grade or to lift it up the grade. Since these 
reactions are exerted at the rail they can form no couple, as 
they are directly opposed to the forces which the rails exert 
on the wheels. Therefore, as stated, the forces which lift 
the locomotive up the grade produce no weight transfer. 

If there is acceleration the analysis is the same as under Fig. 
2. The method of calculating the weight transfer due to the 
tractive effort under the conditions of Fig 3 is therefore the 
same as that outlined under Figs. 1 and 2, except that the draw 
bar pull is decreased by the amount necessary to lift the loco- 
motive, viz., 20 pounds per ton (2,000 lbs.) of locomotive weight 
for each per cent of grade. 

Street cars equipped with maximum traction trucks give a 
very practical illustration of the slipping of individual pairs of 
wheels. A car of this description is outlined in Fig. 4. No 
exact details of motor mounting are given because, as before 
stated, such details have no bearing upon the immediate discus- 
sion to reduce the problem to its fundamental elements the dis- 
cussion will be based on Fig. 5. In order to parallel the dis- 
cussion under Fig. 1, assume that the motor car I is coupled 
to the trailer 2 and is exerting its maximum tractive effort at a 
standstill. The draw bar reaction on the motor car body is 
then represented by B, while N and P represent the center pin 
pull exerted upon the car body. Equilibrium of advance is ex- 
pressed by the equation B = N -f- P, N and P being equal. If, 
as indicated, the draw bar and the center pins are not at the 
same level, there will be a transfer of weight from the truck 
H to the truck 15 represented by R and S. The 'value of the 
transfer is derived from the equation B X V = R X T, or R 

BXV 

: , where T is the truck center distance. This value will 

T 
usually be so small as to be negligible; 7? and S are equal as 



''•-'->'." 







v vv 

v ~i.L-' B 



' ?. " .¥ 



O 



before. In each truck there is a transfer of weight from the 
leading to the trailing axle, the transfer being of the same value 
for each truck. In the arrangement indicated, however, it will 
be seen that the weight on the driving axle of the leading truck 
l't is increased, while that on the driving axle of the trailing 

C 
truck is decreased. It will be noted that P = — . The value of 

2 
the transfer is derived from the equation P X W = Y X Z 
PX W 

or Y = , X and Y being equal as before. It is then evi- 

2 
dent that under the assumed conditions the driving axle of the 
truck 15 will be the first to slip, as the weight transfer R can not 
entirely offset Y , and in fact, in some cases (viz., where B is 
applied nearer to the rail than'JV and P) acts in conjunction 
with Y to hasten the slipping of the rear truck driving axle. 
The remedy is apparent, if the care is designed for operation in 
direction A only. Under such conditions the driving and idle 
axles of the truck 15 should be interchanged. The only weight 
transfer then tending to produce premature slipping is R which, 
as stade, is practically negligible. Again, however, it is evident 
that for double ended operation demanding maximum traction 
in both directions this would not be an operative arrangement. 

In view of the discussion under Fig. 2 it will be sufficiently 
clear to state without further illustrations that under accelerating 
conditions with a car arranged as in Fig 5 there will be a weight 
transfer to the center pin of the truck 15 due to the inertia of 




— (J-H4 









Fig. 6 — Articulated Truck Locomotive in Which Tractive Effort is 
Transmitted Through Truck Frames. 



Fig. 5. — Diagram of Maximum Traction Car Exerting Draw-Bar 

Pull at Standstill. 

the car body acting at its center of gravity. The arm of the in- 
ertia couple will be the vertical distance from the center pin to 
this center of gravity. There will also be in each truck a trans- 
fer of weight due to the inertia of the truck itself, which may 
be analyzed as outlined under Fig. 2. 

In double truck locomotives designed for heavy pulling, the 
weight transfer can be reduced by transmitting the tractive effort 
directly through the truck frames instead of through the center 
pins and cab. Fig. 6 shows a locomotive of this description, this 
type being usually termed an "articulated truck locomotive." 
Under static pulling conditions each truck is subjected to the 
weight transfer due to the draw bar pull developed by its own 
motors, the pull of the leading truck, when the articulation link 
is at the same height as the couplers, being transmitted directly 
through the framing of the trailing truck without producing in 
it any additional weight transfer. The transfer- produced is less 
than t hat existing when the couplers are mounted in the cab, 
because in heavy locomotives it is seldom or never practicable 
(for structural reasons) to locate the center pin as close to the 
rail as the standard M. C. B. coupler height. Under accelerat- 
ing conditions the weight transfer due to inertia can be derived 
from the methods outlined under Fig. 5. 

In the more complicated wheel arrangements existing in many 
locomotives the same general principles apply. There is one ad- 
ditional feature, however, which must be taken into considera- 
tion, viz., the equalizing system. Instead of taking the distance 
between the axles that may be under consideration as the arm 
of the transfer couple it is necessary to employ the distance be- 
tween the centers of the equalization. This is outlined in Figs. 
7 and 8. The wheels / and 2 are equalized together, as are also 
the wheels 8 and 9. The weight of the locomotive body is ap- 



[April, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



147 



10 



O 



is essential for a proper proportioning of the various details of 
the structure. The analysis is, however, rather complicated with 
corresponding liability for error and it is always advisable to 
check the accuracy of the results thus obtained by the sole con- 
sideration of external forces. 



-t==3= 



=b=3- 




Figs. 7 and 8. — American Type Locomotive, Showing Relation of 
Equalization to Weight Transfer. 



plied to the truck at the center pin and the truck is so con- 
structed that an equal weight is carried by each of the wheels 
3, 4, io and n. In this case the centers of equalization are 5, 6 
and 7, and the arm of the transfer couple is U. In the case il- 
lustrated in Figs. 7 and 8 with advance in the direction A, an 
an equal amount of weight is removed from each of the wheels 
of the leading truck and a like amount is added to each of the 
drivers. 

It is entirely possible to reach the results derived by the meth- 
ods outlined in the preceding discussion by an analysis of all of 
the internal forces exerted by the various elements of a partic- 
ular machine that may be under investigation. Such an analysis 



NEW BETTENDORF STEEL CAR PLANT. 

The steel car plant at Bettendorf, Iowa, which was built 
in 1902 has, in the past two years, been enlarged to such an 
extent that the original plant is only a small corner of the 
present one. The tract for the old plant covered 40 acres, 
while the factory grounds now cover an area of 100 acres, 
and the buildings have an aggregate area of 800,000 sq. ft., or 
18 acres under roof. The drawing showing the arrangement 
of the plant gives an idea of its size and arrangement as it 
now stands, and the photographic views serve to illustrate 
to some extent the character of the building's and some of 
the equipment. 

The original shop is a brick structure 700 ft. x 240 ft., 
and in the recent improvements there has been added to it 
a main fabricating and erecting shop 1,400 ft. x 255 ft. x 60 ft. 
high, which is of steel frame and brick construction, thus 
making one building 2,100 ft. x 255 ft. In addition to this 
there has been erected a 540 ft. x 440 ft. steel froundry ar- 
ranged with wings on the bays. This set of buildings covers 
160,000 sq. ft. and lies directly east of the main shop. The 
engine and pump house, located south of the main shop, is 
220 ft. x 50 ft. The boiler house is 80 ft. x 50 ft., and is lo- 
cated directly south of the engine and pump house. East of 
the engine room is the machine shops, 380 ft. x 50 ft., and 
the storehouse, 320 ft. x 160 ft. 

The boiler house is equipped with four vertical water tube 
boilers, and two more may be added to meet the demands 
of the growing business. These boilers are equipped with 




Foundry Office, Bettendorf Axle Co. 



148 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[April, 1911.] 



automatic chain grate stokers, economizer and a conveying 
equipment, with automatic coal weighing hoppers, that will 
handle the coal and ashes. The engine house contains two 
duplex fire pumps having a total capacity of 2,000 gals, per 
min. Six hydraulic pumps are provided, giving a pressure 
from 350 to 3,000 lbs. per sq. in., and having a capacity of 
1,230 gals, per min. These pumps supply the hydraulic 
presses throughout the plant and are governed by three 
weighted and two actuated accumulators, the last two being 
designed and built by the Bettendorf company to suit the 
requirements of the plant. Compressed air is obtained from 
three compressors having' an aggregate capacity of 3,400 cu. 
ft. of air per min. Electric power is obtained from an 
exhaust steam turbine direct-connected to a 500-k.w. direct- 
current generator, as described in the Railway Age Gazette 
of March 3, and from two tandem compound engines each 
direct-connected to a 100-k.w. direct-current generator. There 
are are also generator and dynamo sets for lighting the 
streets and homes in the town of Bettendorf. From the 
power plant extends a large 1,263 ft. concrete tunnel carry- 
ing the hydraulic, air power lines and the electric con- 
ductors to the foundry. Another tunnel carries the hydraulic, 
air and oil lines to the main shop where they are placed 
overhead and tapped at the various presses and machines. 

The main shop in which the underframes and cars are 
made is equipped with 15 electric traveling cranes of 3 to 
10-ton capacity, having approximately 60 ft. and 70 ft. spans. 
The old part of this building, or the original shop, is divided 
into five bays, the two south bays being devoted to the manu- 
facture of bolsters and the two north bays for the manufac- 
ture of small car parts and truck spring plants. One end of 
the center bay is used principally for storage and the other 
end for the assembling and manufacture of underframes. At 
this end of the center bay and connecting it to the new ad- 
dition is a transfer bay equipped with necessary appliances 
(cranes, magnets, etc.) for distributing material from the 
old shop to the four bays of the new addition. The two 
north bays in the new addition are used for the fabrication 
and erection of underframes and steel cars. The south 
center bay is used for the application of floors and sides to 
the underframes and the south bay for the storage of small 
car parts and specialties. There are 39 hydraulic presses 
in this shop, ranging in capacity from 50 to 2,500 tons, which 
were especially designed and built by the Bettendorf Axle 
Co. to meet the requirements of the Bettendorf construction. 
Near the center of the two north bays are located a series 
of subways for assembling and riveting the underframes, 
which is done by means of compression gap riveters, above 
which are located electric or air hoists suspended from small 
overhead cranes or trolleys for handling the heavy sills, etc. 
Numerous Bettendorf low pressure air furnaces are used to 
heat the rivets and other materails requiring hot shaping. 
Running through this shop longitudinally are eight standard 
gage tracks connecting with the various yard tracks. Two 
locomotives and three locomotive cranes are used for trans- 
portation of material over the tracks at this plant, which 
have a total length of eight miles. 

The Bettendorf underframes for freight cars, of which 
there are 45,000 now in use, are made in this shop; all have 
their longitudinal sills continuous from end to end. They 
are made from commercial rolled shapes and have attached 
to them the draft sills in which the necessary draft gear 
stops, lugs and pockets are cast integral. This gives better 
alinemcnt and eliminates the possibility of shearing draft 
gear stop rivets. These underframes have also continuous 
end sills, body bolsters and needle beams which pass directly 
through the center sills, transmitting the load on the cross 




c 
re 



_4> 
X 

< 



o 

•a 
c 

4> 
** 

■*-* 
1> 

m 



3 
O 



c 

V 

O 



[April, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



149 







'I IMH H li&WttW- m I HI lililiii'ihi 



: .^.. ^.ii. W^^>- -■ 







New Bettendorf Steel Car Plant, Bettendorf, la. 



members directly to the center sills and from member to 
member without depending on the medium of rivets and 
gussets to sustain the load. Rivets and gussets are used 
only to hold the various members in position, thereby re- 
ducing the weight and number of parts and making 1 inspec- 
tion, repairs and painting less difficult. Complete gondola, 
fiat and tank cars are made in this shop and are designed 
in the same manner as the underframes, their respective 
members transmitting the load from member to member 
directly. The Bettendorf I-beam bolsters are also made here, 
and like the other products of the plant are made from corn- 



eliminate most of the objections to steel superstructures 
which have so frequently been raised. This company has 
also designed several other kinds of cars for special service 
and is prepared to design and build any type of freight car 
demanded by the railways. Sills, etc., are shaped cold in 
hydraulic presses to prevent internal forging stresses and 
are punched and sheared in such a manner 'that one sill is 
completed in two strokes of the press, which insures perfect 
alinement of all holes. The necessity of drifting and ream- 
ing, to make rivet holes match, is thereby eliminated and 
the fractures in metal caused by drawing up are prevented. 






~ 



dm 

.iltof ' 

- ' —<& m' ft 




S5 j i 



Annealing Furnaces, Bettendorf Steel Foundry. 



mercial rolled beams shaped cold, in specially designed hy- 
draulic presses, to prevent forging stresses, and to which, 
after shaping, are riveted the necessary cover plates, side 
bearings, column guides, and center plates. There are over 
half a million of these bolsters in service. Since the erection 
of the steel foundry the Bettendorf Axle Company is pre- 
pared to furnish either the built-up bolster or those made 
of cast steel. 

Aside from the specialties described above, this concern 
is gradually drifting into the manufacture of cars in their 
entirety. An all steel box car was built and is now being 
tried out in service. In each design the effort is made to 



All sills are interchangeable with no variation in the spacing 
of holes. These sills are handled between machines by 
powerful lifting magnets and are fed into the presses by 
compressed air handling, turning and feeding trucks espec- 
ially designed by the company. 

The main machine shop is devoted entirely to the building 
and repairing of the hydraulic presses, machines and the 
elaborate dies used in the presses throughout the plant. It 
is a well equipped, up-to-date and strictly modern shop equip- 
ped with motor-driven tools, such as planers from 28 in. x 
28 in. x 5 ft. single head to 48 in, x 50 in. x 20 ft., with 40 
ft. bed open side, double head; lathes from 18 in. x 8 ft. to 




* « T it » T t # »» *' t « t* t » i 



Bettendorf Steel Foundry. 



150 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[April, 1911.] 




Painting and Loading Department for Steel Underframes, Bettendorf Steel Car Shop. 




Sand Mixer and Conveyor, Bettendorf Steel Foundry. 




One- Half Erecting Bay, Bettendorf Steel Car Shop. 



[April, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



151 




Boiler and Engine Houses. 

32 ft. x 16 ft.; 2 in. and 3 in. turret lathes; 4 ft. 6 in. to 6 ft. 
radial drills; 18 in. and 24 in. crank shapers; saws; and bolt 
cutting machines ; also drill presses of various sizes. To assist in 
setting the work a 5 ton 49 ft. span traveling electric crane 
is employed. The blacksmith shop is used exclusively for 
making and trimming shop tools and is a well equipped 
modern shop with the necessary forges, hammers, press and 
hardening furnaces with electric pyrometers as well as a bolt 
and rivet heading machine. This shop is located in the 
machine shop building and occupies 80 ft. of the 380 ft. shop. 
The electrical department, which is located within the main 
shop, is well equipped and affords facilities for winding and 
baking armatures and field magnets and repairing motors. 

The steel foundry, located directly east of the main shop, 
is a steel brick structure divided into wings or bays and de- 
signed to permit of ample enlargement. It was commenced 
in 1909, and the first heats were taken from the furnaces in 
the summer of 1910. The furnace bay, 70 x 440 ft., is equip- 
ped with two 5-ton, 70 ft. span, electric traveling cranes for 
handling molds and castings; one 3-ton electric traveling 
wall crane; one 35-ton, 70-ft. span ladle crane with a 35-ton 
main hoist and a 5-ton auxiliary hoiist and two 3-ton jib 
cranes for handling the furnace spouts. Through this de- 
partment is a continuous sand conveyor for handling sand 
and conveying it to the sand mixers in the sand room. The 
two molding rooms, each 260 ft. x 50 ft., are equipped with 
two 5-ton, 4S ft. span, electric traveling cranes and miscel- 
laneous jib cranes, pneumatic ramming tools, Bettendorf 
molding machines and core machines, and a continuous sand 
conveyor delivering sand at the various machines from the 
sand mixer. The sand room, 240 ft. x 50 ft., is equipped with 
concrete bins for sand storage, one 5-ton, 48-ft. span, electric 
crane with */> yard grab bucket, two 25-ton continuous heavy 
sand mixers and two 15-ton facing sand machines. The anneal- 
ing and chipping rooms, arranged in two bays each 400 ft. x 
50 ft., are equipped with two continuous annealing ovens of 



the Bettendorf design which greatly expedite the process and 
render castings of a uniform quality. "j& Bettendorf hydraulic 
press, of 775 tons capacity and specially designed for this 
service, is used to straighten and test truck frames to insure 
perfect alinement. Five ton, 48-ft. span, electric traveling 
cranes are used to carry castings to the various parts of 
these departments and for loading castings on cars. 

A metal pattern and machine shop, 200 ft. x 50 ft., occupies 
another bay of this structure and is equipped with the nec- 
essary up-to-date motor driven tools to build and repair the 
metal patterns, molding machines and other machinery used 
throughout the foundry. In another bay, 140 ft. x 50 ft., is 
the wood pattern shop on the upper floor, equipped with 
motor driven, automatic start and stop planer, joiner, pattern 
grinder, saw tables, band saw, lathe, and revolving oil stone. 
On the ground floor of this building is a well arranged locker 
room, lavatory and swimming pool for the convenience of the 
employees. 

In this foundry are produced the Bettendorf one-piece cast 
steel truck frames, with the arch bars, columns and journal 
boxes cast into one piece, thereby producing a truck having 
a low cost of maintenance, light weight due to reduction in 
number of parts, great strength, and flexibility due to the 
method of tying the two frames of the truck together, they 
being tied by means of a spring plank with the pivot con- 
nections at the side frames, which renders the truck free to 
adjust itself to track irregularities. There are now about 
250,000 of these truck frames in service, and they are guar- 
anteed against failure by breakage. On account of their 
simplicity, and the great reduction in the number of pieces, 
the cost of repairs is much less than that of the arch bar or 
truckg of other designs using more pieces. The Bettendorf 
cast steel center sill ends are also produced here and possess 
that peculiarity so common to the Bettendorf construction — 
reduction in the number of parts and weight, together with 
increased strength. 




Power House Showing Turbine. 

TESTS OF DYNAMITE. 

Frozen dynamite is the subject of grave suspicion among 
most engineers, yet experts hold that it is far less sensitive 
than unfrozen dynamite. In order to prove this, Dr. Walter 
G. Hudson and Mr. F. J. Riederer, the latter superintendent 
of the Du Pont works at Lake Hopatcong, conducted some 
experiments on Feb. 24 that are decidedly interesting. They 
were made with a particularly sensitive grade of 60 per cent 
gelatine dynamite and also with some Straight dynamite. A 
number of these sticks were used as targets for bullets from 
a Krag-Jorgensen government ride, loaded for a velocity 



152 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[April, 1911.] 




Pouring Room in Bettendorf Steel Foundry for Truck Sides. 



of 2,150 ft. and fired at a distance of 50 ft. from the dynamite. 
The bullets discharged in this way failed in every case to 
explode the sticks of frozen, straight and gelatine dynamite. 
Other frozen sticks were then thawed and used as targets 



in precisely the same way. In every case the bullets de- 
tonated them, thus showing the decreased sensitiveness due 
to freezing. The same thing was shown in another way by 
using thawed sticks which were oroken in two. If a cap 




Pattern Shops, Bettendorf Axle Co. 



[April, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



153 




2,500-Ton Hydraulic Press for Center Sills, Bettendorf Steel Car 

Shop. 

with 30 gr. of fulminate of mercury was attached to half 
of a thawed stick and the other half was placed 8 ins. from 
it, the latter would be exploded when the former was fired. 
If, however, a whole stick of frozen dynamite was placed 




Machine Shop, Bettendorf Steel Car Plant. 

V, in. from a half stick of thawed dynamite and the latter 
was fired the frozen stick remained unaffected. In fact, it 
was not until the frozen material was placed within 1 in. 
of the piece fired by the cap that it could be exploded. When 
sticks of frozen and of thawed dynamite were blown into 



the air with black powder it was found that the former took 
about three times as long to burn as the latter. Tests of 
this character seem to prove that frozen dynamite is not 
sensitive, yet even when it has been benumbed by the cold 
it should be handled with great care. It is best not to be- 
come familiar and careless with anything' of such a violent 
temperament. — Engineering Record. 




C. H. Montague has been appointed master mechanic of 
the Quincy, Omaha & Kansas City, with office at Milan, Mo., 
succeeding A. W. Quackenbush. 

G. J. Duffey, assistant master mechanic of the Lake Erie & 
Western, the Fort Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville and the 
Northern Ohio, at Lima, Ohio, has been appointed master 
mechanic, with office at Lima, succeeding F. H. Reagan, re- 
signed. 

T. A. Lawes, master mechanic of the Chicago, Terre Haute 
& Southeastern at Terre Haute, Ind., has been appointed 
mechanical engineer of the New York, Chicago & St. Louis, 
with office at Cleveland, Ohio, succeeding L. B. Moorehead, 
resigned. 

G. C. Nichols has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Jonesboro, Lake City & Eastern, with office at Jonesboro, 
Ark. 

F. H. Reagan has been appointed superintendent of the 
Scranton locomotive shops of the Delaware, Lackawanna & 
Western. 

Frank J. Smith, for the past eleven years master mechanic 
of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern, with offices at Chil- 
licothe, Ohio, and Washington, Ind., has been appointed 
master .mechanic of the Chicago Great Western, with head- 
quarters at Stockton, 111. 

C. N. Page, trainmaster of the Lehigh Valley, at Auburn, 
N. Y., has been appointed also master mechanic, with office 
at Auburn, succeeding J. N. Mowery, resigned. 

R. L. Doolittle, master mechanic of the Atlanta, Birming- 
ham & Atlantic, with office at Fitzgerald, Ga., has been ap- 
pointed superintendent of motive power, a new position, and 
his former office has been abolished. 

A. C. Adams, superintendent of motive power of the Spo- 
kane, Portland & Seattle, has been appointed superintendent 
of motive power also of the Oregon Electric and the United 
Railways Co., with office at Portland, Ore. 




T. A. Lawes. 



W. C. Loree. 



F. J. Smith. M. M.. Chi. Gt. Western Ry. 



lo-L 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[April, 1911.] 



W. C. Loree, superintendent of the Baltimore & Ohio, at 
Pittsburgh, Pa., has been appointed general manager of the 
Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, with office at Cincinnati, 
Ohio. E. A. Peck, superintendent of the Pittsburgh division 
of the Baltimore & Ohio, succeeds Mr. Loree, with office at 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

F. Hume has been appointed superintendent of machinery 
of the Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern, with office at 
Boone, Iowa. 

P. H. Rephorn, general foreman in the motive power de- 
partment of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, at Scran- 
ton. Pa., has resigned to go to E. L. Post & Co., New York. 

E. F. Potter, general superintendent of the Chicago division 
of the Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie, has been ap- 
pointed assistant to the general manager, with office at Min- 
neapolis, Minn., and his former position has been abolished. 

E. S. Koller, division superintendent of the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy at McCook, Neb., has been appointed gen- 
eral superintendent of the Illinois district, with office at 
Galesburg, 111., succeeding Hale D. Johnson, deceased. E. 
Flynn, superintendent of the Omaha division at Omaha, Neb., 
succeeds Mr. Koller, and A. G. Smart, trainmaster at Mc- 
Cook, succeeds Mr. Flynn. 

Sydney B. Wight, purchasing agent of the New York 
Central Lines at New York City, has been appointed general pur- 
chasing agent, succeeding' F. H. Greene. W. C. Bower, chief 
clerk in the office of the president, succeeds Mr. Wright, with 
office at New York. 



A FIREMAN'S RECORD. 

One of the Lake Shore's Pacific type locomotives, weigh- 
ing 266,000 pounds, hauling the westbound Twentieth Cen- 
tury Limited with seven cars in the train on a test run De- 
cember 5, 1909, made the run between Toledo and Elkhart 
in 2 hours and 4 minutes at an average speed of 65 miles 
per hour. In this short time 8^4 tons of coal were shoveled 
into the firebox. The average scoop used on a locomotive 
holds 14 to 15 pounds of coal. Taking the latter figure 
as the average scoop load the fireman had to reach out into 
the tender, a long stretch, get a shovel full of coal, swing 
it around and throw it into the firebox, not anywhere, but 



on the particular spot on the 56^4 square feet of grates 
that happened to need it most at that instant, every 6.3 
seconds from start to finish. This is the most remarkable 
feat of firing for which authoritative figures are available, 
and it may also be submitted as a marvelous feat of endur- 
ance. — Technical World. 



APPRENTICE SCHOOL, PENNSYLVANIA R. R. 

Unique among railroad schools in America is one for ap- 
prentices which has been established at Altoona, Pennsyl- 
vania, by the Pennsylvania R. R., co-operating with the En- 
gineering School of the Pennsylvania State College. This 
school is for the benefit of regular apprentices in the railroad 
shops at Altoona. The object of the school is to give to 
apprentices a knowledge of the fundamentals of mathematics, 
mechanics and drawing, thereby making them better artisans 
— men more useful in their specific trades. The large at- 
tendance shows that the men are eager to make the most 
of the opportunities open to them, and the company is more 
than rapaid by the actual increase in the efficiency of its 
workmen, and by the assurance of unswerving loyalty from 
the men who have received' all their training in its service. 

Departing from the general practice in institutions of this 
nature, which is to teach only technical subjects, systematic 
work in English is carried on with special reference to writ- 
ing business letters, filling out order blanks, time cards, and 
other details. The work is arranged to cover three scholastic 
years of forty-two weeks. Each apprentice receives four 
hours of instruction a week, or a total of 504 hours for the 
three years. The subjects given include essential elements 
of many of those in the mechanical engineering course of 
the best universities; they are mathematics, physics, me- 
chanical drawing, mechanics, mechanism, strength of ma- 
terials, machine design, experimental tests and shop man- 
agement. 

A monthly report of grades is made out by the head in- 
structor and submitted to the general office of the company 
and to the Pennsylvania State college. These monthly re- 
ports, with the annual reports concerning each member of 
the classes, when taken in connection with the regular rec- 
ords of the shop foremen, form an accurate basis on which 
to select and use the men to the best advantage. 




mdngjfe Rl&^ufacturens 



GOETZE GASKETS. 

The leaks in flange joints, unions on steam boilers, steam 
engines, steam pipes, apparatus, etc., are partly due to a 
faulty construction of the joints or couplings, insufficient 
strength of the flang'es and covers, imperfect, rough, very 
uneven, deeply corroded surfaces, or the said surfaces be- 
ing out of parallel. An insufficient number of coupling 
screws, or the placing of same at uneven distances or too 
far from each other, may likewise cause leaks. Leaks may 
furthermore be caused by rigid piping, i. e., piping which 
cannot sufficiently expand and contract, as well as by 
piping and other appliances which do not have a sufficient 
slope to allow the condensed water to run off, are conse- 
quently subject to water-hammer and the excessive pressure 
resulting therefrom. The chief .cause of leaks is to be found 
in the use of packing material incapable of continuously 
withstanding the influence of high temperature, steam, water, 
. hich-pressure gases and acids. 

1h". Goetze copper and metal gasket here illustrated pro- 
vides a packing material which, the manufacturers state, is 
so arranged as to present a surface that conforms to every 



irregularity in the flanges, while effectively resisting high 
pressure and temperature. The Goetze elastic corrugated 
copper gasket with asbestos lining is shown in Fig. 1. It 
is made of chemically pure copper and best asbestos. Only 
a few turns on the flange bolts bring each copper corruga- 
tion snugly against the flange surface and at the same time 
crowd each wall of asbestos against the same surface. 

Through the use of elastic copper and metal gaskets on 
flange joints it has become possible, it is said, to use long- 
distance conduits for steam under presure exceeding 15 
atmospheres, the joints being thus kept tight for a number 
of years. The Goetze copper valve disk with asbestos inlaid 
is shown in Fig. 2. This disk, the manufacturers state, is 
something having all the elasticity needed for tight closing 
and with great durability even under the most unfavorable 
conditions. All sizes suitable for Jenkins valves and other 
valves of similar construction are kept in stock. 
"Goetzerit" Sheet Packing. 

In spite of the advantages of copper and metal gaskets, 
there are those who wish to cut their own packings from a 
sheet, or who for some reason do not want a metal or shaped 
gasket. For such, "Goetzerit" sheet packing may be em- 



I April, mi.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



155 




LmMk 



Fig. 1. 



ployed. It is made in both red and white from asbestos fiber, 
compressed under an exceedingly high pressure, impregnated 
with a substance which, it is claimed, makes it absolutely 
proof against the action of superheated and saturated steam. 
"Goetzerit" white packing is especially recommended for oils, 
benzine, petroleum acids, ammonia, gas, alkaline products, 
etc. It does not squeeze out and narrow the inside diameter 
of the piping and cannot be blown out, it is said, even at 
the high steam pressure now in use. "Goetzerit" red pack- 
ing is made in any desired thickness in sheets 36 inches 
square. The white is made in sheets 45 inches square. Ready- 
made "Goetzerit" gaskets for standard and extra-heavy 
flanged fittings of from 1 to 24 inches are also made. 

Another kind of packing is known as "Self-Lubricating" 
high-pressure packing. It is equally adaptable for saturated 
and superheated steam, and for hot and cold water. It is 
impregnated by an infusible fat which stands against heat 
and is said to have practically inexhaustible lubricating abil- 
ity. It is prepared for all kinds of stuffing boxes and is 
manufactured in sizes from % to 2 inches square. These 
packings are manufactured by the American Goetze Gasket & 
Packing Company, New Brunswick, N. J. 



LAMB PORTABLE DRILL. 

The use of large portable drills is hard on the workman and 
in many cases it is difficult to retain the drill in the proper posi- 
tion. The illustration shows a portable radial drill which over- 




comes these difficulties and which should prove very useful about 
the shop, especially for drilling in close quarters and in awk- 
ward places. The power is furnished by the small motor at the 
top, which is equipped with two speeds of 165 and 230 R. P. M. 
respectively, and is made for either 110 or 220 volts, direct or 
alternating current. The column, which is made of steel tubing, 
has a three-legged base provided with slots by means of which 
it can easily be clamped into place. The drill may be rotated 




Lamb Portable Drill. 

about a horizontal axis as well as about the column and has a 
vertical movement of about 28 inches, thus making it very easy 
to place the drill in any desired position. The spindle has a 
travel of 5 inches, a No. 3 Morse taper, and any sized drill up 
to 1 inch may be used. The feed is operated by a rack and 
pinion, which in turn is operated by a worm and gear and is 
furnished with a quick return. The drill is manufactured by 
the Lamb Electric Co., of Grand Rapids, Mich. 




^Literature 



Fig. 2. 



The Smooth-On Mfg. Co. of Jersy City. X. J., has issued a 
booklet showing a few of the many uses to which this con- 
cern's product is put. 

* * * 

The Philadelphia interlocking and roller bearing car pivot is 
an improved pivot plate which tends to eliminate friction md 
accidents. It is well described in a recent publication of the 
King Fifth Wheel Company of Philadelphia. 

* * * 

The International Acheson Graphite Company of Niagara 



156 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[April, 1911.] 



Falls, N. Y., has issued a booklet setting forth their products 
which are Acheson graphite and various combinations of this 
graphite with oil and grease. It contains considerable of inter- 
est concerning this power of lubricant. 

Monel metal is said to be stronger than steel and less cor- 
rodible than bronze, and in sheet form has been used on the 
new North-Western terminal at Chicago. It is described in a 
recent booklet of the Bayonne Casting Company of Bayonne, 

N.J. 

* ^ * 

C. E. Sargent, a specialist in mechanical engineering problems, 
has issued a booklet showing a few of the special machines and 
designs which he has worked out for various firms. 

^ ^Jc ^ 

Bulletin Number 1042 of the Allis-Chalmers Company, of 
Milwaukee, Wis., is devoted to generating sets composed of 
Allis-Chalmers generative and "A B C" engines. It is up to 

the usual high standard of these bulletins. 

* * * 

The Milwaukee Locomotive Manufacturing Company of Mil- 
waukee, Wis., has issued bulletin 101, which is descriptive of 
gas driven locomotives for mining and industrial use. 

* * * 

W. N. Best, engineer in Calorics, of New York, has published 
a pamphlet of special devices and apparatus for use in connec- 
tion with liquid fuel furnaces. Descriptions are given of a 
number of special oil and tar burning furnaces. 

* * * 

The Farwell gear hobber is completely described in circular 
805 of the Adams Co., Dubuque, Iowa. The fore-word says 
"A line of hobbers that we are glad to put in beside other types 
of gear cutters on a guarantee that they will produce the big- 
gest days work." 

Burton W. Mudge & Company of Chicago has issued a hand- 
some example of catalogue work which deals with Garland 
car ventilation. It contains some thirty-five pages and many 
■excellent illustrations. Both passenger and refrigerator car 
ventilation are dealt with. 




Sfiistri&l iNotes 



Ezra Hounsfield Linley, of St. Louis, president of the E. 
H. Linley Supply Co., of that city; president of Wm. Jessop 
& Sons Steel Sales Co., of St. Louis, and a director of Wm. 
Jessop & Sons, Ltd., Sheffield, England, died in St. Louis 
on March 9. Mr. Linley was born in Sheffield, England, 
in 1841, and since 1872 was the St. Louis agent for Jessops. 
For a number of years he was actively engaged in the Rail- 
way Supply business, and in 1897 organized the E. H. Lin- 
ley Supply Co. Mr. Linley was well known and highly es- 
teemed in the trade, and had many friends in America and 
in England. 

Mr. J. Fremont Murphy, mechanical expert, whose office 
has been in the Hudson Terminal building, New York City, 
has associated himself with the Hobart-Allfree Co., 1380 
Old Colony building, Chicago, and will devote his entire 
attention to the Allfree system of steam distribution as ap- 
plied to locomotives. Mr. Murphy was for many years con- 
nected with the American Locomotive Co., as mechanical 
engineer and later as superintendent of the Cooke works at 
I'aterson, N. J., and is, therefore, thoroughly conversant with 
1- dern locomotive design and methods of construction. 

. r. Theodore L. Condron, 1214 Monadnock block, Chicago, 
has announced that he will continue under his own name 
the engineering practice lately carried on by "Condron & 
Sinks,'' Mr. Sinks having withdrawn to locate in Seattle, Wash. 



The completion of the new building for which ground was 
broken last week will add 8,000 square feet of floor space to 
the Willard Storage Battery Company's plant at Cleveland, 
Ohio. The building will front on Marquette road and is 
being built to take care of the company's rapidly increasing 
business. 

The Okadee Company has been organized and has taken 
offices at 735 Old Colony building, Chicago. The company 
will manufacture and sell the "Okadee" blow-off valve and 
other railway devices which have been O. K.'d by railway 
officials. The officers of the company are A. G. Hollings- 
head, president and manager, and Horace L. Winslow, vice- 
president and treasurer. 

Attention is called to the fact that W. J. Fauth, 310 Mo- 
nadnock block, Chicago, is representing the Concrete Form 
& Engine Co., in northern Illinois and southern Wisconsin. 
This company manufactures a line of two cycle gasoline en- 
gines which are particularly adapted for installation on track 
velocipedes and section hand cars. 

The American Electric Railway Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion, George Keegan, secretary, announces the opening of 
an office at 165 Broadway, New York City. This office will 
be the headquarters of the association, and out of town mem- 
bers are invited to use the rooms for the receipt of their 
mail and for carrying on correspondence, while in the city. 

H. E. Creer, formerly general car foreman of the Missouri 
Pacific Ry. at Atchison, Kansas, and general car foreman 
of the Pere Marquette R. R., in charge of the Grand Rapids 
and Detroit districts, has accepted service as mechanical 
expert with McCord & Company, succeeding the late D. 
J. McOscar, who died on December 22nd last. Mr. Creer's 
headquarters will be at the Chicago office in the People's 
Gas Building. 

Frank H. Greene, general purchasing agent of the New 
York Central Lines, has resigned to become president of the 
Hale & Kilburn Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The annual report of the Railway Steel-Spring Company, 
New York, for the year ending December 31, 1910, shows 
that gross sales were $10,035,435, an increase of $2,192,143 
over 1909. The surplus, after fixed charges, was $810,077, 
or 6 per cent on the $13,500,000 common stock, as compared 
with 5.32 per cent earned on the same stock in 1909. At 
the annual meeting Otis H. Cutler, president of the Ameri- 
can Brake Shoe & Foundry Company, Mahwah, N. J., was 
elected a director to succeed the late Frank S. Layng. The 
officers of the company and the other directors were re- 
elected. 

The annual report of the Cambria Steel Company, Johns- 
town, Pa., for the year ended December 31, 1910, shows 
that the earnings or income from operation, after all ex- 
penses incident to same (including those for ordinary repairs 
and maintenance) had been deducted, added to other in- 
come was $5,461,336 in 1910, compared with $3,329,849 in 
1909. The net income was $4,553,332 in 1910, compared with 
$2,538,087 in 1.909. The dividends paid out in 1910 were 
$2,250,000, compared with $1,800,000 in 1909. The balance 
carried to profit and loss was $113,294 in 1910, compared 
with $38,087 in 1909. 

The Consolidated Concrete Tie Company, Cairo, 111., has 
been organized to make and sell concrete ties under the 
Sneed and Cowan patents. The capital stock is $100,000, 
and is fully subscribed. The officers of the company are: 
J. R. Sneed, president; A. E. Reader, first vice-president; D. 
W. Heilig, second vice-president; H. B. Eshleman, secre- 
tary and treasurer; R. J. D. Cowan, general manager. The 
Sneed patent covers a one-piece tie of reinforced concrete 
with wood or paper cushions to take the shock of the roll- 
ing stock. The Cowan patent covers a three-piece rein- 
forced concrete tie which uses wood or paper cushions as 



[April, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



157 



above. The company is at present making the one-piece 
type and test ties are being placed in a number of stretches 
of track on various railways. 

Mr. W. R. Crawford, formerly connected with the Cooper 
Heater Co., Carlisle, Pa., has been placed in charge of the 
railway department of the Chicago office of the Allis-Chal- 
mers Co. 

The Railway Supply & Curtain Co., Chicago, 111., has been 
incorporated to manufacture railway supplies, curtains, 
shades, and to do a general merchandise business. The in- 
corporators are William T. Nelson, Carl Liesendahl and 
James J. Barbour. Capital stock, $10,000. 

J. A. Fay & Egan Co. announce the discontinuance of their 



Greenboro, N. C, agency. The' Chattanooga, Tenn., office 
has also been discontinued and a new suite of offices opened 
in the Candler Bldg., Atlanta, Ga. The new Atlanta office 
will handle all business in the states of North and South 
Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, Florida and Alabama (out- 
side of Mobile). S. Lee Smith, Benj. H. Cox, Jr. and D. E. 
Gray, will now make Atlanta their headquarters. 

Milton Bartley, president of the American Nut & Bolt 
Fastener Co., of Pittsburg, Pa., has just received patents 
granted him on January 17, 1911, for a new rail fastener. 
This fastener will be put on the market in the fall of this 
year but any railway, we are advised, can have a trial lot 
without cost by giving the make of rail, size of bolt used 
and number of pounds of rail to the yard. 



Meeting of the Executive Committee, Chief Interchange 
Car Inspectors' and Car Foremen's Association 

of America 



A meeting of the executive committee of the Chief Interchange 
Car Inspectors' and Car Foremen's Association was held at To- 
ledo, Ohio, Feb. 18th, 1911. Chairman Waughop called the meeting 
to order at 10 o'clock a. m. The following members were present: 

H. Boutet, Chief Interchange Inspector, Cincinnati, O. 

F. W. Trapnell, Chief Interchange Inspector, Kansas City, Mo. 

Stephen Skidmore, F. C. D — C. C. C. & St. L. Ry., Cincinnati, O. 

Chas. "Waughop, Chief Interchange Inspector, St. Louis, Mo. 

A. Berg,' Foreman — L. S. & M. S. Ry., Erie, Fa. 

J. L. Stark, Gen. Inspector, H. V. Ry., Columbus, O 

T. J. O'Donnell, Arbitrator— N. Y. C. Lines. Buffalo, N. Y. 

W. R. McMunn, A. C. C, C. D.— N. Y. C. & H. R. Ry., New 
York City, N. Y. 

F. C. Schultz, C. C. I.— C. B. & Q. Ry., Chicago, 111. 
J. L. Stark, Gen. Inspector, H. V. Ry., Columbus, O. 
W. D. Cox, T. C. I.— W. & L. E. R. R., Toledo, O. 
H. J. Daruer, G. C. F.— T. T. R. R., Toledo, O. 

F. Eicher, F. P. C— C. C. C. & St. L. Ry., Cincinnati, O. 
D. C. Follas, C. C. to G. M.— T. T. R. R., Toledo, O. 

C. M. Hitch, G. F. C. R.— C. H. & D. R. R., Cincinnati, O. 

G. C. Livingston, F. C. R.— H. V. R. R., Toledo, O. 
F. M. Lucore, A. to A. — A. R. A., Chicago, 111. 

J. G. Stokes, F. C. I.— N. Y. C. Lines, Toledo, O. 

W. Starkey, F. C. R— A. A. R. R., Toledo, O. 

A. S. Sternberg. G. I. C. D.— Wabash R. R., Toledo, O. 

W. J. Stoll, C. I. I.— All Lines, Toledo, O. 

W. R. Wilson, G. C. F— N. Y. C. Lines, Toledo, O. 

W. Westfall, G. C. F.— L. S. & M. S. R. R., Collinwood, O. 

R. E. Weale, Toledo, O. 

Chairman Waughop introduced J. J. Mooney, director of public 
safety of the city of Toledo and H. L. Paine, secretary of the 
Chamber of Commerce of Toledo, who spoke on the merits of 
Toledo and guaranteed a very warm welcome if the meeting should 
be held in Toledo next September. 

Mr. Boutet. — I would suggest that we do not go through the 
rules. I presume everybody came here prepared to know what 
changes they want, and after the recommendations are adopted, 
then we can put them in form to compare with the rule, so as 
to get them in writing, I move that course be pursued. 

Mr. Waughop — I would suggest that we confine ourselves to one 
or two recommendations. My experience with the Arbitration 
Committee is that the less recommendations we make, the more 
attention will be given to them. I would particularly call your 
attention to my motion at Washington last September in regard 
to the penalty defects on cars offered in interchange. I think 
that it is one of the best recommendations that this body could 
make, and I would entertain a motion that we proceed on that 
subject first. 

President Boutet — To start something, I would offer as an 
amendment to the rules of interchange, the recommendation 
made by us last year in rules 2, 3 and 4, which I will read. 

Seconded. 

Mr. Boutet — I wish you would Rive all a full opportunity to 
be heard on this. Let them recognize that they are at liberty 
to give any ideas as to what would be advantageous in the rules. 
We are supposed to represent (heir wishes, and we have quite a 
large meeting here. 

Mr. O'Donnell — I think it is proper that Mr. Boutet should 
read one rule at a time and let us digest it by itself and explain 
what it takes the place of. I! lie will read the first rule we 
will simply pass on it. 

Mr. Boutet — That would be almost impossible to do, but it was 
With the idea of getting "Run, repair or transfer" advocated, in 
fact our Local Car Foremen's Association on last Thursday sug- 
gested making the same recommendation. That seems to be 
what our General Managers want more than anything else. A 
good many people say that run, repair and transfer is going to 
work a hardship on the receiving line. With this ten-hour pro- 
vision, they are going to get but very little if any advantage 



It isn't working any hardship on anybody. If it is a loaded 
car and they cannot make repairs when the car is loaded, we 
give them a transfer, but if it is an empty car, you have the 
empty car to work in in preference to the loaded. It is not 
the serious defects; it is the little things that the inspectors get 
a chance to quibble over. They are working the same in Chicago, 
St. Louis and Kansas -City, and at Buffalo pretty near the same. 
There are four or five large interchange points. I suppose there 
are as many cars interchanged at these points as there are at 
any other eight points in the country, or any other ten points: 
if it is a good thing for large places, why should it not be a 
good thing for all? Some put up the plea: "I have interchange 
where I get ten cars a week. They might put a car in there 
that would cause me to transfer." It isn't any harder on 
one than it is on the other. Others put up the plea: "I do 
not receive enough empties, and that is going to w T ork a hard- 
ship." But he gets paid for the loads. You bring your own 
inspector over in your own yard and the foreman knows what is 
set out. If he has to set anything out it is brought to the 
foreman's attention directly. He does not have the other foreman 
come there and complain about setting cars back. You get the 
revenue if you haul it ten miles. If you haul it 100 miles back- 
wards, nobody gets any pay for that. 

Mr. Schultz — We have been operating on the run, repair or 
transfer plan in Chicago for twenty years, and the matter of 
returning loaded cars today is entirely out of the question. I 
haven't a recollection at this time of a loaded car being returned. 
We do not work on the plan of getting a transfer order. The 
receiving road stands the cost of transfer and uses their own 
judgment. I think the plan is more feasible than the one 
outlined by Rule 15 for the reason that that rule requires in- 
spection by a third party. It is unreasonable to expect a 
railway to hold loaded cars and cause the receiving line to be 
criticized for the delay. There is one good thing about it; you 
would be surprised how few cars require transfer when they have 
lo pay for it themselves. If you hold the foreman down that 
lie must personally examine the cars, he would naturally take 
the load that is in them in preference to transfering. The 
delivering line paying for the transfer causes too much criticism — 
too much opportunity for holding a car. It is my experience that 
where the receiving road has to pay for the transfer, that we 
move freight faster. 

Mr. Starks — Has any recent change been made with reference 
to your inspection rules at Chicago, or are they governed by 
M. C. B. rules? 

Answer — There hasn't been any agreement. It is still under 
consideration. We work strictly a to M. C. B. rules, as 

near as it can be brought out with the exception of A. R. A 
Rule 15. The plan under way, to adopt a set of rules which have 
In mind the strict operation according to M. C. B. rules, nan,, 
to card cars under M. C. B. l e plan lias an exception as 

to A. R. A. Rule 15. 

Mr. Schultz — The committee, of which I am a member, found 
that a great many roads, and one that I work for, are applying 
a so-called trace card. I watched my inspectors pretty closely 
and they had plenty of time to put them on. It occurred to me 
that if they had time to put on a trace card, they had time 
i.i put on a defect card. 

Mr. Waughop — How do you account for such points as Cin- 
cinnati and St. Louis having no n 

Mr. Schultz — They haven't wakened up to the fact. I find 
that coming through Junction points that the cars get into Chi- 
cagO about two days before the card, or three months after. 
The only place to put them is on the car. 

Mr. Wauhop — I find that the cars that are carded at Chicago 

get back tO St. LOUiS before the cards are put on. 



138 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[April, 1911.] 



Mr. Schultz — They are not being carded at Chicago. 

Mr. Stoll. — As far as this point is concerned in reference to 
loaded car-? we have had run, repair or transfer for twenty years, 
as far as the mechanical part is concerned. We have not returned 
a loaded car for repairs, with the exception of penalty defects. 
They have been returned at one time but very few at the present 
time. As to empty cars, we use our own judgment whether the 
cars will be repaired by the receiving line. 

Mr. Sternberg — I understand that Toledo is working the A. R. 
A. rule. There are quite a number of Toledo men here and I 
would like to hear an expression. 

Mr. stoll. — We transferred in the last six months of 1910, 630 
cars, on an average of 3% a day. 

Mr. Waughop — Do you all understand that A. R. A. Rule 15 
gives the privilege of any individual to make its own arrange- 
ments as to transfer and otherwise? I so understand it. 

Mr. Wilson — If you want to work the M. C. B. rule, you will 
have to work the A. R. A. rule, because you cannot work the 
one without the other. 

Mr. Boutet. — I believe Mr. Wilson's line receives a good many 
cars of coal; that seems to be the bone of contention. I would 
like to ask Mr. Wilson if it is working any hardship on him, 
or doesn't that condition prevail. 

Answer. — The Lake Shore receives a great amount of coal and 
the A. R. A. rule governs that to a considerable extent. In 
Toledo they go more on the condition of the equipment in the 
coal line. We have nothing to do with the transfer of the 
coal. Part of it can be and part of it cannot. It has to be 
taken up with the delivering company's agent and they dispose 
of it; if not, they go ahead and tell our agent to transfer it; 
then we get a transfer. But we do not go much here on the 
lading; it is on the physical condition. I cannot see where the 
A. R. A. rule is working a hardship on any one. Regardless of 
that, if we can run a car we run it. 

Mr. Wilson — There are three conditions under which we trans- 
fer: When due to defective equipment, unsafe to run according 
to M. C. B. rules, unless without transfer repairs can be made 
in 24 hours. 

Mr. Sternberg — I believe the chief objection is on account of 
fear of delaying freight. We are informed that at Toledo they 
have been working under it and have no trouble. It appears to 
me if A. R. A. rule is put into effect thej' might have a little 
trouble at the start but later on everybody would get used to 
it, and it would work out. I believe we transfer more cars in 
Chicago under the present ruling than they will in Toledo under 
the A. R. A. rule. It has been that way with us and a rule like 
St. Louis, with 24 hours, will bring just as much contention 
as the other way, because there will be a dispute on their hands 
whether or not it ought to take only 18 hours to repair a car. I 
remember we had the number of hours specified in Toledo and 
we had trouble in that respect. I believe there are more points 
today working under A. R. A. Rule 15 than there are that are 
not working under it, and the sooner we get in line the better. 
I am in favor of working under M. C. B. rules. At the present 
time Toledo is suffering a hardship in carding cars simply be- 
cause Chicago does not do their part. Cars come down from 
Chicago that ought to be carded in Chicago, and Toledo has 
to hold the freight to put on cards. If the M. C. B. rules were 
lived up to universally and cars carded in interchange, all points 
would be relieved because they should be carded at the proper 
place. 

Mr. Skidmore — As stated by Mr. Schultz the receiving line to 
transfer at their own expense cuts out any contention as to the 
24 hour clause, or as to the physical condition of the car. I 
will agree with Mr. Schultz that there will be less cars trans- 
ferred, if the receiving line had to do it at their own expense. 
It is human nature to let the other fellow pay for the transfer, 
if he can possibly do so under the rules. We have worked 
under all kinds of rules at Cincinnati. We have had run, repair 
or transfer, and we have had the delivering line pay for the 
transfer as they are doing now, and I will say that it was much 
more satisfactory when the receiving line was doing the trans- 
ferring at their own expense. 

Mr. Boutet — The matter of transfer is not altogether in this 
recommendation. It is run, repair or transfer; that is what I am 
trying to get at. to see if it is not advantageous to the railroads, 
if it would not move freight faster than anything else they can 
do to prevent any cars being sent back. 

Mr. Trapnell — The transfer should be done at the receiving 
line's expense, and we have the thing in a nutshell. If you desire 
to transfer the car, do it at your own expense. 

Mr. Boutet — Is it possible that the defects are only on cars 
going one way? 

Answer — On corn, they only travel east. Coal and such comes 
west. 

Question — Wouldn't it necessarily follow that at the end of 
the year, when you balance your books you would find them 
about even on the transfer, either way? 

Mr. O'Donnell — Our transfers in Buffalo are, safe to say, four 
east bound to one west bound. With corn and wheat we repair 
drafts under load. Barley goes up to the roof and we simply 
have to transfer. 

Mr. Lucore — Yes, of course it would be very nice if we could 
all agree to A. R. A. 15; but Inasmuch as we cannot, we can 
still pass over that. 



Mr. O'Donnell — Read the rule and let's adopt it or reject it. 

Mr. Boutet — Rule No. 1 is to remain as it is. 

Rule No. 2. 

No car must be offered in interchange unless safety appliances 
are in good serviceable condition and car is safe to go to the 
receiving line's repair or transfer track. 

Mr. O'Donnell moved the adoption of the report, which was 
seconded and carried. 

Mr. O'Donnell — I think we should eliminate from Rule 3 — "in 
accordance with the American Association Rule 15" — because you 
have entered on a subject that is foreign to this body. The 
expense of transfer is largely controlled by the operating de- 
partment. I am in favor of accepting the car. \ 

It was moved that Rule 3 be adopted. Seconded and carried. 

Rule 4. 

Mr. Schultz. — That is perhaps purely local with the receiving 
line. It depends upon the facilities; some take proper care and 
others do not pay any attention. I want to leave that with the 
receiving road. If they want the cars bad enough, it is purely 
a local matter. 

Mr. Sternberg — That would have a serious effect at small inter- 
change points. 

Mr. O'Donnell — I do not like to see Mr. Boutet's motion re- 
jected without some recommendation. We might suggest that the 
movement of empty cars in interchange is very vital to the in- 
terests of the railroad. 

The question was put upon the adoption of Rule 4 and lost. 

Mr. Boutet — I move that this Executive Committee recommend 
to the Arbitration Committee that owner's defect in one condition, 
be made owner's defect under all conditions. 

Mr. Boutet — If a side door is gone, you can put it on and 
charge the owner. Missing material ought to be charged to the 
owner, as much under one condition as another. 

Mr. O'Donnell— I think it is only proper and just that we should 
refer to the rules in this regard; we should ask them to simply 
eliminate from these rules the reference to cars offered in in- 
terchange of missing materials and owner's defects. This body 
represents in a way the interchange throughout the country, and 
we could say that this committee recommends, without reserva- 
tion, that owner's defects on a car travelling at any point through- 
out the country should be considered as such at any point. 

Mr. Schultz — I do not think we should make any exception. 

The question was put upon Mr. Boutet's motion and carried. 

Mr. Boutet — I have one other motion; that the master car build- 
ers adopt and put in force a standard steam hose coupling for 
passenger cars. 

Seconded. 

Mr. Hitch — I am heartily in favor of the M. C. B. Association 
adopting an M. C. B. standard steam hose coupling which will 
flo away with considerable delay in the movement of passenger 
equipment and bring about better conditions throughout the 
country, and it will save considerable time in tracing the hose 
that we have to apply. 

Mr. Boutet — The condition at Cincinnati is something like this: 
The Penna. interchange sleeping cars with the L. & N. The 
C. H. & D. interchange with the Cincinnati Southern and the Big 
Four has two lines to interchange with. I believe the M. C. B. 
Association should designate what is a standard, and let them 
all put the same coupling on and save this annoyance. 

Mr. Hitch — The proceedings of the M. C. B. Association do show 
an illustration of a steam hose coupling that is recommended as a 
standard, but it is not being enforced throughout the country. Of 
course there are two different styles of steam hose coupling 
used on the different lines in Cincinnati. 

Mr. Schultz — The present practice of running cars through on 
various lines is being extended. It has become a nuisance to be 
obliged to change equipment. We may be out of order but we 
certainly are right in calling attention to this. 

Mr. El cher — There is no question about the steam hose business 
being the biggest nuisance in existence. There are three or four 
different kinds of steam hose and nobody knows any better than 
1 the troubles. 

The question was put upon the motion and carried. 

Moved and seconded that it be recommended that the M. C. B. 
Association adopt a standard steam hose coupling. Carried. 

Mr. Sternberg — I have a little matter here: Quite a number 
of members recommended to the committee on standards and 
recommended practice in 1910, the addition of the 8^-in. coupled 
butt, for the reason that the 6%-in. coupler butt was designed to 
use with the 6%-in. x 8-in. drat spring, allowing %-in. clear- 
ance. Also the 9%-in. butt was designed to accommodate certain 
friction draft gears requiring that width within the yoke. This 
recommendation was submitted to letter ballot and rejected, the 
vote being 1,191 yeas and 614 nays, total 1,805; necessary votes 
for adoption, 1,203. Inasmuch as there are thousands of cars 
equipped with M. C. B. "Class G." springs, the 6^-in. butt is not 
Of sufficient depth, and not being good practice to use liners be- 
tween the butt and yoke ends (the diameter of the class G 
spring being 8-in.) and furthermore this spring cannot be used 
with a 9%-in. butt as the clearance was too great, also the 
spring would not be entral. We believe this matter should again 
be submitted to the M. C. B. committee with a view of urging 
the adoption of the 8%-in. butt as a standard. I do not think it 



[April, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



159 



is practical to use liners; it. certainly weakens the point in your 
construction, and I have in mind to make this recommendation 
to the M. C. B. Association, and I thought possibly that we might 
get this executive body to do the same. 

President Boutet — I feel that if this association can at present 
make recommendations for interchange, that we had better keep 
away from the standards for a while. They have mechanical ex- 
perts and I am afraid if we should attempt to offer a recommen- 
dation of this kind they would say we were trying to run the 
railways. 

Mr. Stark — If there is no particular objection on the part of 
Mr. Boutet, or any members of the committee, I would like to 
see Mr. Sternberg's suggestion go through — the adoption of an 
8%-in. butt as a standard. We have made this recommendation 
from our own office to the committee, and I would like the ad- 
ditional weight that the recommendation of this committee would 
give the movement. It was voted upon by letter ballot and came 
within about nine of having the necessary majority, and we feel 
that it will be a vital point when another vote is taken. I 
would like the additional influence. 

Mr. Schultz — We have a great many cars equipped with these 
couplers. They are serviceable and there is no reason why they 
should not be worn out. If I felt that rule, if adopted, would 
create any more of them I would oppose it. 

Question — How are you going to get away from the use of the 
"Class G" spring? 

The motion to adopt Mr. Sternberg's suggestion was seconded 
and carried. 

Mr. Sternberg — That went through nicely; I will try another one. 
It. is something in regard to billing. We have experienced con- 
siderable controversy, especially with private line companies oper- 
ating refrigerator cars, in the settlement of freight car repair 
bills, covering the proper labor charge for removing, repairing 
and replacing body truss rods. I would, therefore, respectfully 
request that your committee recommend to the M. C. B. Arbi- 
tration Committee to fix a proper labor charge covering half as 
well as a full continuous body truss rod, and have same inserted 
in M. C. B. Rule No. 111. 

Mr. McMunn — I move that Rule 12 read as follows: The evi- 
dence of a joint inspector, or the joint evidence of two persons, 
who have made personal inspection of car, one representing the 
owner of the car and the other representing the delivering road, 
which has a representative member in the M. C. B. Association, 
that the repairs are not proper, shall be final, etc. 

Mr. Schultz — I believe that the signing of joint evidence by a 
party without inspection should be prohibited. There are so 
many joint evidence cards passed back and forth and signed 
indiscriminately that I am disgusted. After they get out 
joint evidence, they get out a round robin and each road has to 
write forty letters, and the whole thing may be two wrong bolts. 
There ought to be a reasonable excuse for making them out in 
the first place. Our company has instructed their mechanical 
men not to make joint evidence cards for wrong repairs unless 
they must be repaired at once. 

Mr. Trapnell — That brings out a good point. There are some 
private lines that get several defect cards for one defect. We 
have another line that signs every joint evidence card that 
comes into the superintendent's office; he authorizes them to issue 
a defect card without any further investigation. That can be 
handled in a dozen different ways and get a dozen different cards 
for the same defect. I believe it would be a good plan. 

Mr. Boutet. — To sign joint evidence without seeing the car is a 
farce. This Association made a recommendation that no joint 
evidence be signed unless the car was viewed by the two parties. 

Mr. Schultz — If the use of the car is worth anything, it is 
worth more than to shop it. It takes three or four days and 
the repairs would have to be very extensive before they are 
worth the time that you put the car out of service. I would like ' 
to make an amendment to Mr. McMunn's motion: "That joint 
evidence card shall not be signed without the car being prop- 
erly jointly inspected by two persons, and the parties signing the 
joint evidence. 

Mr. McMunn — I would say the car being jointly inspected. Not 
"properly." 

Mr. O'Donnell — You are tying up interchange. Suppose the 
roads get three or four cars this morning with improper repairs. 
The Lehigh Valley would call me over to look over the cars. I 
would have to have three or four assistants. I think Mr. McMunn's 
motion that the party signing the joint evidence must be a rep- 
resentative of the M. C. B. fully meets what lie wants. 

Mr. Schultz — The other remark is what I concur in. He does 
not propose to sign joint evidence without knowing. 

Mr. O'Donnell — I'd just as soon take the statement of the receiv- 
ing road; it is just as good as the signing of joint evidence by 
two men who never saw the car, 

Mr. Boutet — Nobody will get joint evidence in my office unless 
we personally see the car 

Mr. O'Donnell — Why don't you insist on seeing all owner's 
defects. 

Mr. W, — We do not care for them. 

Mr. O'Donnell — The rule says that you can charge a car owner a 
couple of dollars a month of repairs made on any road in the 
country. 

Mr. Schultz— I would be willing to recommend that joint evi- 
dence be abolished altogether; let the owner fight it out with 
the man that made the repairs. 

Mr. O'Donnell — All good men are not going to live forever, and 
the railroads are going to run on. The men are just as good 



in their intentions and we ought to be honorable and fair with the 
men who handle these repairs. If a foreman says to me "That 
is correct," it is just as good as if I saw it. It is impossible to 
see all these cars interchanged and our association doesn't at- 
tempt it. 

Voice.— The amendment to the motion is that joint evidence be 
not signed without the inspection of the car by the person signing 
the joint evidence. 

The ballot resulted in 4 yeas and 1 no. 

Mr. Schultz — My motion should be corrected so as to embody 
Mr. McMunn's intention, that the party so signing joint evidence 
must be a representative of the Master Car Builders' Association. 

Mr. Trapnell — The original motion called for the party signing 
the joint evidence must be a member of the M. C. B. Mr. Schultz 
offers an amendment because he wants the personal inspection of 
the two parties, which comes in under another motion. 

The question was put upon the original motion and carried. 

Mr. Schultz — I think it is well to recommend to the M. C. B. 
Association that inasmuch as repairs are made by a great many 
new and inexperienced men, particularly in the yards where they 
cannot be properly supervised, that the name of the knuckle be 
stamped plainly on the knuckle during the progress of manufacture. 

A motion to that effect was carried. 

Mr. O'Donnell — Don't you think we ought to ask the arbitrating 
committee to again consider the end of the car; that damage to 
the end of a car, or any portion of the same broken out will be 
considered owner's defects. 

Motion made and carried. 

President Boutet read a communication from Mr. Wall and sug- 
gested that Montreal and Minneapolis had been mentioned at the 
Washington meeting. Mr. O'Donnell read a communication from 
Montreal. 

Mr. Trapnell — Mr. Campbell was down to see me and he said 
he had nothing further to offer with respect to Minneapolis than 
what was offered at Washington. He would like to see the meet- 
ing go there on account of getting a majority of the men up 
there into our association. 

Mr. Schultz — I am sure that if we could consistently go to Min- 
neapolis that we would not only have a good time but we would 
greatly increase our membership. I feel that possibly from the far 
East, it would be an inconvenient point, but there is no question 
in my mind but what arrangements would go through without a 
hitch. 

It was moved by President Boutet that the next meeting be 
held in Toledo. Seconded and carried unanimously. 

Mr. Stark — In view of the fact that we have decided to come 
to Toledo, I would suggest that the date be set as early in Sep- 
tember as possible, and would move you that the convention be 
called for the 5th, 6th and 7th. 

Seconded and carried. 

President Boutet moved that the Boody House be made head- 
quarters. 

Mr. Stoll — I am in favor of the Boody House with the under- 
standing that the President make necessary arrangements. 

The question was put upon the motion and carried. 

It was moved that a vote of thanks be extended to the men 
who had attended and made the meeting interesting. 

Seconded and carried. 

Thereupon the meeting adjourned. 

Recommendations. 

The Chief Interchange Car Inspectors' and Car Foremen's 
Association of America begs to submit the following recommended 
changes in M. C. B. rules: 

Eliminate Rule 2 and substitute the following: 

No car must be offered in interchange unless the safety appli- 
ances are in good, serviceable condition and the car is safe to 
go to repair or transfer track of the receiving line. 

Loaded cars must be accepted in interchange, if safe to go to 
the repair or transfer track of the receiving line, the receiving line 
to run, repair or transfer. 

If repairs are made and chargeable to the owners they will so 
charge, if the defects are such that the delivering line is respon- 
sible, a defect card shall be given against the delivering line for 
same. 

Eliminate Rule 12 and substitute the following: 

The evidence of a joint inspector or the joint evidence of two 
persons, who have made a persona! inspection of car. one repre- 
senting the owner of the car and the other representing the de- 
Uverlng road, which has a representative member in (he M. C. B. 
Association, that the repairs are not proper, shall be final. 

A joint evidence card shall be used for this purpose, which shall 
describe and show location of parts repaired or renewed, as per 
Rule 14. This card shall be of the form shown on page 7s. 

Insert in Rule 111 a proper labor Charge for applying one half 
as well as a full continuous body truss tod. 

That the M. C. B. Association chance the rules making; car own- 
er's defects under one condition, car owner's defects under all 
conditions. 

In other words, if the delivering line can charge owners for 
repairs on cars before delivery, the receiving can repair and cbai 
owners after delivery. 

That the M. C. B. Association adopt and put in force a standard 
steam hose coupling on passenger cars. 

That the M. C. I'.. Association adopt an 8' 2 -inch butt end as 
one of the standard couplers. 

That the M. C. B. Association require the name to be cast or 
stamped on the knuckle the same as on coupler. 



160 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[April, 1911.] 




jgenf Tfeilosaij Mechanical p&fenfe 



Material for this department is compiled expressly for Railway Master Mechanic by Watson & Boyden, Patent 
and Trademark Attorneys and Solicitors, 918 F Street, N. W., Washington, D. C, and to them all inquiries in regard 
to patents, trademarks, copyrights, etc., and litigation affecting the same should be addressed. 

A complete printed copy of the specification and drawing of any United States patent in print will be sent, postpaid, 
on application to the above firm, to any address for ten cents. 



BRAKE BEAM. 

9S4.643 — Carl E. Bauer and William Edward Fowler, Hammond, 

Ind., assignors to Simplex Railway Appliance Company. 

Patented Feb. 21, 1911. 

This brake beam consists of a cat metal compression member 

and a strut having openings through which is slipped a bent rod 



986,667. 



984,643. 




26. Bolts 22 and 23 pass through the compression member andi 
are secured to the rod 26 by means of turnbuckles 27 and 28. 
This provides an exceedingly strong and rigid structure. 



RAILWAY-CAR SEAT. 
985,364 — Henry B. Morris and Clarence A. Van Derveer, Michigan 
City, lnd., assignors to Ford & Johnson Company, Michi- 
gan City, Ind. Patented Feb. 28, 1911. 
This invention relates to that class of car seats in which the 



986,364 




light for its strength. It relates to that type of truck known as the 
arch-bar truck in which a diagonal member I extends from be- 
neath the spring plank over the tops of the pedestals. The con- 
struction will be evident from the illustration without further ex- 
planation. 



CAR-HEATING AND VENTILATING SYSTEM. 
986,732 — Min De Lin McGerry, Chicago, 111., assignor to Frank P. 

Mies, Chicago, 111, 
The heating system comprises two fans, one a fresh air fan, the 
other a foul air fan. Each fans has two air supply paths, one 
path including the source of heat, the other excluding the source 
of heat. 



CAR-TRUCK SIDE FRAME. 
987,014 — Oswald S. Pulliam, Pittsburg, Pa., assignor to Pittsburg 
Equipment Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 
A car truck side frame in which the top and bottom members 



986,656., 




back may be shifted from one side to the other without being 
turned over. The improvements consist in details of construction 
relating to the seat frame and the mechanism for supporting and 
operating the foot rest. Two foot rails are provided and are con- 
nected to pivoted yokes which are shifted at each operation of the 
back. 



ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE. 

985,400 — William Cooper, Pittsburg, Pa., assignor to Westinghouse 

Electric and Manufacturing Co. Patented Feb. 28, 1911. 

This type of locomotive is designed for heavy service and carries 

a very large motor, the object being to support the motor on the 



and the journal boxes are found in one casting. The columns be- 
tween the top and bottom members are separable and are fastened 
to these members by lugs. 



MEANS FOR DRIVING GENERATORS FROM CAR AXLES. 

986,656— William I. Thomson, Newark, N. J., assignor to Safety Car 

Heating & Lighting Co. 

A car truck having longitudinal members extending beyond the 

truck frame, and a cross bar joining the ends of the longitudinal 



986,689. 

,PJ ' // ^9 '«*" ?0 




zmwVPzH., ■'•!• if 





987,014. 




986,732. 




body frame rather than upon the axle so as to reduce the wear. 
The motor is connected to the driving wheels through connecting 
rods 9 and 12 and a jack shaft 10 as will be clear from the illus- 
tration. 



CAR-TRUCK. 
985,657 — Harry A. F. Campbell, of Cynwyd, Pa., assignor to Baldwin 
Locomotive Works, Philadelphia, Pa. Patented Feb. 28, 1911. 
The improved truck frame covered by this patent is exceptionally 



members. A generator is suspended from the cross bar, and is 
driven by a belt drive from the axle of the truck. 

CHUCK. 
986,689— Edwin A. Clark, Topeka, Kans. 
An axially thrust chuck having a series of segment-shaped sec- 
tions, one end of which forms a gripping jaw, the other end being 
pivoted and means provided for pushing the jaws apart when the 
pressure is relieved. 



[May, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



161 



Established 1878 

Published by THE RAILWAY LIST COMPANY 



WILLIAM E. MAGRAW, Pres. and Treas. LYNDON F. WILSON, Managing Editor 

CHAS. S. MYERS, Vice-Pres. OWEN W. MIDDLETON, Assoc. Editor 

C. C. ZIMMERMAN, Bus. Mgr. KENNETH L. VAN AUKEN, Assoc. Editor 

J. M. CROWE, Mgr. Cent. Dist. WARREN EDWARDS, 2d V..P. & Assoc. Editor 



A MONTH FROM NOW. 

In about a month, if fortune favors you, you will be 
going down to the conventions at Atlantic City, and of 
course this year's meetings are to be the best and most 
helpful the association has yet held. It would be contrary 
to our spirit of progress if they were not to be. One way 
to make them of more value is to take a little time to famil- 
iarize yourself with the program and reports to be pre- 
sented and to outline a few remarks on the subject in which 
you are especially interested. In following your technical 
journals you may have noticed that down on the C. & L. W. 
they have had considerable success with a new spark ar- 
rester, or that out on the P. D. Q. they are making remark- 
able welds by a certain process. Wouldn't it be a good idea 
to make a note to see your mechanical friends on these 
roads while at Atlantic City and hear about it at first hand? 
It might result in an increase of efficiency and a decrease 
of expense on your own road. And we believe that with 
the stir we have had about that overworked word "efficiency" 
the past year, the men who have ideas on how to decrease 
the cost of production will be listened to very attentively. 
The work of the mechanical conventions has probably done 
as much towards improved methods as any one agency, and 
this year there is an especial chance for them to shine. 



Office of Publication: Manhattan Building, Chicago 

Telephone, Harrison 4948 

Eastern Office: 50 Church Street, New York 

Telephone Cortlandt 5765 
Central Office: House Bldg., Pittsburg, Pa. 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway power, car equipment, shops, 

machinery and supplies. 
Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 
Subscription price, $2.00 a year; to foreign countries, $2.50, free of 

postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 

application to the office, by mail or in person. 
In remitting, make all checks payable to the Railway List Company. 
Papers should reach subscribers by the 16th of the month at the 

latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or failure to 

receive any issue and another copy will be very gladly sent. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 

at Chicaeo Illinois Under Act of March 3, 1879. 
^ at Chicago. Illinois, TRE SITUATION IN BRIEF. 

Vi -v"v"v\ / r^} • i\/i mil XT c The Bureau of Railway Economics has recently issued 

ol. XAAV. Chicago, May, I V I I INo. D . 

^__ its statement of the "Situation in Brief" for the month of 

February. It reads as follows: 

CONTENTS. <1T7 , . , a a I , u • u 

„ Jgi . , rebruary returns, when reduced to a per-mile basis, show 

Editorial — J ' r , 

A Month from Now 161 a decrease with respect to those for the corresponding month 

The Situation in Brief 161 , , . „ . . , 

A Substitute for Electrification 162 of the P^ious year, het operating revenue, that is, total 

The Growth of Motive Power 162 revenue less operating expenses, for all roads reporting. 

Flange Wear on Electric Locomotives 163 ., . , , _ „„..„ 

show a decrease per mile irom the figure of hebruary, 1910, 
Electrification in Italy 163 

Spring Meeting of the A. S. M. E 166 of $34 or 14 per cent. This decrease was due to a decline 

Motor Installation in Chicago Railways Company's Shop 166 in revenues rather than an increase in expenses." 

Strength of Oxy-acetylene Welds in Steel 170 Nobody can question the facts as outlined in the above 

Superheater Maintenance 7- paragraph, as they are gained from the same sources from 

A Comparison of Locomotive Valve Gears 173 . . . 

which the Interstate Commerce Commission .derives the 
M. C. B. Interchange Inspection 176 

Locomotive Developments in England and Germany 177 information for its records. The paragraph could be stereo- 
Care of Small Tools 178 typed and used each month except for the slight change in 

Punctuality Record, N. Y. N. H. & H. R. R ,..179 the figures given. In the words of President McCrea of the 

Shop Kinks- Pennsylvania: 

Welding Locomotive Frame with Limited Facilities 180 

Dies for Brake Rod Jaws 180 "j^ seem s proper to note in this connection the increa>- 

Removing Air Pumps 180 . 

ing number of items of expenses which are entirely beyond 
Lifting Machine for Large Railway Cars 182 

The Oxy-acetylene Process and the Steel Car 184 the control of the management, and the general tendency 

Locomotive Blows and Pounds 185 in this direction which is being brought about by regula- 

Coal Storage Pits, Illinois Traction System 187 t j on through legislation, and which, though difficult to detect 

The Coal Problem 188 j fl t | ie or( jinary year to year comparisons of results of opera- 

A Sneak Advertiser 190 ^ nust| nevertheless, be the subject of grave concern. 

New Books lstl , . , , , , , 

^ , no, "The various state and ie.deral laws enacted during the 

Personals lai 

Among the Manufacturers— past ten years have added heavy burdens to the annual cost 

Libby Turret Lathe !•>-' of operat i n, and while manv of them are intended to pro- 
Commutator Slotting Tools 193 

Universal Flexible Packing 193 vide for safer operation, and arc supposed, therefore, to be 

Double Spindle Shaper for Car Shops 194 . the mterest Q f sa f e ty, it IS becoming increasingly diffi- 

Sanitary Wiping Rags 194 

Hydraulic Rams for Elevating Water 195 cult to meet this burden and also adhere to the high stand- 
Net? Literature 195 ard f maintenance and operation which has been provided 

Industrial Notes 196 ^ ^ pubHc 

Recent Railway Mechanical Patents 198 



16* 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[May, 1911.] 



"The recently enacted federal legislation which requires 
the changing of ladders and brakestaffs on freight cars will 
cost the Freight Car Pool lines of the Pennsylvania system 
nearly five million dollars during the next five years, with 
practically no benefit whatever to the lines thus affected. 

"The state and municipal legislation covering the elimi- 
nation of grade crossings has already resulted in expendi- 
tures of over $3,000,000 on the lines of the Pittsburgh, Cin- 
cinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Ry., and with the present ten- 
dency to place a larger share of this expense on the rail- 
roads, the annual expenditures for this item are likely to be 
still further increased in the future." 

The railways must solve this situation; they must also 
have large quantities of new equipment, the purchase of 
which has been postponed until operation in some cases 
will soon become actually dangerous. One avenue which, 
though fraught with thrill, offers temporary solution is 
wage reduction. It is stated that several railways are about 
to take advantage of this method. One railway has already 
instituted a plan for a very considerable reduction of labor 
forces, which amounts to the same thing as far as temporary 
saving is concerned, but which will prove enormously ex- 
pensive in the end. In any event it is probable that wage 
reduction must follow and it would seem that it would be 
better for all concerned, from the labor organizations to the 
directors, that this method rather than that a reduction of 
forces should be adopted. 

It must be remembered that short time in the shops and 
less-than-capacity operation of repair equipment will result 
in a situation later which usually calls for repair work much 
farther beyond maximum capacity than at first consideration 
seems logical. Standard maintenance should be religiously 
defended by mechanical officials, even if compelled on this 
account to cut the average wage. 



A SUBSTITUTE FOR ELECTRIFICATION. 

During a recent meeting of the Western Society of Engi- 
neers in Chicago at which a paper dealing with the smoke 
nuisance and electrification of the Chicago terminals was 
read by Paul P. Bird, a suggestion of a substitute for actual 
and complete electrification was submitted in discussion by 
Robert H. Kuss. The plan offered by Mr. Kuss incor- 
porates the following essential parts for each train power 
unit: 

1. , An internal combustion engine of the Diesel type, 
capable of developing approximately the average horse- 
power of the service for which the locomotive is designed. 

2. A direct-connected electric generator, the output of 
which is designed to agree with the engine output running 
at its most economical rating. 

3. An electric storage outfit, capable of serving power 
for a suitable period of time, sufficient to exert a maximum 
effort equal to the power requirements of the locomotive 
when the engine and generator are out of service. 

4. Motor-driven running gear. 

5. Controlling apparatus capable of throwing into service 
the generator alone, the storage alone, or both together at 
any desired ratio of power delivery. 

Mr. Kuss states that all the essential parts of this sug- 



gested system have already been developed, but that a suit- 
able combination is lacking. The "deep study" of the sub- 
ject evidenced in this discussion is typical of the engineers 
in outside lines who have attempted to advise those directly 
concerned in the technical problems of railway work. A 
great many motive power men, several of them to their 
sorrow, can testify to the fact that a "suitable combina- 
tion," such as is detailed above, has been proved practically 
impossible. These same features just as outlined by Mr. 
Kuss have been incorporated in several projects which have 
been tested time and again and found unsuited to the pur- 
pose. It would perhaps be unfair to the men who have been 
back of these projects to mention names in this connection, 
but the information is readily accessible to those advisors 
who care to check their own discussions. 



THE GROWTH OF MOTIVE POWER. 

The largest locomotive in the world does not hold its dis- 
tinction over a month or two these days before it is dis- 
placed by the "largest" locomotive. This has been especially 
true during the past few years. Our attention has been par- 
ticularly called to this by the latest "largest" locomotive on 
the Santa Fe; at least it is the largest at the date of going 
to press. Incidentally it might be noted here too that the 
Santa Fe has been one of the leaders in using big engines. 
The latest output of the Topeka shops is of the Mallet type, 
with a 2-10-10-2 wheel arrangement, a total length of 121 
feet, and a total weight of 500,000 pounds. Twelve years 
ago the largest locomotive was in use on the Union R. R. 
It was a consolidation engine having a total length of 65/ 
feet and a total weight of 334,000 pounds. It had a tractive 
power of 53,292 pounds, as compared with 110,000 pounds of 
the latest Mallet. The size and tractive effort of locomotives 
has practically doubled in the past twelve years, and it is 
interesting to speculate on what will happen during the 
next twelve years. 

It seems that the limit in length has nearly been reached. 
The new Mallet on the Santa Fe, for instance, has to be run 
backwards in order to afford the engineer a clear view of the 
track. The recent building of two Mallets with flexible boil- 
ers, of course, provides means of overcoming some of the 
mechanical difficulties which encumber the long boiler, and 
in fact a patent was recently granted to S. M. Vauclain for 
a locomotive articulated in three sections, with eight drivers 
for each section, or total of twenty-four in all. The principal 
feature of this patent consists of making the engine triple 
expansion, and this affords an opportunity for still greater 
tractive power. With the use of the superheater, reheater, 
feed water heater and double and triple expansion, the 
moving power plant has all the developments of the sta- 
tionary power plant with the exceptions of the condenser and 
automatic stoker. The next few years will probably see some 
marked developments in the field of the automatic stoker. 
The trend of the stationary . plant has been towards the 
steam turbine and the turbo-electric generating set. Will the 
portable power plant ever follow in this direction? Prob- 
ably not: yet it is not a great while since the superheater 
and feed water heater were considered impracticable. Or 



[May. 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



163 



will the growth of motive power lead to that concentrated 
form' of powerful traction — the electric locomotive? Ulti- 
mately it probably will; when, no one can predict. 

Roads such as the Santa Fe which have certain districts 
over which the big articulated engines can be used to great 
advantage are not numerous, and the adoption of big engines 
for heavy trains is apt to cause some difficulties for the me- 
chanical department on most roads, such as lack of round- 
house facilities and insufficient length of turntables. New 
round-houses and turntables now being constructed are made 
large enough to provide for any motive power which may 
be used, and we believe they are going to be able to take 
care of the future, at least in the matter of size. As far 
as the fast passenger locomotive is concerned it does not 
seem that there will be any considerable development in its 
size, the tendency being not towards heavier trains but more 
of them. 



FLANGE WEAR ON ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES. 

The electric locomotives of the Grand Trunk at St. Clair 
Tunnel are showing excessive wear on the driving wheel 
flanges, although they have been in operation less than a 
year. This is due primarily to the design of the locomotives. 
Each locomotive consists of two units, and each unit has 
three pair of driving wheels having a rigid wheel base of 16 
feet. No guiding wheels are used and practically all of the 
flange wear takes place on the leading wheels of each unit, 
there being very little wear on the wheels at the center. 
In descending the long grades at the tunnel approaches it is 
necessary to use the brakes almost constantly and for this rea- 
son flange lubricators have not given very satisfactory re- 
sults. W. D. Hall, the superintendent, has perfected an 
arrangement for spraying oil on the flanges, which has been 
giving good results, but has not been in use long enough at 
present to determine the saving effected. 



Electrification in Italy. 



Recently received information as to the tests of the three- 
phase locomotives built for the Giovi line of the Italian 
State Ry. by the Societe Italiana Westinghouse make it 

» timely to present herewith the results of these tests and a 
brief description of the locomotives. 
The Giovi Tunnel is situated between the stations of 
Porttedecimo and Busalla on the line between Genoa and 
Milan. The traffic is very heavy, this being the most im- 
portant line between Genoa, the greatest shipping center, 
and Milan, the gratest manufacturing center of Italy. In 
addition to general freight and passenger traffic hundreds 
of cars of coal are daily sent over the Giovi line from 



Genoa to Milan. Electrification became necessary on account 
of the impossibility of coping with the increase in traffic 
with steam locomotives. The artificial ventilation of the 
tunnel, owing to its great length, could not be improved any 
more and the condition of the atmosphere in the tunnel 
was such that an increase in the number of trains or steam 
locomotives would endanger the safety of the service. 

The Italian State Ry., after ten years of experience, has 
chosen for the electrification of railway lines the three-phase 
system at high-potential, 15 cycles, as adopted in the Valtel- 
lina lines and Simplon Tunnel. The first order from the 
Italian State Railway to the Italian Westinghouse Company 




Electric Locomotive and Train, Italian State Rys. 



164- 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[May, 1911.] 



was for 40 locomotives for freight service, 25 of which were 
for the Giovi line and 15 for the Savona San Giuseppe line 
from Savona to Turin, which is being electrified at present. 
The first locomotives were completed in July, 1908, at the 
Westinghouse Vado Ligure Works. Upon completion they 
were employed for a time in the Valtellina lines, pending 
completion of the Giovi tunnel electrification. 

The new Giovi locomotive is built for freight service and 
has a normal operating speed of 28 miles per hour. It can 
also be used for passenger service, as its speed capacity is 
as high as it is considered safe to use on the Giovi line. 
The locomotive has also a 14 miles per hour speed, which is 
intended for switching purposes and for regenerating power 
when the train is running down hill. In considering the 



20 hours of such continuous operation, one round trip with- 
out forced ventilation of the motors was made with a tem- 
perature rise of the motors considerably less than 75 de- 
grees centigrade. The one hour motor rating for the same 
temperature is 720 horsepower per motor corresponding to 
a locomotive pull at the wheel circumference of 19,500 
pounds; during the test this rate was exceeded. The friction 
rating under most unfavorable conditions is such that a 
train of 380 tons exclusive of the locomotive, can be accel- 
erated to 28 miles per hour in less than 200 seconds, by two 
locomotives, one pushing and one pulling on a grade of 3.50 
and on a curve of not more than 1,200 ft. radius. One 
locomotive can accelerate a train of 400 tons without loco- 
motive to a speed of 14 miles per hour of a grade of .3 per 




Overhead Construction in Yards, Italian State Rys. 



capacity of the locomotive, however, only the higher speed 
should be considered, since this is its normal operating 
speed. 

The locomotive on the inside looks very simple. The 
apparatus that requires only little care is located in the 
lower cab extensions of the locomotive on either end of the 
cab. The apparatus that requires more frequent inspection 
is located in the center of the cab. This arrangement has 
the advantage that the, cab can be provided with windows 
all around. 

Especially noteworthy are some extremely severe require- 
ments in the government specifications, all of which have 
been amply fulfilled during the witness tests. The locomo- 
tive weight is not more than 60 tons, but the mechanical 
construction is such that the weight can be increased 75 
tons by means of ballast. 

During the test a train of 418 tons, exclusive of locomo- 
tives, was taken with a speed of 28 miles per hour from 
Pontedecimo to Busalla, a distance of G l / 2 miles with a 
maximum grade of 3.50 per cent, an average grade of 2.70 
per cent, and a minimum curve radius of 1,200 ft. After 
this the train was taken back at a speed of 14 miles per 
hour, the locomotive being connected for regenerating power. 
The time allowed for one round trip is 140 minutes. After 



cent. and 300 tons on a curve of 540-ft. radius thirty times 
in one hour. The maximum starting torque is such that they 
can revolve the wheels of the locomotive, with its weight 
increased to 75 tons, while the locomotive is kept stationary. 

The motors are three-phase, 3,000-volt, 15-cycle machines 
arranged to run in cascade and parallel, giving two synchro- 
nous speeds of 112J4 and 225 r. p. m., intermittent speeds are 
obtained by inserting rheostats in the circuit. The motors 
have double bearings, the outer of which is built into the 
..main locomotive frame and carries the reactions of the frame; 
t£ also takes the thrust of the connecting rods and is pro- 
yided with springs, to take up all the motion or change of 
position due to shocks, ballast on locomotive frame, etc. 

The inner bearing carries the rotor and has for its func- 
tion only the maintenance of air gap, so that the rotor itself 
is entirely independent of any motion of the locomotive 
frame. The mounting of the motors on the locomotive is 
accomplished from below by means of an hydraulic lift. 
The complete changing of a motor, including the connec- 
tions to the side rods, may be easily done in two hours. 

The control system contains a number of excellent fea- 
tures. Since the starting resistances are of water rheostat 
type it was necessary^to design the secondaries of the 
motors for low potential; this was also desirable in order 



[May, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



165 



to have low potential on the slip rings. The low potential 
secondaries require, however, the possibility of connecting 
one of the motors in cascade connection. 

The switch performing this reconnecting of one of the 
stators from high to low voltage is the only switching mech- 
anism in' the system which has numerous contacts for heavier 
currents. It can, in this respect, be compared with either 
the auto transformer tap switch of single-phase systems and 
polyphase systems with squirrel cage rotors or with the 
resistance distributing switches of systems using metallic 
starting resistance; but its practical operting characteristics 
are much superior. Since it is always operated without cur- 
rent, the necessary care and cost of maintenance is reduced 
to less than 10 per cent of that of the other switches men- 
tioned and it may be operated by only two relays, while 
the others, under master switch control, require relays for 
all taps. 

The wiring required in connection with the potential 
changing switch is reduced to a minimum by mounting 
the switch directly on the motor and handling it as a unit 
therewith. The switch extends into the cab of the loco- 
motive from below and may be readily inspected by remov- 
ing the protecting cover. 

The use of the water rheostat is one of the main advan- 
tages of the control system. It eliminates all metallic resist- 
ance parts, which are always more or less subject to burn- 



part of the tank which forces the water up into the cylinder 
and the regulating mechanism extends into the cab proper 
and can, therefore, be conveniently inspected after the re- 
moving of a protecting cover. 

The only switch that is interrupted under current is the 
primary switch; but even for this, switching conditions are 
very favorable, as the current to be interrupted in the pri- 
mary of induction motors with wound secondary may be 
reduced practically to the magnetizing current by first in- 
serting resistance into the secondary and then breaking 
the primary current. For this reason it has been possible 
to use other switches, which after an operation of two years 
are still in good working condition. The excellent feature 'of 
the primary of the Giovi locomotive is that it serves as both 
an interruption switch and a reversing switch without re- 
quiring any additional contacts for the reversing: this is 
accomplished by simply rotating the movable contact parts 
through a certain angle in order to reverse the motor. 

The master switch is arranged for two levers. One of the 
levers has four definite positions corresponding to the two 
speeds, to move forward and backward. The second lever 
regulates the current consumed by the motors. Every posi- 
tion of this lever determines positively the certain maximum 
current to be taken by the motors ; any time the motor 
tends to take the current larger than corresponding to the 
lever position, resistance is automatical!}' inserted into the 







Comparison of Steam and Electric Locomotives in Use on the Italian State Rys. 



outs and mechanical breakage. Moreover, all contacts that 
have to be operated under current in the secondary are 
eliminated, excepting the one contact which short circuits 
the rheostat. On this contact, however, there is no arcing 
and burning, since it operates only when the water rheostat 
is about zero. A further advantage of this control lies in. 
the fact that it does not increase the current by steps, but 
allows for the finest possible regulation. 

The water receptacle is a tight tank, so mounted as to 
extend below the cab for air cooling. Receptacles for the 
electrodes extend from below the water level, through the 
cover and up into the lower parts of the locomotive, the 
electrodes being supported in the upper portions of these 
receptacles or cylinders. In operation the height of water 
in the cylinders is regulated by air pressure in the upper 



secondary; the lever acts on the armature oi a small in- 
duction regulator and thereby regulate- the secondary po- 
tential of the regulator; the induction regulator secondary 
is connected to one c >il of a relay which i> counteracted, 
by the second coil, the current of which i- proportioned to 
the motor current: whenever the effect- oi the rela_\ coils 
are balanced the armature i- in the middle and the motor 
currents remain unchanged; as soon as the motor current 
increases the armature i- attracted by the one coil and clo 
the relay circuit, which increases the resistance in the sec- 
ondary. The tact that each locomotive can lie set for a max- 
imum current would make it possible to use the locomotive in 
multiple without a -pecial multiple control: nevertheless, a 
multiple control arrangement i- provided for. Tin special 
controller allowing for all desired conditions i- provided in 



166 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[May, 1911.] 



connection with this system. The multiple control system not 
only permits the operation of locomotives of different wheel 
diameters in multiple and equally loaded but also permits 
the loading of them differently with any desired ration of 
load distribution. This is quite advanta-geous as it is fre- 
quently desirable to keep the drawbar pull of a pulling en- 
gine within certain limits and let the pushing engine take 
care of the greater part of the load. 

The coils operating the valves are of a very simple design 
and work exceptionally well, even if the potential drops to 
one-half of its normal voltage. 

The pantagraph arrangements are very simple. The single 
bow with two bronze cylinders insulated from each other 
and revolving in ball bearings engages both overhead wires. 
The use of the rolling contacts is very favorable for the con- 
tact wire, and has given very good results on the Valtellina 
lines where it has been in use for over 10 years. On this 
line the rolling contacts were changed after an average of 
25,000 Ioco-Km. with a current often greater than 200 am- 
peres per contact (25,000 Km. Loco, without counting shunt- 
ings). On the Simplon tunnel where sliding contacts are 
used they were changed after 2,700 loco. Km. average. This 
great difference is due to the fact that the contact point on 
the rolling type is changing very rapidly so that the melt- 
ing of the metal which reduces the life of the contact on 
the sliding type is not possible. 

An important feature of the three-phase installations is 
found in the utilization of regenerated power, which reduces 
the cost of operating the line and also reduces, by proper ar- 
rangement of the schedules, the peak of the load in the gen- 
erating station and does not require the use of mechanical 
brakes when the train is going down grade. All apparatus 
is of Westinghouse manufacture. 



SPRING MEETING OF THE A. S. M. E. 

The spring meeting of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers will be held at Pittsburg, Pa., May 30 to June 2, 
1911. The headquarters of the society during the meeting 
will be at the Hotel Schenley, but the professional sessions 
will be held at the Carnegie Institute, which is close to the 
hotel. The first session for the presentation of papers will 
be on the morning of May 31. The subject will be "The 
Mechanical Engineering of Cement Manufacture." After 
the presentation of the paper those in attendance will have 
an opportunity to visit the plant of the Universal Portland 
Cement Company. The special train to this plant will stop 
at East Pittsburg to permit members to visit the Westing- 
house works. On the evening of May 31 there will be a 
session on machine shop practice at which the subject of 
assembling small machine parts and the development of 
milling cutters will be discussed. 

On the morning of June 1 there will be a short session 
with miscellaneous papers,' after which an excursion on the 
river is planned. On the evening of June 1 there will be 
a reception and dance. On the morning of June 2 papers 
will be presented which relate to steel works machinery with 
special reference to blowing engines and forging presses. 
The convention will close on the afternoon of June 2 with .ex- 
cursions. A session is also planned for the gas power sec- 
tion. The manufacturers of Pittsburg have extended invita- 
tions to their works, and E. M. Herr, chairman, and E. K. 
Hiles, secretary of the local committee, have under way 
an extensive program for entertainment. Previous to this 
meeting the American Foundrymen's Association is to con- 
vene in Pittsburg and an exhibit of foundry appliances, un- 
der the auspices of the association, will be held. The In- 
ternational Art Exhibit at the Carnegie Institute at Pitts- 
burg will be open at the time of the meeting of the Ameri- 
can Society. 



MOTOR INSTALLATION IN CHICAGO RAILWAYS 
COMPANY'S SHOPS. 

Through the initiative of Mr. John M. Roach, president 
and general manager, and Mr. John Z. Murphy, chief engi- 
neer, the Chicago Railways Co., Chicago, 111., recently con- 
verted to individual motor drive the entire equipment of its 
large machine and woodworking shops on West End Avenue. 

In the engineering details pertaining to the application of 
motors to the different machines the engineers of the rail- 
way company were assisted by engineers of the Reliance 
Electric & Engineering Co., Cleveland, Ohio, which fur- 
nished the motor equipment. After preliminary sketches 
had been submitted, detail drawings were made of all appli- 
cations and approved by Mr. Murphy. 




Fig. 2. Application of Motor to Mueller Lathe. 

This installation is unique in several particulars. It is 
probably the largest installation of automatic starters for the 
control of individually motor driven metal and woodworking 
machinery. These starters are used not only for the con- 
stant speed motors, but an unusual feature is their use in 
connection with adjustable speed motors. Another inter- 
esting point is that all changes were made in the company's 
own shops. It is one of the most notable instances of belt 
driven installations converted to motor drive and shows 




Fig. 3. A Group of Radial Drills, Each Supplied with a Motor. 



[May, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



167 



what can be done in the way of increasing the efficiency of 
old machines to meet the requirements of more modern 
manufacturing conditions. ;.- 

The objects in view in making the change were: 1, To 
effectl a saving in power by making possible the use of in- 
dividual machines, especially for overtime work, without 
running & 75 h..' p. motor which was formerly used for driv- 
ing the entire line shafting of the machirte shop. 2. To, in- 
crease the general efficiency of the sjtiops by a machine ar- 
rangement which would afford the greatest convenience in 
the handling of material. Returning the equipment to active 
service as quickly as possible is very desirable in repair 
work so that any reduction in the time to make repairs is 
even more important than a reduction in Cost. , '■' 

In planning the installation a. number of difficulties pre- 
sented them'selves at first. One problem was' ,to ,-, have as lit- 
tle wiring as ■possible on the machines, as the motors are 
installed on a 550-volt, D; C. grOundedcircuit, power being 
taken, from the company's own, fines. As far as the con- 
stant speed motors i were concerned this was overcome jat 
once by the selection of automatic" starters which could be 
placed on the wall and controlled' by pxish buttons' placed 
convenient to the operators. The only wiring needed on the 

.-.'.•' ■•'"-■ .- ■ 



changed to motor drives it is necessary to remove the cone 
which in some of the older types was designed to cover a 
wide range of speeds with only a single back gear. On such 
machines it is necessary either to use a wide range adjust- 
able speed motor, or if one of medium range is selected, to 
provide a number of additional gear changes. 

After careful investigation of different adjustable speed 
motors and types of controlling equipment which could be 
used, the Reliance adjustable speed motor of the .armature 
shifting type was selected for the following reasons: 

1. It eliminated the electrical field resistance controller 
used, with all other types of adjustable speed motors. The 
controller was considered objectionable because of the 
chance of electrical troubles and danger to operators due 
to the high voltage. 

2. It permitted the use of the same type of automatic 
starters which had already been chosen for the constant 
speed motors. 

3. The wide ranges possible with this type of motor re- 
duced the number of gear changes to the minimum. 

As illustrated in Figure 2, the lathes offer an excellent 
example of the method employed in making the changes. 
As shown in the illustration the cone is replaced by a 




Fig. 1. General View of Chicago Rys. Shop. 



machines is for the push buttons which require a pilot cir- 
cuit carrying only about 1/6 ampere. In the selection of au- 
tomatic starters the first consideration was the protection of 
the workmen from the high voltage, the second the elim- 
ination of any possibility of abuse to either motors or start- 
ing equipment. In the case of the adjustable speed motors 
the choice of suitable controlling equipment proved more 
difficult. 

When belt driven tools equipped with cone pulleys are 



quill, the motor driving direct to this quill through an inter- 
mediate idler shaft so as to get a double reduction. This in- 
termediate idler shaft can either be supported from the base 
casting as illustrated or from a suitable DOSS on the vertical 
arm of the motor and yoke. A stationary stub shaft is used 
for these idlers, the two idlers being mounted on a common 
bronze bushing. 

In this case the back gear ratio on the belt driven ma- 
chine which was 1:10 was changed to 1:6 using a motor 



168 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[May. 1911.] 



with a 1 to 6 speed ratio. This gives a continuous 1:36 
range of spindle speeds, which is wholly satisfactory for 
lathes of this size. If a motor with only a 1:3 speed ratio 
is used on such a lathe an additional gear change must be 
provided or there would be a jump or gap of over 300 per 
cent between the range of spindle speeds obtained with the 
back gear in and those obtained with the back gear out. By 
changing the back gear ratio to 1:6 and using a motor with 



cone qCA R 



NEW BACK QCAR 




Fig. 10. Application of Motor to 30-inch Mueller Lathe. 

a 1 :6 speed ration a continuous range of spindle speeds was 
obtained without any gap. 

It is exceedingly simple to change the back gear on a 
lathe of this character from 1:10 to 1:6. It merely means 
changing the diameter of the two tail gears without any change 
in the face gears or in the locking device between the 
large face gear and the quill. In making the change in the 
two tail gears these can be moved up to the front as shown 
in the illustrating allowing the motor to be set low over 
the head. 

The method of changing the drill presses is illustrated 
in Figure 3. The lower cone is removed and the motor 
mounted in its place on a base. With this arrangement no 
more floor space is required than for the belt driven ma- 
chine. The motor is connected to one of the steps of the 
upper driving cone by a belt. When additional power is 
needed this cone can be replaced by a wide face single pul- 
ley giving, if necessary, double the belt capacity of the 
ordinary cone drive and comparing favorably with an all 
gear driven drill. 





Fig. 5. Hack Saw Showing Motor Application. 

Motors with 1:6 speed ranges were also used to advantage 
on the drills. 

Figure 4 shows a 24 in. by 84 in. Gray planer and a 30 in. 
by 96 in. Whitcomb planer, each driven by a 5 h. p. Reliance 
motor. 

Figure 5 shows the application of a 1 h. p. motor to two 
hack saws. The motor runs at 1,200 revolutions per min- 
ute. 

Two wheel boring mills equipped with iy 2 h. p. adjustable 




Fig. 4. Two Planers Changed from Belt to Motor Drive. 



Fig. 6. Car Wheel Borer Changed to Motor Drive. 

speed motors are shown in Figure (J. In this illustration 
the wheel hoist shown in the foreground is driven by a 1 
h. -p. motor. The push buttons are shown at the left and 
the hand wheels for varying the speed at the right of the 
column. 

In Figure 7 is shown a 2-in. Acme bolt cutter driven by 
a :\y 2 H. P. adjustable speed motor, operating at from 300 
to 1,800 R. P. M. 

Figure 8 shows a No. 2 Long & Allstatter punch and 



[May, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



169 



shear which was equipped with a 7 1 /- H. P. motor designed 
to run at 1,350 R. P. M. 

A Hayes double tenoning machine in the woodworking 
department is shown in Figure 9. This machine was 
changed from belt drive and equipped with a 15 H. P. mo- 
tor designed to run at 750 R. P. M. The automatic starter 
is located in an enclosing case on the wall. A push but- 
ton is shown at the front of the machine. 

Figure 10 shows the method of application of motors to 
belt driven lathes. The gearing necessary for the change 
is indicated on this drawing. 

In the machine shops iorty-eight machines were con- 
verted to motor drive and twenty-two new motor driven 
machines added. Although twenty-three of the fifty-six 
machines in the wood mill were newly installed, all motor 
applications were made at the railway shops. 




Fig. 8. Application of Motor to Long and AUstatter Punch and 

Shear. 

List of Machines Changed to Motor Drive. 
Name of Machine — H. P. Motor Speed 

Mueller Lathe, 24 in. x 8 ft 5 300-1,800 

Lodge & Davis Lathe, 27 in. x 7 ft 5 300-1,800 

Lodge & Davis Lathe, 27 in 5 300-1,800 

Bradford Mill Co. Lathe. 24 in. x 7 ft 5 300-1,800 

Lodge & Davis Lathe, 20 in. x 7 ft :V/> 300-1,800 

Davis 16-in. Lathe 2 400-2,400 

Mueller 18-in. Lathe % l A 300-1,800 

No. 4 Bement Axle Lathe ~iV 2 470-1,880 

4S-in. Car Wheel Borer 7] 500-1,500 

Wheel Hoist on Car Wheel Borer 1 1,200 

30-in. x 8-ft. Whitcomb Planer 5 1,250 

24-in. x 7-ft. Gray Planer 5 1 .250 

20-in. Shaper, Gould & Eberhardt :'.'_■ 300-1,500 

\<>. 5 Kempsmith Milling Machine 5 500-1,700 

No. 1 Kempsmith Milling Machine 2 400-2,000 

No. 5 Burr Keyseat Milling Machine 5 500-1,500 

48-in. Elms Wheel Press 5 1 .250 

No. 2 Punch & Shear, Long & Allister 7 1,350 

No. 1 Cleveland Punch & Shear 5 1.250 

Stiles Punch Press 2 1 ,500 

No. 4 National Bolt Cutter :!'.. 300-1,800 

Acme Bolt Cutter, 2 in :: 300-1, son 

2-in. Six Spindle Nut Tapper 3 575-2.300 

Lodge & Shipley Lathe, 24 in. x 14 ft 10 400-1,480 




Fig. 7. Application of Motor to Bolt Cutter. 

Hamilton Lathe, 42 in. x 24 ft 12 300- 900 

4-ft. Bickford Radial Drill 5 1,250 

No. 4 Cincinnati Milling Machine 10 1,350 

No. 2B Universal Q. & C. Cold Saw 5 1,250 

No. 25 Landis Plain Grinder 10 1.350 

No. 2 J4-in. W. & N. Yankee Drill Grinder... 2 1,500 

42-in. Car Wheel Borer 7 s / 2 500-1.500 

Wheel Hoist on 42-in. Wheel Borer 1 1,200 

18-in. Stockbridge Crank Shaper 3 900 

24-in. Water Emery Grinder 5 1,000 

No. 2 Hex. Turret Lathe 3 575-2,300 

20-in. Drill Press 2 400-2,400 

23-in. Drill Press 2 400-2,400 

30-in. Drill Press V/ 2 300-1,800 

32-in. Drill Press 3 [ / 2 300-1 ,800 

Whitney Milling Machine No. 2 400-2,000 

Wright Metal Band Saw 3 950 

Metal Slitting Saw 2 1 .500 

Barnes Drill Press 1 1.200 

Double Spindle Drill l 1,200 

Speed Lathe 1 525-2,625 

Marvel Draw Cut Saw No. :i 1-:: l 950 

Q. & C. Shop Saw No. 1 '. . . 1 950 

Saunders Sons Pipe Threader 2 650 

No. 1 Screw Machine 2 400-2. 400 




Fig. 9. 



Application of Motor to Tenoning Machine in Wood Work- 
ing Shop. 



ITU 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



STRENGTH OF OXYACETYLENE WELDS IN STEEL. 

Tin oxyacetylene blow pipe was introduced into this country 
about seven years ago and, although its use has spread very 
rapidly, there is but little data available concerning the strength 
of welds and the best manner of making them. Bulletin 45 
of the engineering experiment station of the University of Illi- 
nois, which has recently been issued, contains the results of a 
series of tests made by Herbert L. Whitteniore, to determine 
the strength of oxyacetylene welds in steel, and as the bulletin 
contains 65 pages only the essential and practical points will be 
given here. It should be noted that Mr. Whittemore is now 
Engineer of Tests of the U. S. Ordnance Department at the 
Watertown Arsenal. 

The experiments recorded in this bulletin were undertaken 
with the aim of adding to the information regarding the strength 
and other physical properties of oxyacetylene welds in steel, 
inasmuch as steel is the most important metal used in com- 
mercial construction. The number of tests was made large 
enough to make the results representative of the results which 
may be obtained under favorable commercial conditions. Al- 
though circumstances limited the work to a small range in the 
thickness of the steel plates, an attempt was made to determine 
the effect of other variables, such as thoroughness of fusion, 
forging and heat treatment, and flame regulation, which might 
have an effect on the welds. Little attention was paid to the 
cost of welding the test pieces, as data of cost are of doubtful 
value unless obtained under commercial conditions. 

A welding equipment was secured from the American firm 
controlling the Fouche patents. It consisted of a Fouche blow- 
pipe, a hydraulic back-pressure valve, a tank of compressed oxy- 
gen, an oxygen pressure regulator, a pair of blue glasses and 
a rubber hose. 

The operator was governed in the regulation solely by the 
appearance of the blowpipe flame. Slight variations in the pro- 
portions of the gases caused relatively large variations in the 
appearance of the flame. This is well shown in Fig. 1, repro- 
duced from photographs of the flame itself. The combustion 
of acetylene alone (see (a) ) gives an intensely white flame of 
large volume with a heavy formation of soot at its outer end. 
When oxygen is added, the flame shortens (see (b) ) and the 
combustion is more nearly complete, as is indicated by the non- 
formation of soot. There is then one small cone close to the 
tip of the blowpipe which is intensely white. This is surrounded 
by another white cone which in the cut partially masks the 
inner cone. Both are perfectly visible to the eye, particularly 
when observed through blue glasses. Beyond these two white 
cones is a nearly colorless flame of large volume. 

The main object in the first series of tests was to provide 
practice in the use of the blowpipe, and to bring out, if pos- 
sible, the variables affecting the strength of the welds. In 
general, the efficiency of the welds was found to be low, and a 
constant effort was made to find the cause of the low strength 
and its relation to the appearance of black or dark blue spots in 
the fracture. 

Four flange steel plates, 26xl20x}4 in., were cut into strips 
V/ 2 in. wide and 13 in. long, and these were tested in tension 
to failure. For welding the plates were beveled, at an angle 
of 45 degrees and a soft open hearth No. 14 steel wire was 
used for filling. 

The efficiency of the weld was' determined by dividing the 
ultimate unit-stress (when rupture occurred at the weld) by the 
average ultimate unit-stress of the unwelded specimens, for the 
same section of the plate. Thus : 
Ultimate stress in weld 

^ = Efficiency of weld. 

Ultimate stress of unwelded material 
This efficiency is then the ratio of the strength of the weld to 
the strength of the material, and measures, in some degree, the 



[May, 1911.] 
The results of the first series 



value of the welding process, 
are shown in Table 1. 

In adding the wire, difficulty was found in preventing the 
playing of the full flame on the wire when the blowpipe was 
given a circular motion; so at times, it was held nearly sta- 
tionary and the steel wire pushed, as rapidly as it melted, into 
the pool just beside the flame. Working in this way, it took 
some time to build up the required thickness of metal at the 
weld. 




(a) Acetylene Flame in Air. 




(b) Excess Acetylene Flame. 




(c) Normal or Correct Acetylene Flame, 




Fig. 1. 



(d) Excess Oxygen Flame. 
Variations in the Flame of the Blow Pipe. 



While the manipulation used in making the welds up to this 
time was satisfactory, there were some ways in which the work 
could be more easily- performed. It appeared likely that the 
adoption of such changes would also result in increased efficiency 
of the welds. These points may be briefly summarized as fol- 
lows : Some workmen have found it preferable to work toward 
the operator rather than away from him, as was done in these 
welds. In working away from the operator, almost neces- 
sarily the blowpipe flame is directed toward the unwelded por- 
tion of the plates, making, perhaps, an angle of 60 deg. with 
the completed weld. The blast from the flame tends to force 
melted metal from the end of the weld over upon colder metal 
with which it does not unite and to make it difficult to build 
up the filling material to the required thickness. 

If, instead, the work progresses toward the operator, the 
blowpipe being held as described above, except that the blow- 
pipe head makes an angle of about 120 deg. with the finished 
portion of the weld, the flame strikes the sloping surface of the 
molten metal at the end of the weld more nearly perpendicularly 
and has less tendency to displace this metal. 

Instead of welding in the bottom of the groove for a short 
distance, then forming a pool of molten metal of the required 
depth above it, it seems preferable to add constantly very small 
portions of the filling wire to the advancing surface of melted 
metal in the groove. If the work is done toward the operator, 
this procedure is comparatively easy. The sides and bottom of 
the groove become melted # by the time the weld reaches them 
and the filling wire can be added uniformly to the compara- 
tively small area of molten metal forming the end of the weld. 
This area advances, gradually, parallel to itself at all times, 
which was not the case when pools were formed. 

To assist in keeping the molten metal in place, the plates 



[May, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



171 



may be inclined upward in the direction in which the weld is 
advancing. A rise of about an inch to the foot is sufficient. 

Instead of keeping the tip of the flame constantly in contact 
with the molten metal it is advisable to increase the distance. 
If removed too far, the metal will not melt rapidly, and satis- 
factory work is impossible, so that experience shows that it is 
desirable to bring the flame in contact with the metal when 
working on cool metal, then gradually to withdraw the flame 
as long as satisfactory progress is being made. 

Trial showed that the modified methods of carrying on the 
work aided considerably in making the welds, at least, and 
they were used in subsequent work. Often, after welding had 
started, and the metal became well heated, the flame could be 
removed from the work so that the distance from the tip of 
the flame to the metal was about equal to the length of the 
first cone. This apparently had no effect upon the progress of 
the work from the standpoint of rapidity of fusion, and did 
have two advantages. On account of the increased distance 
from the hot metal, the blowpipe did not become so highly 
heated, and after a short time maintained such a temperature 
by radiation, etc., that practically constant flame regulation was 
preserved. Frequent cooling of the blowpipe in water was 
therefore unnecessary; consequently, there were fewer interrup- 
tions to the work. 

Previously, when a ''back fire" occurred, the acetylene was 
shut off, a procedure which in a few seconds extinguished the 
flame within the mixing chamber and allowed the blowpipe to 
be relighted. By observing an experienced operator, it was 
found that all that was necessary to extinguish a "back fire" 
was to close the tip completely for an instant, by brushing the 
tip across the clothing, then to relight the blowpipe by directing 
it upon the hot metal in the weld. This procedure reduced the 
interruption caused by a "back fire" to a second or so, at 
most, during which the metal scarcely cooled at all, while 
previously it often became very dark red, requiring some 
time, to bring it again to the welding temperature. 

The pressure gauges attached to both acetylene and oxy- 
gen tanks enabled the amount of gas consumed for each 
section to be computed. Readings of these gauges were 
taken during the welding of many strips. The amounts of 
acetylene and oxygen consumed were determined and com- 
pared with the average value for a No. 7 blowpipe given in 
the catalogue of the blowpipe manufacturers. The meas- 
ured average consumption of oxygen was 20.6 cu. ft. per hr., 
while 25 cu. ft. is given as the consumption in the catalogue. 
The acetylene consumption was 22.7 cu. ft. per hr. and the 
catalogue value is 15 cu. ft. The rather wide difference be- 
tween the measured value and the catalogue values, and 
more especially the erratic fluctuations in the oxygen rate 
measured by gauge readings, lead to the conclusion that 
while the pressure gauges are sufficiently accurate to deter- 
mine the volume of gas contained in the tanks at any time, 
they are not sufficiently accurate (or sensitive) to deter- 
mine the gas used for time intervals, say, of one hour. 

While too great reliance should not be placed upon the 
welding rates shown in the tables, either as to their accu- 
racy or the ability of another workman to equal them, they 
do show that a moderate rate of welding, say, 2 to 3 ft. 
per hr. with J4-in. steel plates, can be obtained with com- 
paratively little practice. The total length of weld, in these 
12 specimens was about 24 ft., which at the average rate of 
welding of 2 ft. per hr. could be completed in 12 hours of 
blowpipe work. This tends to confirm the statement that 
some commercial shops train inexperienced men in two or 
three days to reasonable proficiency with the blowpipe and 
employ them upon their own work afterwards. 

Strips G to X of the first series, inclusive, were welded 
after instruction and the adoption of modified welding meth- 
ods. As a result the efficiencies rose, say. from 70 per cent 
to 75 per cent. 



The work of the second series was a continuation of that 
of the first under somewhat altered conditions. An effort 
was made to determine the variables affecting the efficiency 
of the welds, with some success for the last few strips of 
the series. 

In place of the blowpipe used in the first series a recent 
form of the Fouche blowpipe was obtained which was pro- 
vided with a number of interchangeable heads, in this case 
corresponding to the heads of blowpipes No. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 
8. The size best suited to the work could be quickly fitted 
to the blowpipe body, the result being an apparatus some- 
what lighter than the design previously used, but one oper- 
ated in the same way. Special wire, recommended by the 
blowpipe manufacturers, was obtained from John A. Roeb- 
ling's Sons Company. This was designated by them as 
%s-in. diameter, liquor finished, bright, annealed, genuine 
Norway iron wire. 

The most noticeable difference between this wire and the 
No. 14 steel wire used up to this time was the absence of 
mill scale. If bent, the steel wire showed a coating of scale, 
or oxide, which flaked off. The iron wire, however, had been 
pickled or otherwise treated to give a clean metallic sur- 
face. When melted by the blowpipe, the steel wire showed 
a surface of moderate incandescence covered by irregular 
spots which were much brighter. While the general color 
appeared bright red through blue goggles, the spots seemed 
white hot. 

Results of Strength Tests of Welds 
— Eirst Series. 





Efficiency 




Rate of 


Strip 




per cent 




Welding 




' Av. 


Max. 


Min» 


ft. per hr. 


A 


69.3 


90.7 


47.7 


1,47. 


B 


68.0 


79:0 


56.3 


■.,.. 


C 


74.3 


90.5 


52.7 


tm i 


D 


64.5 


79.0 


52.7 


1.00 


E 


69.2 


80.5 


54.6 


• - ■ . 


F 


66.9 


74.9 


55.0 


2.80 


U 


54.0 


74.0 


35.1 


.... 


X 


82.4 


118.0 


43.5 


2.84 


G 


69.6 


75.3 


61.2 


4.17 


H 


50.6 


58.9 


41.0 


0.80 


& 


76.7 


86.9 


68.5 


1.50 


£. 


73 » 


85.5 


56.6 


2.50 



Table 1. 

Instead of the #-in. plates used for the first series, similar 
sheets from the same firm were obtainel which were H-'m. 
in thickness. Plates of this thickness seem better suited for 
practice welding and experimenting than either thicker or 
thinner ones. Each plate was divided into strips, so that 
all specimens lay with their longest dimension parallel to 
the direction of rolling. The strips were cut and beveled 
as for the first series, except that a sharp power shear was 
used instead of the cutting-off tool. 

The first strip showed a rather spongy gray surface at the 
fracture, but as the number of -trips, which were welded, in- 
creased, the fractures showed a cleaner appearance. On 
strip AG the molten metal was hammered frequently as it 
was put into place, a small riveting hammer being used 
The wide and erratic fluctuations in strength lead to the 
conclusion that alternate hammering and welding do not 
produce uniform work. The fact that the average efficiency 
was lower than for any -trip so far in this serie- also throws 
doubt upon it- value. It is difficult to see how hammering 
can increase the density of metal which is immediately after- 
wards heated to fusion to continue the weld. The amount 



172 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[May, 1911.] 



of work required of the operator is largely increased, as 
well as the time. 

Preheating" the beveled edges of the strip an inch or two 
in advance increased the freedom in using the blowpipe and 
also increased the rate and quality of the welding. The re- 
sults of this series of tests are given in Table 2. Strip AJ 
was forged after welding. Strip AK was welded with an 
excess of oxygen, the flame being shortened by reducing 
the amount of acetylene until it was about one-half its 
proper length. Strip AL was welded with an excess of 
acetylene. It will be noted that the efficiency of the welds 
increased with the number of tests made, and that a consid- 
erable variation from the normal flame regulation may be 
allowed without danger of greatly reducing the efficiency of 
the weld. 

Results of Strength Tests of Welds 
—Second Series. 





] 


Efficiency 




Rate of 


Strip 




per cent 




Welding 




Av. 


Max- 


Min. 


ft. per hr. 


AB 


72.1 


77.9 


62.5 


1.32 


AC 


69.1 


82.0 


54.4 


0.75 


AD 


78.2 


94.8 


72.0 


! 1 . 55 


AE 


■35.6 


90.0 


59.9 


1 75 


AP 


72.0 


87.4 


44.8 


1.51 


AG 


64.4 


76.8 


50.9 


1.39 


AH 


69.5 


88.0 


56.5 


0.92 


A J 


85.4 


124.6 


51.1 


1J7 


AI 


86.6 


104.6 


65 2 


1.03 


AK 


84.7 


100.5 


72.5 


0.90 


AL 


83.1 


92.0 


72.1 


1.44 



Table. 2. 

The efficiency of welds in strips AK and AL is fairly 
representative of welds in ^$-in. steel when fusion has oc- 
cuved throughout the weld. 

One of the striking features of this work is the remark- 
able characteristic appearance of the blowpipe flame and 
its sensitiveness in showing changes in regulation. It seems 
safe to conclude that a change in the amount of acetylene of 
one per cent of the gas volume could be detected by the 
change in the appearance of the flame, provided, of course, 
that this occurred at or near the normal regulation. The 
flame is much more sensitive, also, in indicating excess 
acetylene than excess oxygen, so that a slight feathery flame 
tip is preferable to a slight or incipient shortening. All sizes 
of blowpipe appear to have practically the same regulation 
curve. 

The meager amount of information obtained regarding 
the effect of heat treatment and subsequent working of the 
welded material leaves an important and probably very 
fertile field still to be covered. The rather remarkable results 
obtained by forging after welding appear to be in agreement 
with the known properties of metal. Highly heated steel, 
upon cooling, has a coarse crystalline fracture and low ten- 
sile strength. This condition can be improved by reheating 
to the lowest temperature which will produce a fine grain 
and then cooling. In this way, the finest grain and also the 
highest tensile strength will be obtained. Steel heated to, 
or near, fusion is "burnt" and greatly damaged. The in- 
jurious effects of '"burning" of steel appears to be due, in 
part at least, to the "oxidation of the faces of the crystalline 
grains which compose the metal, by inward diffusion of the 
atmospheric oxygen" (Howe). The oxyacetylene blowpipe 
flame, if properly regulated, is a reducing flame as is shown 
by the reduction of the surface film of oxide of the filler wire, 
and the injurious oxidizing effect may be small in metal 
welded by an oxyacetylene flame. "Burnt" metal can never 



be completely restored to its original condition. While an- 
nealing alone will restore steel if merely overheated, steel 
which is "burnt" requires mechanical working, such as ham- 
mering or rolling while hot to cause much improvement. 

It seems probable that the coarse crystalline fractures and 
low efficiencies found for these oxyacetylene welds are pro- 
duced necessarily by the very nature of this or any other 
welding process which requires fusion of the material. It 
is even possible, then, that blowpipe welding may prove 
superior to other methods involving the use of gas or coal, 
since the reducing action of the oxyacetylene flame may pre- 
vent the oxidizing of the crystals found in "burnt" steel. In 
any case, maximum efficiencies can be obtained only by 
using every available means to reduce the effects of overheat- 
ing. This would require annealing and, if practicable, ham- 
mering or rolling. 

It is often claimed that welds can be strengthened any 
required amount by adding filler to increase the thickness. 
This, however, is obviously only a partial remedy, as the 
material adjacent to that where filler is added is always 
overheated. When rupture occurs just outside the weld, 
due to this overheating, the weld can not be considered to 
be as strong as the rest of the material. 

As already stated, the appearance of the flame is a deli- 
cate indication of proper regulation. The principal precau- 
tion to be observed by the workman is to be sure that thorough 
fusion has taken place. The cost of operation of a blow- 
pipe rises very rapidly as the thickness of the plate to be 
welded increases, and this fact may limit the field of use- 
fulness of the oxyacetylene blowpipe to the welding of thin 
plates and parts and to emergency repair jobs. 

A consideration of the results leads to the conclusion that 
thorough fusing of the material in the weld and forging of 
the finished weld were the only conditions which resulted 
in any noticeable increase in the efficiency of the welds. 
Forging after welding produced a decided increase in the 
strength of the welds and also in the ductility of the fused 
metal — apparently the increase in efficiency of the weld was 
about 10 per cent. In the three strips in which thorough 
fusion took place throughout the weld, the average efficiency 
was the highest obtained in the tests. In view of the com- 
parisons hitherto made, the efficiency found for one of these 
strips, 86.6 per cent, may be expected to be fairly representa- 
tive of welds in J-^-in. steel when fushion has occurred 
throughout the weld. 

The average technical article describing this process ap- 
parently lays too much emphasis upon the necessity for very 
careful flame regulation and for pure oxygen and acetylene, 
as well as on the value of preheating and hammering the 
weld as it is made, in securing high efficiency. A claim of 
100 per cent efficiency is insupportable. It appears that 85 
per cent is about as high as may be expected in practice if 
the weld is of the same thickness as the plate. 

In spite of certain inherent defects the oxyacetylene proc- 
ess is well adapted to many welding operations, and it is 
likely to grow in favor as its advantages are understood. 



SUPERHEATER MAINTENANCE. 

The following notes were abstracted from a recent book- 
let on the maintenance and operation of superheaters issued 
by the Locomotive Superheater Co., and they contain much 
information of value: 

\ superheater which is typical of a number of styles con- 
sists of three or njore horizontal rows of large boiler flues 
across the upper part of the boiler, each containing a super- 
heater unit. The usual size of these flues is 5% inches out- 
side diameter except at firebox end, where the diameter is 
reduced to 4 1 /fc inches by swaging. The superheater unit 
is a continuous tube formed of four seamless steel super- 
heater tubes, connected by three return bends. The front 



[May, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



173 



end of these units are bent and clamped to the super- 
heater header in the smoke box, the connection being made 
steam tight, either by a ball joint or a metal-asbestos gasket. 

The amount or degree of superheat is the increase of the 
final temperature of the steam leaving the superheater over 
that of the steam and water in the boiler. 

To secure the best results the quantity of heat absorbed 
by the superheater units should be sufficient to superheat 
the steam to an average temperature of 600 degrees F. 

To prevent burning the superheater tubes when there is no 
steam passing through them, the front end of the large flues 
discharge into a chamber which is separated from the rest 
of the smoke box by partition plates and the automatically 
operated superheater damper. 

This superheater damper is held open by pressure of steam 
from the steam chest acting on the piston in the damper cyl- 
inder and permits the hot gases to flow through the super- 
heater flues. It is closed by a weight or a spring, as soon 
as the steam is out of the steam chest, and stops the flow of 
hot gases through the large flues. 

Direct lubrication of the cylinder is recommended, and all 
cylinders should have an oil connection leading to the cen- 
ter of the top of the cylinders. If the supply of oil to the 
valve chamber and cylinder of the superheater is regular it 
will be found that the superheater engine takes but little more 
oil than the ordinary locomotive. Cylinder oil of high grade 
and high flash point is recommended. 

Relief valves having ample area are recommended for the 
cylinder heads front and back, and the steam chest or steam 
pipes should have large sized vacuum valves. 

Piston rod and piston-valve stem extensions are recom- 
mended in order to reduce the wear of moving parts, and 
permit all packing rings to float free from weight of piston 
and valves. Piston valve rings and bushings should be made 
of close grained cylinder iron. 

The regular piston rod and valve stem packing may be 
used. Packing rings made of a mixture of 80 per cent lead 
and 20 per cent antimony have given satisfactory service with 
the highest degree of superheat. 

An inspection should cover examination for air and steam 
leaks in front end, for any accumulation of cinders and ashes 
or deposits on return bends in boiler flues. 

All air and steam leaks should be stopped. In the case 
of steam leaks between the header and the superheater units 
joints should be immediately tightened, if necessary regrind- 
ing ball joints or applying a new gasket to flat joints. In 
case a gasket is applied the joint should be tightened again 
after the gasket has been under steam heat the first time. 

For cleaning the flues the use of air of at least 100 lbs. 
pressure is recommended. It should be applied through a 
one-half inch gas pipe, which is inserted at the back end of 
the flue and gradually worked forward under the superheater 
unit, blowing the dirt out of the front end of the flue. 

In case steam is used instead of air for blowing out the 
flues the boiler should be under steam to avoid the con- 
densation of water in the flue, as it would be liable to mix 
with the ashes, etc., and form a coating on the inside of the 
large flues. The superheater damper should be open in all 
cases while cleaning flues. 

Every two months the superheater, the steam and exhaust 
pipes should be tested with warm water of about working 
pressure to make sure that all joints, etc.. are tight in front 
end. The return bends at firebox ends should be examined 
from firebox end at this test. In setting the flues the prosser 
i- used and the use of the prosser in preference to the roller 
is recommended whenever possible in working over the su- 
perheater flues. The prosser should not have less than twelve 
sections, and the rollers not less than five rolls. Inserting 
plugs in the regular tubes surrounding superheater flues when 
using roller has proved good practice. 



The superheater damper and rigging should work freely, 
and the damper should be wide open when the throttle is 
open and there is steam in the damper cylinder. With no 
steam in damper cylinder the damper should be closed. The 
damper should also be closed wdien the blower is used in 
firing up. 

In starting, the reverse lever should be put in full gear to 
insure oil distribution the full length of the valve bushing. 
On account of the larger diameter of cylinders used in su- 
perheater engines, the throttle must be opened slowly and 
special care taken to prevent slipping of the drivers. 

In general, superheated steam locomotives should be oper- 
ated with full throttle and short cutoff, when working con- 
ditions will permit. 

The firing should be light and regular to produce as high 
a flame temperature and as perfect combustion as possible in 
the firebox. 

The oil supply to the cylinders, etc.. should be constant, 
as there is no condensed water in the steam or cylinders to 
act as a lubricant. 

If the engine does not steam freely, make sure that the 
superheater damper is open. In storing engines equipped 
with superheaters, especially when liable to freeze, it is es- 
sential that the superheater be thoroughly blown out. 



A COMPARISON OF LOCOMOTIVE VALVE GEARS. 

By C. J. Pilliod. 

[Editor's Note. — In studying the application of the sev- 
eral proprietary locomotive valve gears, confusion owing to 
the similarity between the "Baker-Pilliod" and the "Pilliod" 
should be avoided. The former is manufactured by the Pil- 
liod Company and the latter by Pilliod Bros. Co.] 

In the Walschaert valve gear the imparting motion is 
obtained from the crank and crosshead. The valve gear 
frame is attached to the engine frame which moves up and 
down on its springs, thus changing the position of the valve 
gear in relation to the eccentric crank connection. To 
illustrate: If the locomotive was stationary and the engine 
was moved up on its springs it would raise the gear and 
change the angle of the eccentric rod, since the eccentric 
crank, which is attached to the main driver, would remain 
stationary, thereby causing the link to be drawn toward 
the eccentric crank, or if the engine was moved downward 
on its springs the link would be moved away from the 
eccentric crank, thus distorting the valve movement. This 
is what happens when the engine is taking curves or run- 
ning over irregularities in the track. 

With a 28-inch stroke the eccentric crank travel is 16^4 
inches, and the gear is generally designed so that the eccen- 
tric rod stands almost straight when the link is at the 
end of its travel. The connections are not mechanically 
positive and the effect of slip in the block must be taken 
into consideration. The effect of wear in the bearings, of 
course, all comes in the valve operation. 

Aside, from the "Pilliod," which is a gear deriving its 
motion entirely from the crossheads and which has no 
return crank or eccentrics, and aside from the well known 
Walschaert. there are two prominent outside valve gears 
which may be designated as "Gear A" and "Gear B." 

"Gear A" and "Gear B" differ from each other only in 
the reverse; "Gear A" uses a reverse of the Marshall type, 
while "Gear B" has a reverse of the Strong type. The 
steam distribution is the same. The imparting motion is 
obtained from the crank and crosshead and i- affected by 
the movement of the engine on its springs, as is the Wal- 
schaert. The effect of wear of all bearing is directly upon 
the valve. 

With a 28-inch stroke the eccentric crank travel i- I 
inches. i a inch more than with the Walschaert. Both are 



174 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[May, 1911.] 





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[May, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



175 




designed so that the eccentric rod stands almost straight 
when the transmission bar is at the end of its stroke. 

With a 6^-inch valve travel "Gear A," "Gear B" and 
the Walschaert gears all get a full port opening at full 
gear, but this is possible only by having more overtravel on 
one end than on the other. They cannot get equidistant 
travel of the valve for each crank travel. 

The makers of the two crank and crosshead connected 
radial gears claim that a considerable economy and in- 
creased efficiency, as well as higher speeds, can be obtained, 
over the Walschaert, by their use. If it is true that all three 
produce the same events (and this can be proven by taking 
valve cards of any engine equipped with the respective 
gears), and since the laws that govern the application of 
steam to locomotives apply to all three, how do these 
two gears obtain the better results they claim over the 
Walschaert? Is it due to the elimination of the slip of the 
block? (which, as a matter of fact, is noticeable only at 
full travel). It cannot be due to fewer parts, since all three 
have the same number of moving parts and the same num- 
ber of pins and bearings. 

There is reason to believe that these gears can be kept 
up at a less cost than the Walschaert, but this, in my opin- 
ion, is the only advantage they can consistently claim. In 
the matter of standardization they, like the Walschaert, 
must vary the length of the combination lever and eccentric 
crank according to the length of piston stroke. The posi- 
tion of the bell crank and the reverse yoke bearings must 
be changed for inside and outside admission, necessitating 
different frames. 

It is possible to square any of the above mentioned gears 
in either motion, but not in both, an.d as the engines sel- 
dom run backward, they are squared in the forward motion. 
As they can be squared in but one motion, what will be 
the effect of lost motion due to wear? The result would 
be that whatever the effect of lost motion, it would be shown 
by the negative work from the opposition motion; that is, 
if the forward motion was square and the backward motion 
not square, or uniform with the engine while in forward 
motion, the lost motion in this position would have to be 
taken from the negative side in the performance of its 
function. For this reason we find in most present forms of 
valve motion of the reversible type employing a simple 
valve, that the lost motion is promptly discovered in the 
"lameness" of the engine, increasing as the lost motion in- 
creases, thereby decreasing the efficiency of the engine as 
lost motion increases. 

Three charts are shown herewith. These charts are illus- 
trative of the valve events of three types of valve gears at a 
25% cut off. A study of the charts should prove remunera- 
tive to those interested. 

The "Pilliod," while a radial gear, is easily distinguished 
from the other gears because of its obtaining the imparting 
motion from the crosshead only, and as the gear proper 
and the point from which it takes its imparting motion are 
attached to the frame, there can be no distortion of valve 
movement due to vibration or lateral movement of the 
wheels. 

All connections in the "Pilliod" are mechanically po>itive. 
The effect of wear of imparting motion has very little 
effect on valve movement, as the gear crank i» solid on the 
gear frame, and as long as the imparting motion gives the 
crank a uniform rotative movement, the wear of any part 
or bearing ahead of the crank cannot affect the travel of 
the valve, so that the wear of the eight bearings hack of the 
crank are the only ones that affect the valve direct. 

If it is true that the events claimed can be obtained with 
the "Pilliod'* gear (if there i< any question regarding this, 
any one interested can verify it by "running over' - valves 
on engines now in service equipped with this gear\ that if 



176 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[May, 1911.] 



anything can be gained by obtaining the port opening 
twice as quick as with other gears, a 4 per cent at full gear 
to a 10 per cent later release at 25 per cent cut-off, with 
the same relative later compression, twice the area of ex- 
haust port opening with the same movement of piston, re- 
duced back pressure and no preadmission, why shouldn't 
the "Pilliod" effect an economy and produce increased 
efficiency over these gears? 

Now as to standardization. All parts of the "Pilliod" 
gear are standard for any style or type of engine using 
either inside or outside admission, with the exception of the 
necessity for varying the length of the combination lever, 
according to the piston stroke. No change of parts or posi- 
tion of bearings for inside or outside admission is neces- 
sary. The frame is standard for all engines. 

The "Pilliod" is "square" in both motions, as an equal 
travel of the valve is secured during each stroke. The only 
effect of wear will be contraction of port opening, thus 
maintaining a higher engine efficiency than is possible with 
other gears. This is done by making the reverse end of the 
eccentric arm a free end, moving in an ellipse instead of in 
a fixed path, dissipating the effect of the angularity of the 
eccentric arm. 

Another feature that has to do with the wear of gear is 
in the fact that the two arms of the bell crank are of equal 
length. In the "Pilliod" the bell crank is use.d to transfer 
the motion from a vertical to a horizontal motion only, 
while in other gears the horizontal arm is shorter than the 
vertical arm, thus compounding the steam on the gear. 

There is one objectionable feature in the "Pilliod." Each 
side depends upon the other to get the rotative movement 
of the gear crank, so that if a combination lever breaks, 
the engine is dead and will have to be hauled in. So long 
as the crosshead is moving on both sides, the engine can 
go under its own steam. If the main rod is down, the 
engine can go under its own steam by using a sectional 
auxiliary rod, which weighs about 50 pounds and is about 
30 inches long. This rod can be carried in the tool box 
and may be used for either side. 



M. C. B. INTERCHANGE INSPECTION.* 

By H. Boutet. 

Referring to the paper read by T. W. Demarest at the 
February meeting of the Western Railway Club, I believe 
that the writer deserves great credit for the very able man- 
ner in which he has shown the desire of the M. C. B. Asso- 
ciation to have the interchange rules made to facilitate the 
prompt movement of cars in interchange, consistent with 
safety and proper protection to the car owners. 

This appears to me as plain as the matter could be stated 
and were it observed and lived up to in this manner by all, 
we would not experience the troubles that we are constantly 
having brought to our attention. The non-observance of 
the rules and lack of proper interpretations and instructions 
to the inspectors is what, in my opinion, is causing the trouble 
in a great measure. 

Leaving to inspectors in different portions of the country 
the interpretation of the rules, we have, consequently, a vari- 
ety of interpretations, so much so that if you were to work 
at some points of interchange and change to another portion 
of the country, you would think you were working under dif- 
ferent rules, although M. C. B. Rules are supposed to govern 
at all points. 

It is not with the actual defects that we are experiencing 
this trouble, but with minor, imaginary, or purely owner's 
defects, for example, at some points of interchange, if they 
find a roof board fallen off or the nails have worked out 



*A discussion of a paper read before the Western Railway 
Club, February 21, 1911. 



of the facia board and same has fallen off, they will demand 
a defect card, while" at other points this is considered as an 
owner's defect. Some points will find a car with siding 
raked, caused from a naii some person has driven through 
the door to hold it shut and they will demand a card for 
same, while at other points no attention will be paid to it. 
This and similar conditions are what, in my opinion, has led 
some points to make special agreements, which so much 
has been said about, while if all points had the same interpre- 
tation of the rules there would be no occasion for so many 
local agreements. 

At nearly all large interchange points all cars are sent to 
the receiving line yard for inspection by the receiving line's 
inspectors, after what is called a train inspection to see that 
safety appliances are in good condition and that the car is 
safe to go to the repair or transfer track of the receiving 
line. 

The delivering line objects to placing it's defect cards in 
the hands of the receiving line's inspectors, saying that they 
do not propose to have another road's inspectors handle their 
check book and check against them for what they consider 
proper, but at the same time this same road will accept the 
records made by these same inspectors and furnish defect 
cards on demand. 

I cannot see that there is any difference in the two forms 
of doing the work, if the inspectors are given the proper in- 
structions and supervision, except that if the car is carded 
at the time of interchange it will save a vast amount of 
time and correspondence. While it is true that most inspec- 
tors at large interchange points are not familiar with mak- 
ing out M. C. B. Defect Cards, this could be overcome by 
giving them the proper instructions. 

If all points in the country would work strictly in accord- 
ance with the M. C. B. Rules, as per the intent of the M. C. 
B. Association, in a very short time we would have but little 
delay in interchange, caused by the cars being carded at the 
time they are interchanged; especially will this be true if 
car owner's defects under one condition were made car own- 
er's defects under all conditions, even in interchange, with 
the interpretation as outlined in Mr. Demarest's paper and 
railroad companies would not remove cards that were carded 
against them when cars are returned to their lines. A de- 
fect card properly made out and placed on a car should re- 
main on the car until the repairs are made. 

Some points, under present conditions, will make a record 
of every car that passes in interchange, some of them so 
large that they will fill one-half of a page of single space 
type-written letter of the condition of the car. In looking 
at the record of the car. you would wonder how it was able 
to run, but on inspection of the car by a fair-minded per- 
son, you would possibly find une or two small defects that 
would in no manner interfere with the safe handling of the 
car either to the lading or safety of trainmen. As an illus- 
tration of same: 

Southern car 31175 passed through one point of interchange 
and a record was made of two draw sills split and a cracked 
end sill. Upon reaching another point, some three hundred 
miles distant, the following record was made: 

"Two draft sills broken, one end sill broken, two draft 
arms broken, six draft arm keys gone, one wrong deadwood, 
one end post broken, one end facia broken (struck), two 
brake levers and one bottom rod and one top brake rod, 
six brake key bolts gone, one inter sill broken, one solid 
side door broken, B end, four side door chafing irons gone, 
two A and two B end, bad load at two side doors, A and B, 
loose and rotten roof and siding, A and B ends, Sou. Ry. 
defect card given 12/18-10, two cast buffers gone, B end, and 
one air hose, no size A end at Danville, Ky., one side door 
stop gone, one side door fastener, gone, B end, one solid 
and one screen side door broken, one side doorstep gone, 



[May, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



177 



one side door fastener gone, one metal brake beam, complete, 
one brake lever, one bottom brake rod, two brake shoes and 
keys, one top brake rod and five brake key bolts, truck 
channel bent and one broken, two end posts broken, two 
corner posts broken, all end boards broken, one end door 
rail loose, one end plate broken, one Butler pocket side 
broken, two deadwoods broken, two yoke bolts in place of 
Rivets, A end." 

This record was made Jan. 12, 1911, and the car was re- 
turned to the same interchange point on February 2, and 
the brakes had evidently been repaired and a new end had 
been put in, which had evidently been damaged after the 
car passed the first interchange point, and on its return to 
the original point of interchange, a record was made of the 
draw sills torn out, draft timbers down, "B" end, repair track. 

This, I think, very forcibly explains my reason for recom- 
mending that the M. C. B. Association should have a corps 
of inspectors to travel around the country to watch the in- 
spectors and interchange and explain to them the proper in- 
terpretations of rules, the same as the government has for 
safety appliances. 



LOCOMOTIVE DEVELOPMENTS IN ENGLAND AND 

GERMANY. 

By Thomas Reece. 

When a new type of locomotive is brought out on a British 
railway it not infrequently follows that it is speedily adopted 
by other lines. This was markedly the case with the Atlan- 
tic 4-4-2 class, the six-coupled 4-6-0 class, and the steam rail 
motor-cars. The last example is that of the six-coupled bogie 
tank engine, or 4-6-2 type. Simultaneously with the appear- 
ance of the new engines of this class on the London and 
North Western and Great Central railways have come en- 
gines of this wheel arrangement on the London, Brighton, 
and South Coast and North Eastern lines, though in the 
latter case the engine is for mineral traffic. In both these 
cases, however, the two cylinders are outside. The engine 
built by Mr. Marsh for the Brighton line is a remarkably 
fine and powerful machine. The cylinders are 21-inch di- 
ameter by 26 in., and the six coupled wheels are 6 ft. IV2 in. 
diameter — a large size for a tank engine. The boiler is a 
very large one, the barrel being 15 ft. 9V 2 in. long, and the 
outside diameter 5 ft. 3 in. There is a total heating sur- 
face of 1,865 square ft., and the Schmidt super-heater is 
fitted, in this case comprising both flue tubes and smoke box 
tubes. The total weight of the engine in working order is 
86 tons, and there is accommodation for three tons of coal 
and 2,300 gallons of water. 

The engine is of a handsome appearance, and has an 
extended smoke-box and Ramsbottom safety valves, re- 
sembling the North Eastern pattern rather than that of the 
Great Northern, hitherto favored by Mr. Marsh. There is 
a large and roomy cab, with a ventilated roof, a return to 
the former practice of the Brighton line which Mr. Marsh 
has hitherto not followed. This engine is intended for ex- 
press main line traffic, like the other large tank engines, 
which divide the work with the larger tender engines. 

Mr. Marsh is also building five new Atlantic express en- 
gines, with cylinders 21 in. by 26 in. and superheaters. As 
there is already some talk of electrifying the line from Lon- 
don to Brighton, and the new tank engines are found ca- 
pable of doing this run also, it seems rather a surprise that 
more of the Atlantic tender engines should be built. 

The new 4-6-2 tank engines on the North F.eastern Ry. 
are for mineral traffic. Consequently the coupled wheels are 
only 4 ft. iy 2 in. diameter, the bogie wheels 3 ft. 1J4 in. and 
the trailing pair of radial wheels 3 ft. 9*4 in. These 
engines have three high-pressure cylinders, 16y 2 in. 
diameter by 26 in. stroke; the boiler barrel is 11 ft. long. 



with a diameter of 5 ft. 6 in., the working pressure being 
180 pounds per square inch. The total heating surface is 
1,648 square feet, and there is provision for 2,300 gallons of 
water and five tons of coal. The total weight of the engine 
in working order is 195,776 pounds. It will thus be seen that 
this type of engine is the heaviest of the four just turned 
out, the London, Brighton and South Coast coming next 
with 86 tons, then the Great Central with 85 tons, and finally 
the London and North Western with 78 tons. 

After sticking closely to the four-coupled type of express 
engine for a number of years the Great Eastern Ry. will 
shortly have some six-coupled express engines. On suc- 
ceeding T. W. Worsdell as chief mechanical engineer, James 
Holden built some fine single-wheel express engines of the 
4-2-2 type, and also some four-coupled engines of the 2-4-0 
type. The weight of rolling stock and trains having in- 
creased, a more powerful class of engine became necessary, 
and so Mr. Holden brought out the celebrated Claud Ham- 
ilton class of four-coupled bogie locomotives, or 4-4-0 type. 
These engines have done remarkably well, and some heav- 
ier ones have recently been built, whilst many of the ex- 
isting ones, as well as the 2-4-0 class, have been rebuilt 
with larger boilers. The very heavy coast express traffic 
in the summer has, however, necessitated the designing of a 
still heavier and more powerful type, and some new engines 
of the 4-6-0 type will shortly be built to deal with this traffic. 
At the same time more of the Claud Hamilton class are be- 
ing built for the main line traffic to the north. 

Of the enlarged Percursor type on the London and North 
Western, the nine engines of the Queen Mary class — viz., 
those without superheaters — are out, and most are in reg- 
ular service, whilst of the nine of the George the Fifth class, 
with superheaters, five are actually out on the line, and the 
remaining four are being completed. A number of both 
these classes are named after directors or the chief officials 
of the London and North Western of former years. Twenty 
more of the superheated engines will shortly be built. Mr. 
Bowen-Cooke continues building the eight-coupled simple 
mineral locomotives, and more of the compound 0-8-0 class 
are being converted to this type. 

Professor A. H. Gibson, of Dundee, recently read a short 
paper before the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders 
of Scotland, in which were described some carefully con- 
ducted tests on a locomotive-type boiler showing that when 
it was fitted with a live-steam feedheater placed in the steam 
space of the boiler an increased thermal efficiency of about 
8 per cent was obtained at both light and heavy loads. Sim- 
ilar statements have often been made before, but have never 
been backed by satisfactory evidence or theory. Professor 
Gibson explains the improvement due to the heater by show- 
ing that the tube temperature will be less, and in support 
of this he described some experiments upon the heating of 
water in an open vessel by a gas flame. When the water 
was at 120 degrees the tank was 190 degrees and when the 
water was 180 the tank was 220, but when the water was 
boiling at 212 the tank was never hotter than 213. As- 
suming, therefore, that the absence of cold feed brings the 
water temperature up to boiling point, he estimates that the 
heater reduced the tube temperature by from 20 to 40 de- 
grees and increased the heat received by conduction h\ ! 
per cent or more. Also, referring to the second report of 
the British Association Committee on Gas Explosions, he 
estimates that the hot gases, although non-luminous, would, 
with the heater at work radiate considerably more heat 
to the colder tubes than with the heater not at work. The 
explanation is ihgenius, but hardly convincing on a tir-t read- 
ing. 

Herr J. Stumpf recently read an interesting paper at Ber- 
lin before the German Institute oi Engineers. He showed, 



178 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[May, 1911.] 



for example, that several locomotives fitted with uni-direc- 
tional flow of locomotives are already in existence. They 
include one superheater goods engine on the Moscow-Kasan 
Ry., built by the Kolomna works, near Moscow; two super- 
heater goods engines on the Prussian railways, built by the 
Stettiner Maschinbeau A. G. Vulcan; one superheater goods 
engine, by the same company, which was exhibited at Brus- 
sels; and two superheater goods engines for the Swiss rail- 
ways, built by the Swiss Locomotive Works at Winterthur. 

Since the locomotive is a non-condensing engine, said Herr 
Stumpf a large clearance space — in this case liy 2 per cent — 
must be provided. The admission valves are placed in 
the cylinder covers, and the exhaust in the cylinder, as 
usual. The long piston is composed of three parts — a cen- 
tral mild steel sleeve or ring and two cast steel ends, dished 
to provide clearance space, and fitted with piston rings. The 
piston-rod passes through the bosses of these ends, and the 
nut on it draws them together. The weight of the piston 
and rod is not greater than that of a low-pressure piston and 
its rod for an engine of the same power. The exhaust oc- 
cupies 10 per cent and compression 90 per cent of the stroke. 
On account of the large ports there is a sharp exhaust 
which produces a bright fire. The wire-drawing of the 
exhaust, which is usual in ordinary engines, does not occur; 
it is for this reason also that so few ashes are drawn over 
into the smoke-box, since in the intervals of the exhaust they 
have time to fall back into the fire. The energy of the 
blast is, however, sufficient to compensate for its intermit- 
tency. The uni-directional flow locomotive can use the 
steam effectively down to the atmospheric line. The ex- 
haust of the new engine is, moreover, favorable at an early 
cut-off, whilst with the ordinary locomotive under these 
conditions great throttling of the exhaust takes place. This 
is lacking in the Stumpf locomotive owing to the fact that 
the exhaust opening is always the same, and hence the back 
pressure which occurs in ordinary engines with early cut- 
off is obviated. 

But, above all, on account of the peculiar steam flow, 
great thermo-dynamical advantages are realized. It follows, 
from the fact that there can be no back pressure, owing to 
the large exhaust, at any speed and at any cut-off, that the 
steam consumption of the engine is excellent. 

A series of comparative trials, lasting two months, be- 
tween two Stumpf locomotives, two engines with piston, and 
two with drop valves, were carried through by the Prussian 
State Railways in order to test the relative merits of the 
three types. All the engines were four-ccupled goods with 
Schmidt superheater and worked on the same line in normal 
service, and the tests were made with day and night shifts 
and under conditions as similar as possible. The following 
results were secured: 

.2 : : : a : : 

at ■ : -h . : g B 

5 3 3 5 : %o 

Sg ■ •* ^ o-a 

u£M § ^ 2 * u 

Locomotive. 
Stumpf engine 17.10 

17.47 17.285 .0(5:2 100 

Piston valve engine 20.57 

20.57 20.57 074 119 

Lentz engine 21.93 

22.5 22.215 .080 1,285 

The argument from this is that the Stumpf locomotive has 

the lowest coal consumption of the three types tested — 19 per 

cent less than the piston-valve engine and 2S]/ 2 per cent 

less than the Lentz valve engine. 



CARE OF SMALL TOOLS. 



By C. J. Drury, Master Mechanic, A. T. & S. F. Ry. 



Economical work depends upon the tools used, the con- 
dition in which they are kept and their availability for serv- 
ice when needed. The manufacture of small tools should 
be centralized, the principal shop being equipped to do this 
work. With this practice the tools are made standard, and 
the old practice of carrying thousands of dollars worth of 
tool steel on racks at outside points to rust away can be 
eliminated. We should even go so far as to stop the dress- 
ing of tools at local points, which practice allows us to drift 
from our standards. 

You are familiar with the great difficulty experienced when 
the simple little flue beading tool is allowed to be forged and 
finished at every division point. This is very noticeable 
when locomotives are transferred from one division to an- 
other. 

The continued dressing of the large tools, such as used on 
planers, wheel lathes and other heavy machinery, soon 
makes them too short and they are allowed to be set aside, 
whereas if the practice of making and dressing them at one 
point is adhered to the scrap pieces may be worked up into 
small tools and sent to some other point where needed. How 
often has a certain special tool been made at some small 
plant, a bar of steel having been ordered ranging anywhere 
from fifty cents to a dollar a pound. The amount neces- 
sary for the tool is cut off, and the bar is set aside and soon 
forgotten. The cost of shop machinery and tools is cer- 
tainly no small item on our large railways, in some instances 
representing a yearly expenditure of over a quarter of a 
million dollars. 

This centralizing of the manufacture of tools was in- 
augurated on the. Santa Fe some four or five years ago and 
has brought about great reduction in the tool account, as 
well as increased shop output. The Santa Fe at present has 
as near an ideal system of handling tools as any railway in 
the country. The tools are manufactured at one point and 
are delivered to the general storehouse and held in stock 
subject to requisition from outside points. 

Requisitions made at all points or divisions must be ap- 
proved by the assistant superintendent of motive power after 
being checked by the tool supervisor. A stock book is kept 
at all points, which is posted monthly, showing the tools on 
hand, the number and kind, also the number and kind 
ordered, with attached requisitions for the month's supply. 
This is mailed at the end of each month to the assistant 
superintendent of motive power for approval, and after be- 
ing passed on in his office, where the requisitions are ap- 
proved, changed or canceled, the book is returned to the 
division. Foremen at all points are supplied with copies of 
a catalog, showing the standard tools carried in stock at the 
general storehouse. The illustrations show two typical pages 
from this catalog. 

After tools are received and placed in the toolroom for 
issuing to employes, the check system is used. In case of 
lost or broken tools, a tool breakage clearance is required, 
made out and signed by the foreman; it must also bear the 
personal signature of ihc general foreman. In this way we 
are able to locate carelessness or ignorance in the handling 
of the tools by the workmen. At the close of each month 
the clearance cards from all shops are sent to the super- 
visor of tools. Information is thus obtained regarding de- 
fective design and construction of tools and recommenda- 
tions are made for the improvement of the tool service. 

The tool supervisor for the system sees all requisitions for 
tools and shop machinery. He is familiar with the equipment 
at each point. For example, a requisition may be made for 
some machine, perhaps an emery wheel stand; the tool 



[May. 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



179 



STANDARD LATHE SIDE ROUGHING TOO!. 



' Frenchman.' 



Flat Chisel. 



*■ - I 



(D 



5' 



is: 




□r 




[•gl'-l .'fUrr i JM 

WTi..ii..iL , tn -** 



luiuuliM-.ylrY^ 

NOTE-Tools io be 
ordered according io 
symbol number. 



Gouge. 



Cape Chisel 



STANDARD PLANER RT 4 LFT SIDE ROUGHING TOOL 

r 



ZD 




3= 



£ 



l-ji 



1 8' 





, SIZES 






u-im «•■ life Tn-j 



i>ius | i. ;>. i>- 



D-iubli>} -. 2^-. iirj 

NOTE-Tools jo be 
ordered according io 
syrnbol«7umber 



STANDARD STRA IGHT THREADING TOOL 



Diamond Point. 



-U-u 



f-* 



Round Nose Chisel. 

-'*i 6 1- 






© 



NOTE-Tools io b* 
ordered according io 
symbol number 



m 



-9Hi- 



£3lr 

— — i n 



"4*6 



-fw-L 






STANDARD RIGHT THREADING TOOL 






MACHINISTS' AND BOILER MAKERS' HAND CHISELS. 



Pages from Tool Standard Catalogues, A. T. & S. F. Ry. 




NOTE-Tools io be 

ordered according 
io symbol number 



MACHINC TOOLS. 

Hi»h Speed SleeL 



supervisor, being acquainted with the tool condition of the 
system, may be able to fill the requisition from some other 
point, saving the purchase of new stock. This practice obvi- 
ates the keeping of expensive tools idle in one place when 
they are needed in another. 

To efficiently maintain these tools we have found it im- 
portant that the operation of our machines be specialized. 
Our men thus become more proficient in the care of hand- 
ling of their machines and tools than if switched from one 
machine to another. The constant changing of men on 
machines also allows the efficiency of our shop to decrease. 
The apprentice instructor should impress upon the boy the 
necessity of carefully handling his machine and regularly 
oiling, and of keeping the bearing's properly set up and ad- 
justed, so that the machine can be crowded to full capacity 
without a breakdown. 

Special men should be assigned to the repair work of 
machines, motors, shafting hangers and belting. We not 
only get better results relative to the work performed, both 
quality and amount, but lessen the liability of accident. The 
proper maintenance of pneumatic tools is most important in 
the handling of an efficient shop. Experience has taught us 
that the maker's instructions regarding the care of such 
tools are very good rules to teach our apprentices and me- 
chanics. These should be posted throughout the shops, and 
the foreman should see that they are rigidly carried out. 
It must be understood that air, steam and water leak- 
around the plant and shops help to depreciate the machinery. 
Boilers, air compressors and pumps soon wear out. The 
foremen should follow this up closely, seeing 1 that such de- 
fects are given attention at the proper time, which will help 
the tool account. The toolroom foreman, in making his 
weekly or monthly inventory, should he as eager to report 
a surplus tool as he is to order a needed one, thus helping 
out some other toolroom without any increase in the account, 
at the same time getting credit for his own shop. 

In solving the tool question we find that to carry on an 
efficient system wc must keep in vogue the following rules: 

Centralize and standardize the manufacture 

Systematize the distribution. 

Specialize the operation. 

— Santa Fe Employes' Magazine. 



PUNCTUALITY RECORD, N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. 

One of the advantages claimed by advocates of electri- 
fication of main line roads is reliability of operation. It 
has been unofficially stated several times recently that the 
Xew York, New Haven & Hartford had practically no 
motive power delays in handling the entire passenger traf- 
fic of its New York end by Westinghouse electric locomo- 
tives and multiple unit trains, notwithstanding the change 
over from steam to electricity at Stamford. 




Passenger Train on Electric Division. N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. 

From reports of train operations in New York State dur- 
ing January, recently given out by the Public Service Com- 
mission, it appears that the New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford made the best showing of an\ road in the state, with 
90 per cent of its trains on lime. The report i- especially 
interesting in view of the fact that the Xew Haven is ex- 
tending it< -ingle-phase electrification to its Harlem divi- 
sion and another branch, and reported as planning exten- 
sion to Xew Haven. 

Of the roads entering Xew York City it is interesting to 
note that three of the electrically equipped roads, namely, 
the Xew Haven, Long Island and Pennsylvania, stand high 
with <to. *r> and S4 per cent respectively. 



180 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[May, 1911.] 




*30An item ^bod enough to publish is .good enough to pay for 




WELDING A LOCOMOTIVE FRAME WITH LIMITED 

FACILITIES. 

The illustration shows a weld in the front end of an en- 
gine frame, which was made by R. M. Jages, master mechanic 
of the Zuni Mountain R. R. The locomotive was taken from 
the scrap track and placed in service after general repairs, 
part of which included the welding of a broken upright on 




The weld as fin- 



Weld in Engine Frame. 

the front end of one of the main frames. 
ished is outlined in the photograph. 

A temporary furnace was rigged about the broken frame 
and a crude oil burner used in connection with coke fur- 
nished the heat. The short piece was meanwhile heated in 
a forge. The weld was finished by the sledge method and 
the union seems to have been perfect. 

Mr. Jages has lately resigned his position as above men- 
tioned and has entered the service of the Santa Fe. 

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DIES FOR BRAKE ROD JAWS. 

By W. H. Fetner, M. M., Cent, of Ga. 

The accompanying drawings show dies for forming brake 
cylinder push rods, in use at the Macon shops of the Central 
of Georgia. 

Fig. 1 shows forming dies for bending and punching 
the jaw before welding. Fig. 2 shows dies for welding 
and rounding up the ends of jaw. Fig. 3 shows dies for 
punching brake pin holes in jaw. To complete the entire 
jaw it will be noted that only three operations are necessary: 
first, the bending and punching of jaw for inserting rod for 
welding; second, that of welding and rounding up end of 
jaw, and third, the punching of brake pin holes. This method 
of punching on forging machine is very much cheaper than 
drilling, and very much more satisfactory than punching the 
jaw before welding. It is almost impossible, in punching a 
jaw cold, to get the holes properly lined after being bent, 
and a considerable number are lost on account of material 
splitting; but with this die the holes are in absolutely per- 
fect line and no danger of losing a single jaw on account 
of splitting. These dies can be applied to a 4-in. machine. 




Fig. 1. Dies for Bending and Punching Jaws. 



Air Pump Hoist, A. T. & S. F. Ry. 

REMOVING AIR PUMPS. 

The Corwith (Chicago) roundhouse of the Santa Fe is not 
fully equipped with air cranes, and in order to provide a means 
of easily removing air pumps from the engines, the simple 
apparatus shown in the photograph was devised. It con- 
sists of a two-legged stand set up on the running board 
to which is hooked a block and tackle. The frame which is 
clamped around the air pump is shown suspended from the 
tackle hook. The cross piece at the top just underneath the 
nuts has a hole in the center which fits down over the nut 
at the top of air pump and thus allows the pump to be lowered 
without danger of its falling out. The equilibrium of the 
stand is maintained by running a rope to the dome. 



[May, 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



181 






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Fig. 2. Dies for Welding Jaws on Push Rods. 





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Fig. 3. Dies for Punching Push Rod Jaws. 



182 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



[May, 1911.] 



LIFTING MACHINE FOR LARGE RAILWAY CARS.* 

By A. Berger, Chief Engineer, Belgian State Railway. 

When twelve years ago the question arose of replacing 
the first-class carriages, which were just being abolished on 
the Belgian State Railway, by bogie saloon carriages weigh- 
ing about 34 tons, it became necessary to consider the in- 
spection of these carriages, particularly as regards the lift- 
ing of the bodies and the easy repair of the comparatively- 
complicated underframe of the new carriages which were 
going to be used. 

We undertook to work out the machine described in this 
note and determine the dimensions and design of all its dif- 
ferent parts; the machine was then built at the Malines 
workshops. After final adjustment it was set up at the 
workshops built by the Sleeping Car Co. at Slykens, near 
Ostend, and since then it has been in daily use for lifting 
the carriages brought to those workshops for inspection 
and repair.. 

The machine essentially consists of two long double 
girders, 59 ft. long, 2 ft. 3 9/16 ins. deep and with flanges 1 ft. 
115/16 ins. wide; the two webs of each girder are 7% ins. 
apart. 

At each end of the girder, a large screw passes between 
these webs; this screw has a diameter of 2 31/32 ins. with a 
projection of 19/64 in. for the square thread. 

The four square screws thus placed near the four corners 
of the machine are half with a right-hand thread, half with 
a left-hand thread, and they are used for lifting the carriage. 
With this object in view, they are turned by means of 
toothed gears placed at the top of the screws, and these 
gears are operated simultaneously by a series of shafts and 
toothed bevel wheels, so that the number of revolutions de- 
scribed by all the screws is exactly the same; consequently 
the. main girders are lifted quite uniformly and horizontally. 

The transmission consists of two pairs of pulleys, fast and 
loose. To each pair there is one belt, straight in the one 
case and crossed in the other, so that by shifting the belts 
we can make the gears and screws turn either in one direc- 
tion, or in the opposite direction, and so either raise or lower 
the carriage we are dealing with. 

The whole installation is placed in a pit; the rails which 
accordingly are between the longitudinal girders are sup- 
ported on separate columns. This makes it possible to 
see, without any difficulty, all the details of the lifting gear, 
and on the other hand makes it easier to do any work nec- 
essary on any parts which are under the body of the car- 
riage. 

When the carriage has been placed between the girders, 
it can be supported for lifting purposes in two ways. The 
first consists in placing iron cross-girders below the car- 
riage, these cross-girders being supported on the longitudi- 
nal girders, and to use packing pieces of wood for wedging 
the cross girders. This method is adopted when carriages 
of varying patterns and lengths have to be dealt with. But 
actually the carriages which have to be dealt with at 
the workshops of the Sleeping Car Co. have always, or 
nearly always, the same length from bogie center to bogie 
center. 

Tn order to take advantage of this particular feature, swing 
brackets on strong pivots are arranged at the side of 
girders, and can swing back against the web of those girders. 

They are swung back in order to allow the carriage to 
enter; once the latter is in place they are swung through 
an angle of 90° and are then under the sole bars of the car- 
riage. Joists are used as packing; and the brackets are also 
kept in place by hooks taking into eyes; and the carriage, 
supported at each side only immediately above the bogie 
bolster, is then lifted by the machine. 



When calculating the dimensions, the following were suc- 
cessively taken into consideration: 

(a) A saloon carriage of the Sleeping Car Co.; this ve- 
hicle weighs 34 tons; there are four axles weighing 2,865 lbs. 
each, 11,460 lbs. the lot; there are two bogies and acces- 
sories weighing 5,290 lbs. each, or 10,580 lbs. the two; total, 
for that part not lifted by the machine, 10 tons. Thus 24 
tons are left for lifting. 

(b) Under the same conditions, a bogie carriage of the 
Belgian State Railway represents a weight of 16 tons, which 
has to be lifted. 

(c) Finally the so-called "large-capacity" carriage of the 
Belgian State Railway, having three axles; this represents 
a similar weight to be lifted. 

The weight of the girders was estimate at 134.4 lbs. per 
foot, or 7,937 lbs. for each girder. 

In designating -the machine, the chief desideratum was to 
avoid any bending of the screws, and for this reason the 
lifting nut can move about two horizontal trunnions. 

It is to be noted that when brackets are used for lifting 
the body of a carriage the girder is acted on by a torsional 
stress. This is resisted at each support by two guide rollers 
which take against uprights. 

This torsion was calculated as follows: 

The weight of a carriage of the Sleeping Car Co. being 
24 tons (part to be lifted), each support will receive a load 
of 6 tons. 

The supports being 2 ft. 3 9/16 ins. from the end sup- 
porting points of the longitudinal girders (center line of 




'Bulletin of the International Railway Congress. 



Fig. 1. Lifting Machine. 

the lifting jacks), the torsion will only make itself felt at 
that length, having a uniform value in the intermediate 
length, that is between the supporting brackets. 

Given the eccentricity of the points at which the loads 
were supported on the brackets, a certain torsion of the 
girders was to be feared. 

Calculation showed however that with a load of 6 tons 
per bracket, the angle of torsion would only be about 0.0074°, 
that is to say that the amount by which the cross-section 
would become twisted at its extreme points would only 
be 0.00252 in. 

In the case of the carriages of the Belgian State Railway, 
which are lighter, the torsion would naturally be even 
smaller and hence negligible. 

The screw has been calculated in assuming a load of 13.225 
lbs., due to the vehicle, plus 3,970 lbs. for half the girder, total 
17,195 lbs. 

Its diameter was fixed at 2 31/32 ins., taking the equation 
for a vertical load into consideration; this corresponds to 
a factor of safety of 10. 

In accordance with the rules laid down by Reuleaux the 






[May. 1911.] 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



183 



screw thread was given a pitch of 19/32 in., and the nut a 
thickness of 4 23/32 ins. 

The gearing between the transmission and the lifting nut 
has a reduction ratio of 1:0.054. 

When the transmission therefore runs at 200 revolutions 
per minute, the number of revolutions of the screw is 0.054 
X 200 = 10.8 per minute: this corresponds to a lift of 6^ 
ins per minute, and to a useful work of 607.58 ft.-lbs. per 
second; or hardly 1.5 horsepower, allowing for friction. 

The rollers which transmit the ioad produced by the tor- 
sion, to the supports or girders, each support a load of 12,125 
lbs. 

Their diameter has been fixed at 2 29/64 ins. 

Finally the main uprights are supported on bedplates 5 
ft. 4J/£ ins. wide and secured to them by means of strong 
gusset stiffeners. 

Assuming that the main upright is en castre at the bot- 
tom, and that the outer upright acts as support to the in- 
ner upright, we find by calculation that the greatest tensile 
stress is 6,542 lbs. per square inch. 

The strength of the machine is accordingly such that it 
could. if necessary lift much heavier loads than the 24 tons 
for which it was originally constructed. 

The machine as described was put up some ten years ago 
at the workshops of the Sleeping Car Co. at Slykens near 
Ostend; it has since been used every day for lifting the car- 
riages which the company has been introducing in the Os- 
tend service, which are becoming heavier and heavier. 

Although it is frequently used for lifting carriages for 
purposes of periodic inspection, the quickness and the ease 
with which the machine works have led to its frequent use 
for lifting carriages which come to the workshops for some 
quick repair, such as replacing an axle and pair of wheels, 
a double plate spring, etc. 

It often happens that carriages which have, arrived at the 
workshops at 10.30 a. m. are already to leave at noon, after 
having been lifted, repaired, and lowered. 

The arrangements at the Slykens repair shops make it 
possible to unfix the bogies on each side of the carriages 
and accordingly limit the raising of the latter as much as 
possible, as one of the bogies need not pass below the brake 
gear or lighting apparatus hung from the frame of the car- 
riage 

Thus as the machine is set up in a pit, and as at either 
end suitable accommodation is provided for any work on the 
bogies, it is possible at one and the same time to inspect, 
repair and adjust the brake gear and the gear connected with 
the body and the elements forming the bogie proper; simi- 
larly the repaired bogies can be put in place, the adju-tin» 
operations in connection with the brakes, the suspension, the 
steam heating, etc., can be carried out by a relatively large 
number of men and with the utmost facility. 

In the conditions under which this work i- carried out at 
Slyke